Abstract

Extending and controlling the spectral range of light detectors is very appealing for several sensing and imaging applications. Here we report on a normal incidence dual band photodetector operating in the visible and near infrared with a bias tunable spectral response. The device architecture is a germanium on silicon epitaxial structure made of two back-to-back connected photodiodes. The photodetectors show a broad photoresponse extending from 390nm to 1600nm with the capability to electronically select the shorter (400-1100 nm) or the longer (1000-1600 nm) portion with a relatively low applied voltage. Devices exhibit peak VIS and NIR responsivities of 0.33 and 0.63 A/W, respectively, a low optical crosstalk (<-30dB), a wide dynamic range (>120dB) and, thanks to their low voltage operation, maximum specific detectivities of 7·1011cmHz1/2/W and 2·1010cmHz1/2/W in the VIS and NIR, respectively.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  30. G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. F. Cai, Y. Dong, Y. Heng Tan, C. Seng Tan, and G. Xia, “Enhanced Si–Ge interdiffusion in high phosphorus-doped germanium on silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(10), 105008 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Känel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  35. L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

G. Dushaq, A. Nayfeh, and M. Rasras, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetector grown on silicon using low temperature RF-PECVD,” Opt. Express 25(25), 32110–32119 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

F. Cai, Y. Dong, Y. Heng Tan, C. Seng Tan, and G. Xia, “Enhanced Si–Ge interdiffusion in high phosphorus-doped germanium on silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(10), 105008 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30716–30725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, J. L. Hoyt, L. Ruiz, C. D. Poweleit, and J. Menéndez, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(20), 205308 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, and T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: A study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 73518 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Swaminathan, T. J. Grassman, L. M. Yang, Q. Gu, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Optically-aligned visible/near-infrared dual-band photodetector materials and devices on GaAs using metamorphic epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 063109 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

E. H. Steenbergen, M. J. Dinezza, W. H. G. Dettlaff, S. H. Lim, and Y. H. Zhang, “Optically-addressed two-terminal multicolor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161111 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. A. Vu, D. E. Ioannou, R. Kamocsai, S. L. Hyland, A. Pomerene, and D. Carothers, “PIN Germanium Photodetector Fabrication Issues and Manufacturability,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 23(3), 411–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Känel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, “Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 091101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. D. Hwang and K. H. Hseih, “Voltage-tunable dual-band infrared photodetectors with Si/SiGe metal-semiconductor-metal heterostructure,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(11), 2266–2268 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, J. Osmond, M. Kummer, R. Kaufmann, and H. Känel, “Heterojunction photodiodes fabricated from Ge/Si (100) layers grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S26–S28 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. N. Abedin, T. F. Refaat, I. B. Bhat, Y. Xiao, and D. G. Johnson, “Bias-selective operation of Sb-based two-color photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629709 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. Masini, V. Cencelli, L. Colace, F. Denotaristefani, and G. Assanto, “Linear array of Si-Ge heterojunction photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon CMOS readout electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 811–815 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Solid state wavemeter with InGaAsP/InGaAs two-diode heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 735–737 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. Rosenblad, H. R. Deller, A. Dommann, T. Meyer, P. Schroeter, and H. von Känel, “Silicon epitaxy by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(5), 2785–2790 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, T. P. Pearsall, and H. Presting, “Voltage tunable SiGe photodetector: A novel tool for crypted optical communications through wavelength mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3194–3196 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Arias, G. M. Williams, W. McLevige, M. Zandian, and J. Pasko, “Bias switchable dualband HgCdTe infrared photodetector,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1626–1632 (1992).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

J. C. Campbell, T. P. Lee, A. G. Dentai, and C. A. Burrus, “Dual-wavelength demultiplexing InGaAsP photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(6), 401–402 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abbadie, A.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Abedin, M. N.

M. N. Abedin, T. F. Refaat, I. B. Bhat, Y. Xiao, and D. G. Johnson, “Bias-selective operation of Sb-based two-color photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629709 (2006).
[Crossref]

Acciarri, M.

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Känel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahn, D. H.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anjum, D. H.

G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
[Crossref]

Antoniadis, D. A.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, J. L. Hoyt, L. Ruiz, C. D. Poweleit, and J. Menéndez, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(20), 205308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Antoszewski, J.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, “Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 091101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Apsel, A.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arias, J. M.

E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Arias, G. M. Williams, W. McLevige, M. Zandian, and J. Pasko, “Bias switchable dualband HgCdTe infrared photodetector,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1626–1632 (1992).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, V. Cencelli, L. Colace, F. Denotaristefani, and G. Assanto, “Linear array of Si-Ge heterojunction photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon CMOS readout electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 811–815 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Solid state wavemeter with InGaAsP/InGaAs two-diode heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 735–737 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, T. P. Pearsall, and H. Presting, “Voltage tunable SiGe photodetector: A novel tool for crypted optical communications through wavelength mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3194–3196 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J. P.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baudot, C.

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Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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V. A. Vu, D. E. Ioannou, R. Kamocsai, S. L. Hyland, A. Pomerene, and D. Carothers, “PIN Germanium Photodetector Fabrication Issues and Manufacturability,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 23(3), 411–418 (2010).
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M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
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L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
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G. Masini, V. Cencelli, L. Colace, F. Denotaristefani, and G. Assanto, “Linear array of Si-Ge heterojunction photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon CMOS readout electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 811–815 (2004).
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J. C. Campbell, T. P. Lee, A. G. Dentai, and C. A. Burrus, “Dual-wavelength demultiplexing InGaAsP photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(6), 401–402 (1979).
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F. Cai, Y. Dong, Y. Heng Tan, C. Seng Tan, and G. Xia, “Enhanced Si–Ge interdiffusion in high phosphorus-doped germanium on silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(10), 105008 (2015).
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G. Dushaq, A. Nayfeh, and M. Rasras, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetector grown on silicon using low temperature RF-PECVD,” Opt. Express 25(25), 32110–32119 (2017).
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L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
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J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
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L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
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Fulgoni, D.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
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G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, T. P. Pearsall, and H. Presting, “Voltage tunable SiGe photodetector: A novel tool for crypted optical communications through wavelength mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3194–3196 (1997).
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Gill, D. M.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
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J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
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Hartmann, J. M.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
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L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heng Tan, Y.

F. Cai, Y. Dong, Y. Heng Tan, C. Seng Tan, and G. Xia, “Enhanced Si–Ge interdiffusion in high phosphorus-doped germanium on silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(10), 105008 (2015).
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Herald, R.

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. Y.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoyt, J. L.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, J. L. Hoyt, L. Ruiz, C. D. Poweleit, and J. Menéndez, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(20), 205308 (2012).
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J. D. Hwang and K. H. Hseih, “Voltage-tunable dual-band infrared photodetectors with Si/SiGe metal-semiconductor-metal heterostructure,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(11), 2266–2268 (2008).
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J. D. Hwang and K. H. Hseih, “Voltage-tunable dual-band infrared photodetectors with Si/SiGe metal-semiconductor-metal heterostructure,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(11), 2266–2268 (2008).
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V. A. Vu, D. E. Ioannou, R. Kamocsai, S. L. Hyland, A. Pomerene, and D. Carothers, “PIN Germanium Photodetector Fabrication Issues and Manufacturability,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 23(3), 411–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ioannou, D. E.

V. A. Vu, D. E. Ioannou, R. Kamocsai, S. L. Hyland, A. Pomerene, and D. Carothers, “PIN Germanium Photodetector Fabrication Issues and Manufacturability,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 23(3), 411–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Känel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, J. Osmond, M. Kummer, R. Kaufmann, and H. Känel, “Heterojunction photodiodes fabricated from Ge/Si (100) layers grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S26–S28 (2007).
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Jang, K. S.

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30716–30725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, D. G.

M. N. Abedin, T. F. Refaat, I. B. Bhat, Y. Xiao, and D. G. Johnson, “Bias-selective operation of Sb-based two-color photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629709 (2006).
[Crossref]

Joo, J.

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30716–30725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamocsai, R.

V. A. Vu, D. E. Ioannou, R. Kamocsai, S. L. Hyland, A. Pomerene, and D. Carothers, “PIN Germanium Photodetector Fabrication Issues and Manufacturability,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 23(3), 411–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Känel, H.

G. Isella, J. Osmond, M. Kummer, R. Kaufmann, and H. Känel, “Heterojunction photodiodes fabricated from Ge/Si (100) layers grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S26–S28 (2007).
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Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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Kaufmann, R.

R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
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J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Känel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
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G. Isella, J. Osmond, M. Kummer, R. Kaufmann, and H. Känel, “Heterojunction photodiodes fabricated from Ge/Si (100) layers grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S26–S28 (2007).
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Kim, S.

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30716–30725 (2013).
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I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30716–30725 (2013).
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Kim, S. A.

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30716–30725 (2013).
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V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
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H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
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L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
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Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
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H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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J. C. Campbell, T. P. Lee, A. G. Dentai, and C. A. Burrus, “Dual-wavelength demultiplexing InGaAsP photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(6), 401–402 (1979).
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H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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E. H. Steenbergen, M. J. Dinezza, W. H. G. Dettlaff, S. H. Lim, and Y. H. Zhang, “Optically-addressed two-terminal multicolor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161111 (2010).
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Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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Liu, J. F.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
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Luan, H. C.

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
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L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
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Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Arias, G. M. Williams, W. McLevige, M. Zandian, and J. Pasko, “Bias switchable dualband HgCdTe infrared photodetector,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1626–1632 (1992).
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J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, J. L. Hoyt, L. Ruiz, C. D. Poweleit, and J. Menéndez, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(20), 205308 (2012).
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Meyer, T.

C. Rosenblad, H. R. Deller, A. Dommann, T. Meyer, P. Schroeter, and H. von Känel, “Silicon epitaxy by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(5), 2785–2790 (1998).
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Michel, J.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
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Mills, M. J.

K. Swaminathan, T. J. Grassman, L. M. Yang, Q. Gu, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Optically-aligned visible/near-infrared dual-band photodetector materials and devices on GaAs using metamorphic epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 063109 (2011).
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Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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G. Dushaq, A. Nayfeh, and M. Rasras, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetector grown on silicon using low temperature RF-PECVD,” Opt. Express 25(25), 32110–32119 (2017).
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R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
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R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
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R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
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Oh, J. H.

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30716–30725 (2013).
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D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
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L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
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J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Känel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, J. Osmond, M. Kummer, R. Kaufmann, and H. Känel, “Heterojunction photodiodes fabricated from Ge/Si (100) layers grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S26–S28 (2007).
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Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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Pasko, J.

E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Arias, G. M. Williams, W. McLevige, M. Zandian, and J. Pasko, “Bias switchable dualband HgCdTe infrared photodetector,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1626–1632 (1992).
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Patel, S. S.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
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J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
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Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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Pearsall, T. P.

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, T. P. Pearsall, and H. Presting, “Voltage tunable SiGe photodetector: A novel tool for crypted optical communications through wavelength mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3194–3196 (1997).
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Perez-Galacho, D.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
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Perna, A.

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
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Polzer, A.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
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Pomerene, A.

V. A. Vu, D. E. Ioannou, R. Kamocsai, S. L. Hyland, A. Pomerene, and D. Carothers, “PIN Germanium Photodetector Fabrication Issues and Manufacturability,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 23(3), 411–418 (2010).
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[Crossref]

Poweleit, C. D.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, J. L. Hoyt, L. Ruiz, C. D. Poweleit, and J. Menéndez, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(20), 205308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Presting, H.

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, T. P. Pearsall, and H. Presting, “Voltage tunable SiGe photodetector: A novel tool for crypted optical communications through wavelength mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3194–3196 (1997).
[Crossref]

Radford, W. A.

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rasigade, G.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rasras, M.

G. Dushaq, A. Nayfeh, and M. Rasras, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetector grown on silicon using low temperature RF-PECVD,” Opt. Express 25(25), 32110–32119 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rasras, M. S.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
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M. N. Abedin, T. F. Refaat, I. B. Bhat, Y. Xiao, and D. G. Johnson, “Bias-selective operation of Sb-based two-color photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629709 (2006).
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Ringel, S. A.

K. Swaminathan, T. J. Grassman, L. M. Yang, Q. Gu, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Optically-aligned visible/near-infrared dual-band photodetector materials and devices on GaAs using metamorphic epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 063109 (2011).
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Risser, R.

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
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A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, “Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 091101 (2009).
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Rosenblad, C.

C. Rosenblad, H. R. Deller, A. Dommann, T. Meyer, P. Schroeter, and H. von Känel, “Silicon epitaxy by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(5), 2785–2790 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ruiz, L.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, J. L. Hoyt, L. Ruiz, C. D. Poweleit, and J. Menéndez, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(20), 205308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Amores, A.

R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sandland, J. G.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, T.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, and T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: A study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 73518 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schroeter, P.

C. Rosenblad, H. R. Deller, A. Dommann, T. Meyer, P. Schroeter, and H. von Känel, “Silicon epitaxy by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(5), 2785–2790 (1998).
[Crossref]

Seng Tan, C.

F. Cai, Y. Dong, Y. Heng Tan, C. Seng Tan, and G. Xia, “Enhanced Si–Ge interdiffusion in high phosphorus-doped germanium on silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(10), 105008 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sorianello, V.

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sparacin, D.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Steenbergen, E. H.

E. H. Steenbergen, M. J. Dinezza, W. H. G. Dettlaff, S. H. Lim, and Y. H. Zhang, “Optically-addressed two-terminal multicolor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Swaminathan, K.

K. Swaminathan, T. J. Grassman, L. M. Yang, Q. Gu, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Optically-aligned visible/near-infrared dual-band photodetector materials and devices on GaAs using metamorphic epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 063109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. S.

G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
[Crossref]

Teherani, J. T.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, J. L. Hoyt, L. Ruiz, C. D. Poweleit, and J. Menéndez, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(20), 205308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Terre, W. A.

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tighe, S.

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tu, K. Y.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tung, T.

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
[Crossref]

Urban, C.

R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Virot, L.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[Crossref]

von Känel, H.

R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Känel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Rosenblad, H. R. Deller, A. Dommann, T. Meyer, P. Schroeter, and H. von Känel, “Silicon epitaxy by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(5), 2785–2790 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vu, V. A.

V. A. Vu, D. E. Ioannou, R. Kamocsai, S. L. Hyland, A. Pomerene, and D. Carothers, “PIN Germanium Photodetector Fabrication Issues and Manufacturability,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 23(3), 411–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

White, A. E.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. M.

E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Arias, G. M. Williams, W. McLevige, M. Zandian, and J. Pasko, “Bias switchable dualband HgCdTe infrared photodetector,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1626–1632 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wilson, J. A.

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
[Crossref]

Xia, G.

G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Cai, Y. Dong, Y. Heng Tan, C. Seng Tan, and G. Xia, “Enhanced Si–Ge interdiffusion in high phosphorus-doped germanium on silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(10), 105008 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

M. N. Abedin, T. F. Refaat, I. B. Bhat, Y. Xiao, and D. G. Johnson, “Bias-selective operation of Sb-based two-color photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629709 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, L. M.

K. Swaminathan, T. J. Grassman, L. M. Yang, Q. Gu, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Optically-aligned visible/near-infrared dual-band photodetector materials and devices on GaAs using metamorphic epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 063109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zandian, M.

E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Arias, G. M. Williams, W. McLevige, M. Zandian, and J. Pasko, “Bias switchable dualband HgCdTe infrared photodetector,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1626–1632 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaumseil, P.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, and T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: A study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 73518 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. H.

E. H. Steenbergen, M. J. Dinezza, W. H. G. Dettlaff, S. H. Lim, and Y. H. Zhang, “Optically-addressed two-terminal multicolor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, H.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. H. Steenbergen, M. J. Dinezza, W. H. G. Dettlaff, S. H. Lim, and Y. H. Zhang, “Optically-addressed two-terminal multicolor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161111 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, T. P. Pearsall, and H. Presting, “Voltage tunable SiGe photodetector: A novel tool for crypted optical communications through wavelength mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3194–3196 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, T. P. Lee, A. G. Dentai, and C. A. Burrus, “Dual-wavelength demultiplexing InGaAsP photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(6), 401–402 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Känel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Solid state wavemeter with InGaAsP/InGaAs two-diode heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 735–737 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Masini, V. Cencelli, L. Colace, F. Denotaristefani, and G. Assanto, “Linear array of Si-Ge heterojunction photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon CMOS readout electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 811–815 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. (1)

V. A. Vu, D. E. Ioannou, R. Kamocsai, S. L. Hyland, A. Pomerene, and D. Carothers, “PIN Germanium Photodetector Fabrication Issues and Manufacturability,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 23(3), 411–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

R. Kaufmann, G. Isella, A. Sanchez-Amores, S. Neukom, A. Neels, L. Neumann, A. Brenzikofer, A. Dommann, C. Urban, and H. von Känel, “Near infrared image sensor with integrated germanium photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023107 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, “Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 091101 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Swaminathan, T. J. Grassman, L. M. Yang, Q. Gu, M. J. Mills, and S. A. Ringel, “Optically-aligned visible/near-infrared dual-band photodetector materials and devices on GaAs using metamorphic epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 063109 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, and T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: A study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 73518 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

C. Rosenblad, H. R. Deller, A. Dommann, T. Meyer, P. Schroeter, and H. von Känel, “Silicon epitaxy by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(5), 2785–2790 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Arias, G. M. Williams, W. McLevige, M. Zandian, and J. Pasko, “Bias switchable dualband HgCdTe infrared photodetector,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1626–1632 (1992).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

J. D. Hwang and K. H. Hseih, “Voltage-tunable dual-band infrared photodetectors with Si/SiGe metal-semiconductor-metal heterostructure,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(11), 2266–2268 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30716–30725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J. M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6674–6679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dushaq, A. Nayfeh, and M. Rasras, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetector grown on silicon using low temperature RF-PECVD,” Opt. Express 25(25), 32110–32119 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

G. Zhou, K. H. Lee, D. H. Anjum, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. S. Tan, and G. Xia, “Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1117–1131 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, J. L. Hoyt, L. Ruiz, C. D. Poweleit, and J. Menéndez, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(20), 205308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. A. Wilson, E. A. Patten, G. R. Chapman, K. Kosai, B. Baumgratz, P. Goetz, S. Tighe, R. Risser, R. Herald, W. A. Radford, T. Tung, and W. A. Terre, “Integrated two-color detection for advanced focal plane array (FPA) applications,” Proc. SPIE 2274, 117–125 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. N. Abedin, T. F. Refaat, I. B. Bhat, Y. Xiao, and D. G. Johnson, “Bias-selective operation of Sb-based two-color photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 6297, 629709 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

G. Isella, J. Osmond, M. Kummer, R. Kaufmann, and H. Känel, “Heterojunction photodiodes fabricated from Ge/Si (100) layers grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S26–S28 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Cai, Y. Dong, Y. Heng Tan, C. Seng Tan, and G. Xia, “Enhanced Si–Ge interdiffusion in high phosphorus-doped germanium on silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(10), 105008 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

https://www.nextnano.de/

W. H. Siesler, Near infrared spectroscopy: principles, instruments, applications, ed. By W.H. Sesler, Y. Ozaky, S. Kawata, H. M. Heise, Wiley-VCH (2006).

C. A. Teixeira dos Santos, R. N. P’ascoa, M. Lopo, and J. A. Lopes, “Applications of Portable Near-infrared Spectrometers,” Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1–27 (2015).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the principle of operation the back-to-back photodetector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic representation of the epitaxial stack. (b) Temperature profile during the post-growth thermal cycling.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Band diagram of the sample in the region around the interface between silicon and germanium. The inset shows the band diagram of the full structure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM images of one of the processed devices in top view (a) and side view (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 40x40 µm2 scan of the surface of the sample.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 RSMs for the 004 (a) and 224 (b) reflections. The color scale represents the intensity measured as counts per seconds.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Current-voltage characteristic, (b) capacitance-voltage characteristic of the back-to-back photodiode.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Device spectral responses measured at VB = + 1V (blue) and at VB = −1V (red), (b) wavelength crosstalk defined according to Eq. (1).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Photocurrent-voltage characteristics measured at optical radiation at λ = 600 (blue) and λ = 1400nm (red), (b) voltage crosstalk defined according to Eq. (2).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Specific detectivity measured at VB = + 1V (blue) and at VB = −0.5V (red), (b) photocurrent versus optical intensity at λ = 633nm and λ = 1520nm.

Equations (3)

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C V 1 V 2 ( λ )=20log I ph ( λ, V 2 ) I ph ( λ, V 1 )
C λ 1 λ 2 ( V )=20log I ph ( V, λ 2 ) I ph ( V, λ 1 )
D * = R AB i n

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