Abstract

We report on high-quality tellurium oxide waveguides integrated on a low-loss silicon nitride wafer-scale platform. The waveguides consist of silicon nitride strip features, which are fabricated using a standard foundry process and a tellurium oxide coating layer that is deposited in a single post-processing step. We show that by adjusting the Si3N4 strip height and width and TeO2 layer thickness, a small mode area, small bend radius and high optical intensity overlap with the TeO2 can be obtained. We investigate transmission at 635, 980, 1310, 1550 and 2000 nm wavelengths in paperclip waveguide structures and obtain low propagation losses down to 0.6 dB/cm at 2000 nm. These results illustrate the potential for compact linear, nonlinear and active tellurite glass devices in silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits operating from the visible to mid-infrared.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (4)

N. Li, D. Vermeulen, Z. Su, E. S. Magden, M. Xin, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, J. Notaros, C. V. Poulton, E. Timurdogan, C. Baiocco, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithically integrated erbium-doped tunable laser on a CMOS-compatible silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16200–16211 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. I. van Emmerik, M. Dijkstra, M. de Goede, L. Chang, J. Mu, and S. M. Garcia-Blanco, “Single-layer active-passive Al2O3 photonic integration platform,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(10), 3049–3054 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. Bernardus Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 4400321 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Doménech, J. Fernández, A. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, C. Domínguez, and P. Muñoz, “Silicon nitride photonics: from visible to mid-infared wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 10537, 10537B (2018).

2017 (4)

N. Li, Z. Su, E. S. Purnawirman, E. Salih Magden, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, M. J. Byrd, J. D. B. Bradley, G. Leake, and M. R. Watts, “Athermal synchronization of laser source with WDM filter in a silicon photonics platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(21), 211105 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. G. Porcel, F. Schepers, J. P. Epping, T. Hellwig, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, C. J. Lee, R. Schmidt, R. Bratschitsch, C. Fallnich, and K.-J. Boller, “Two-octave spanning supercontinuum generation in stoichiometric silicon nitride waveguides pumped at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(2), 1542–1554 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rahim, E. Ryckeboer, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, A. Hermans, M. Muneeb, S. Dhoore, Y. Li, U. Dave, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, S. Severi, X. Rottenberg, and R. Baets, “Expanding the silicon photonics portfolio with silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 639–649 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Y. Fan, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, R. Dekker, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Optically integrated InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1505111 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

K. Wörhoff, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “TriPleX: A versatile dielectric photonic platform,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4(2), 189–207 (2015).

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(2), 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Vu, S. Farahani, and S. Madden, “980nm pumped erbium doped tellurium oxide planar rib waveguide laser and amplifier with gain in S, C and L band,” Opt. Express 23(2), 747–755 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si3N4 microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Jha, B. D. O. Richards, G. Jose, T. T. Fernandez, C. J. Hill, J. Lousteau, and P. Joshi, “Review on structural, thermal, optical and spectroscopic properties of tellurium oxide based glasses for fibre optic and waveguide applications,” Int. Mater. Rev. 57(6), 357–382 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

K. Vu and S. Madden, “Tellurium dioxide erbium doped planar rib waveguide amplifiers with net gain and 2.8 dB/cm internal gain,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19192–19200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Ultrathin silicon nitride microring resonator for biophotonic applications at 970 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081108 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. OBrien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science 329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

J. Guo, M. J. Shaw, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, P. Esherick, and C. T. Sullivan, “High-Q microring resonator for biochemical sensors,” Proc. SPIE 5728, 83–92 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, and T. Cardinal, “Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1126–1128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 472–475 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, T. Luo, Y. Hu, and N. Peyghambarian, “Optical waveguides prepared in Er3+-doped tellurite glass by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 23–30 (2001).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S.-H. Kim, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of TeO2 glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(10), 2486–2490 (1993).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

T. Yano, A. Fukumoto, and A. Watanabe, “Tellurite glass: A new acousto-optical material,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(10), 3674–3676 (1971).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Adam,

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, E. Shah Hosseini, C. Sorace-agaskar, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, M. Moresco, J. D. B. Purnawirman, G. Bradley, T. N. Leake, Adam, and D. Coolbaugh, “Very large scale integrated photonics,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM4O.4.

Adam, T. N.

Adibi, A.

Alic, N.

Alippi, A.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. Bernardus Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 4400321 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alti, K.

Atabaki, A. H.

Baets, R.

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Sullivan, C. T.

J. Guo, M. J. Shaw, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, P. Esherick, and C. T. Sullivan, “High-Q microring resonator for biochemical sensors,” Proc. SPIE 5728, 83–92 (2005).
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Watts, M. R.

N. Li, D. Vermeulen, Z. Su, E. S. Magden, M. Xin, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, J. Notaros, C. V. Poulton, E. Timurdogan, C. Baiocco, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithically integrated erbium-doped tunable laser on a CMOS-compatible silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16200–16211 (2018).
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Yaacobi, A.

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, E. Shah Hosseini, C. Sorace-agaskar, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, M. Moresco, J. D. B. Purnawirman, G. Bradley, T. N. Leake, Adam, and D. Coolbaugh, “Very large scale integrated photonics,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM4O.4.

Yamada, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 472–475 (2003).
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Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yoko, T.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 472–475 (2003).
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Zhou, X.-Q.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. OBrien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science 329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
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C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. Bernardus Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 4400321 (2018).
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Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

K. Wörhoff, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “TriPleX: A versatile dielectric photonic platform,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4(2), 189–207 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Fabrication steps used to fabricate TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguides: (i) growth of a 6-µm-thick thermal SiO2 layer on a 10-cm Si wafer, (ii) deposition of a 0.2-μm-thick LPCVD Si3N4 film, (iii) patterning of Si3N4 film using stepper lithography to form strip waveguides, (iv) dicing of wafer into chips, (v) deposition of a TeO2 layer by reactive sputtering, (vi) waveguide facet polishing using FIB milling (vi) spin-coating of fluoropolymer top-cladding. (b) SEM image of a smooth FIB-etched waveguide facet for improved fiber-chip coupling efficiency. (c) SEM cross-section image of an uncoated Si3N4 waveguide. (d) SEM cross-section image of a Si3N4 waveguide coated with a 0.3-µm-thick TeO2 film.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Cross-section profile of the TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguide structure showing the Si3N4 strip width and height, w S i 3 N 4 and h S i 3 N 4 , respectively, and TeO2 film height, h Te O 2 . (b) Sample simulated electric field profile of the fundamental TE-polarized mode calculated for w S i 3 N 4 =1.0 μm, h S i 3 N 4 =0.2 μm and h Te O 2 =0.3 μm. (c) Refractive indices of the waveguide core and cladding materials at wavelengths from 0.6 to 2.0 μm. (d) Si3N4 waveguide width, w S i 3 N 4 , below which the waveguide will support a single TE mode at wavelengths from 0.6 to 2.0 μm and for h S i 3 N 4 =0.2 μm and h Te O 2 =0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated optical properties of the fundamental TE mode in TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguides for Si3N4 strip dimensions of 1.2 µm × 0.2 µm, TeO2 coating thicknesses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 μm, and wavelengths ranging from 0.6 μm to 2.0 μm. (a) Effective refractive index. (b) Optical intensity overlap with the Si3N4 strip and TeO2 coating. (c) Effective 1/e electric field mode area. (d) Minimum waveguide bend radius, defined as the radius below which radiation losses exceed 0.01 dB/cm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Film loss measured at wavelengths of 638, 850, 980, 1310, and 1550 nm using the prism coupling method. Inset: 638 nm wavelength light streak in the film. (b) Schematic of the paper-clip structures used to determine the waveguide propagation loss via cut-back measurements. (c) Scattered intensity of red light versus propagation distance along waveguide, from a top view microscope image (inset), fit with an exponential relationship to measure 8.4 ± 1.1 dB/cm of waveguide loss. (d) Insertion loss of waveguides with lengths from 2.45 cm to 3.93 cm at 980, 1310, 1550, and 2000 nm wavelengths. Linear regression fitting was used to calculate propagation losses 3.1 ± 0.3, 0.8 ± 0.3, 0.8 ± 0.3, and 0.6 ± 0.2 dB/cm, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Selected optical properties of Si3N4 and TeO2 (from [7,8,14,25,38,46–48])a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Properties of waveguides fabricated using TeO2 thin films (λ = 1.5 µm, TE polarization)

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