Abstract

We introduce a new approach to temporally resolve ultrafast micron-scale processes via the use of a multi-channel optical probe. We demonstrate that this technique enables highly precise time-resolved, two-dimensional spatial imaging of intense laser pulse propagation dynamics, plasma formation and laser beam filamentation within a single pulse over four distinct time frames. The design, development and optimization of the optical probe system is presented, as are representative experimental results from the first implementation of the multi-channel probe with a high-power laser pulse interaction with a helium gas jet target.

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, J. S. Wurtele, and W. P. Leemans, “Nonlinear theory of nonparaxial laser pulse propagation in plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3081–3084 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  33. R. Fedosejevs, X. F. Wang, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Onset of relativistic self–focusing in high density gas jet targets,” Phys. Rev. E. 56, 4615–4639 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (3)

A. Higginson, R. J. Gray, M. King, S. D. R. Williamson, N. H. M. Butler, R. Wilson, R. Capdessus, C. Armstrong, J. S. Green, S. J. Hawkes, P. Martin, W. Q. Wei, S. R. Mirfayzi, X. H. Yuan, S. Kar, M. Borghesi, R. J. Clarke, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Near–100 MeV protons via a laser–driven transparency–enhanced hybrid acceleration scheme,” Nat. Commun. 9, 724 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Vieira, J. T. Mendonça, and F. Quéré, “Optical control of the topology of laser–plasma accelerators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 054801 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liang and L. V. Wang, “Single–shot ultrafast optical imaging,” Optica 5, 1113–1127 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Z. Li, H. Tsai, X. Zhang, C. Pao, Y. Change, R. Zgadzaj, X. Wang, V. Khudik, G. Shvets, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot visualization of evolving plasma wakefields,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1117, 040010 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Grossmann, M. Reininghaus, C. Kalupka, M. Kumkar, and R. Poprawe, “Transverse pump–probe microscopy of moving breakdown, filamentation and self–organized absorption in alkali aluminosilicate glass using ultrashort pulse laser,” Opt. Express 24, 23221 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Gonzalez-Izquierdo, R. J. Gray, M. King, R. J. Dance, R. Wilson, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, R. Capdessus, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Optically controlled dense current structures driven by relativistic plasma aperture–induced diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 12, 505–512 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Ivancic, D. Haberberger, H. Habara, T. Iwawaki, K. S. Anderson, R. S. Craxton, D. H. Froula, D. D. Meyerhofer, C. Stoeckl, K. A. Tanaka, and W. Theobald, “Channeling of multikilojoule high–intensity laser beams in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Phys. Rev. E. 91, 051101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16, 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. S. Green, C. D. Murphy, N. Booth, R. J. Dance, R. J. Gray, D. A. MacLellan, P. McKenna, D. Rusby, and L. Wilson, “Single shot, temporally and spatially resolved measurements of fast electron dynamics using a chirped optical probe,” J. Instrum. 9, P03003 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Börner, J. Fils, A. Frank, A. Blažević, T. Hessling, A. Pelka, G. Schaumann, A. Schokel, D. Schumacher, M. M. Basko, J. Maruhn, A. Tauschwitz, and M. Roth, “Development of a Nomarski–type multi–frame interferometer as a time and space resolving diagnostic for the free electron density of laser–generated plasma,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 043501 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

L. Volpe, D. Batani, B. Vauzour, P. Nicolai, J. J. Santos, C. Regan, A. Morace, F. Dorchies, C. Fourment, S. Hulin, F. Perez, S. Baton, K. Lancaster, M. Galimberti, R. Heathcote, M. Tolley, C. Spindloe, P. Koester, L. Labate, L. A. Gizzi, C. Benedetti, A. Sgattoni, M. Richetta, J. Pasley, F. Beg, S. Chawla, D. P. Higginson, and A. G. MacPhee, “Proton radiography of laser–driven imploding target in cylindrical geometry,” Phys. Plasmas 18, 012704 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Willingale, P. M. Nilson, A. G. R. Thomas, J. Cobble, R. S. Craxton, A. Maksimchuk, P. A. Norreys, T. C. Sangster, R. H. H. Scott, C. Stoeckl, C. Zulick, and K. Krushelnick, “High–power, kilojoule class laser channeling in millimeter–scale underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 105002 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Cipiccia, M. R. Islam, B. Ersfeld, R. P. Shanks, E. Brunetti, G. Vieux, X. Yang, R. C. Issac, S. M. Wiggins, G. H. Welsh, M. Anania, D. Maneuski, R. Montgomery, G. Smith, M. Hoek, D. J. Hamilton, N. R. C. Lemos, D. Symes, P. P. Rajeev, V. O. Shea, J. M. Dias, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Gamma–rays from harmonically resonant betatron oscillations in a plasma wake,” Nat. Phys. 7, 867–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Gonsalves, K. Nakamure, C. Lin, D. Panasenko, S. Shiraishi, T. Sokollik, C. Benedetti, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Van Tilborg, J. Osterhoff, E. Esarey, C. Toth, and W. P. Leemans, “Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring,” Nat. Phys. 7, 862–866 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. Antici, S. N. Chen, L. Gremillet, T. Grismayer, P. Mora, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “Time and space resolved interferometry for laser–generated fast electron measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113302 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. C. Kaluza, M. I. K. Santala, J. Schreiber, G. D. Tsakiris, and K. J. White, “Time–sequence imaging of relativistic laser–plasma interactions using a novel two–color probe,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 475–479 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. P. D. Mangles, A. G. R. Thomas, O. Lundh, F. Lindau, M. C. Kaluza, A. Persson, C.-G. Wahlström, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “On the stability of laser wakefield electron accelerators in the monoenergetic regime,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 056702 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. R. Poulin and K. A. Nelson, “Irreversible organic crystalline chemistry monitored in real time,” Science 313, 1756–1760 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Ward, “A short history of telecommunications transmission in the UK,” J. Commun. Net. 5, 30–41 (2006).

2004 (2)

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. Z. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser–plasma interactions,” Nature 431, 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Mackinnon, P. K. Patel, R. P. Town, M. J. Edwards, T. Phillips, S. C. Lerner, D. W. Price, D. Hicks, M. H. Key, S. Hatchett, S. C. Wilks, M. Borghesi, L. Romagnani, S. Kar, T. Toncian, G. Pretzier, O. Willi, M. Koenig, E. Martinolli, S. Lepape, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. King, R. Snavely, R. R. Freeman, and T. Boehlly, “Proton radiography as an electromagnetic field and density perturbation diagnostic,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3531–3536 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, E. L. Clarke, C. N. Danson, V. Malka, D. Neely, M. I. K. Santala, and A. E. Dangor, “The effect of high intensity laser propagation instabilities on channel formation in underdense plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 438–442 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Umstadter, “Relativistic laser–plasma interactions,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 151–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Borghesi, A. Schiavi, D. H. Campbell, M. G. Haines, O. Willi, A. J. MacKinnon, L. A. Gizzi, M. Galimberti, R. J. Clarke, and H. Ruhl, “Proton imaging: a diagnostic for inertial confinement fusion/fast ignitor studies,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 267–276 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, J. S. Wurtele, and W. P. Leemans, “Nonlinear theory of nonparaxial laser pulse propagation in plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3081–3084 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Shiraga, M. Nakasuji, M. Heya, and N. Miyanaga, “Two–dimensional sampling–image x–ray streak camera for ultrafast imaging of inertial confinement fusion plasma,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 620–623 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Fedosejevs, X. F. Wang, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Onset of relativistic self–focusing in high density gas jet targets,” Phys. Rev. E. 56, 4615–4639 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft x–ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas,  1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. D. Baton, H. A. Baldis, T. Jalinau, and C. Labaune, “Fine–scale spatial and temporal structures of second harmonic emission from an underdense plasma,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 191–196 (1993).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

R. Benattar, C. Popovics, and R. Sigel, “Polarized light interferometer for laser fusion studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1583–1586 (1979).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

S. Jackel, B. Perry, and M. Lubin, “Dynamics of laser–produced plasmas through time–resolved observations of 2ω0 and 32ω0 harmonic light emissions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 95–98 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. R. Siegrist, “Self–focusing in a plasma due to ponderomotive forces and relativistic effects,” Opt. Commun. 16, 402–407 (1976).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

D. J. Bradley, B. Liddy, and W. E. Sleat, “Direct linear measurement of ultrashort light pulses with a picosecond streak camera,” Opt. Commun. 2, 391–395 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

G. A. Askaryan, “Waveguide properties of a tubular light beam,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 28, 732–733 (1969).

Anania, M.

S. Cipiccia, M. R. Islam, B. Ersfeld, R. P. Shanks, E. Brunetti, G. Vieux, X. Yang, R. C. Issac, S. M. Wiggins, G. H. Welsh, M. Anania, D. Maneuski, R. Montgomery, G. Smith, M. Hoek, D. J. Hamilton, N. R. C. Lemos, D. Symes, P. P. Rajeev, V. O. Shea, J. M. Dias, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Gamma–rays from harmonically resonant betatron oscillations in a plasma wake,” Nat. Phys. 7, 867–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anderson, K. S.

S. Ivancic, D. Haberberger, H. Habara, T. Iwawaki, K. S. Anderson, R. S. Craxton, D. H. Froula, D. D. Meyerhofer, C. Stoeckl, K. A. Tanaka, and W. Theobald, “Channeling of multikilojoule high–intensity laser beams in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Phys. Rev. E. 91, 051101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Antici, P.

P. Antici, S. N. Chen, L. Gremillet, T. Grismayer, P. Mora, P. Audebert, and J. Fuchs, “Time and space resolved interferometry for laser–generated fast electron measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, C.

A. Higginson, R. J. Gray, M. King, S. D. R. Williamson, N. H. M. Butler, R. Wilson, R. Capdessus, C. Armstrong, J. S. Green, S. J. Hawkes, P. Martin, W. Q. Wei, S. R. Mirfayzi, X. H. Yuan, S. Kar, M. Borghesi, R. J. Clarke, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Near–100 MeV protons via a laser–driven transparency–enhanced hybrid acceleration scheme,” Nat. Commun. 9, 724 (2018).
[Crossref]

Askaryan, G. A.

G. A. Askaryan, “Waveguide properties of a tubular light beam,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 28, 732–733 (1969).

Audebert, P.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Process flow diagram of multiplexed optical probe concept. A single ultrashort laser pulse is divided into four separate laser pulses which are uniquely encoded by frequency and polarization. The four pulses are independently delayed in time and then spatially multiplexed (MUX) to propagate co-linearly in order to optically probe a given point in space and time. The inverse process (DMUX) is then applied to spatially separate and form an image for each of the channels. This enable 2D spatial and picosecond temporal resolution over multiple frames with a single laser pulse.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental set up within the vacuum chamber where a high power pump laser pulse is focused into a gas target and a low-intensity probe pulse is passed through the internal multi-channel system and the demultiplex arrangement external to the chamber. The diagram details the optical system used in the multi-channel probe to generate the four uniquely encoded laser pulses, delay them in time, spatially multiplex and then demultiplex after the interaction point (object) to image the individual channels.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Shadowgraphy measurements of each probe output channel from the experiment for (a) E = 162.2 J, P = 99.7 bar (b) E = 158.9 J, P = 98.1 bar (c) E = 152.2 J, P = 95.1 bar, and (d) E = 148.9 J, P = 41.1 bar. (e) Averaged half-angle (θ) divergence of the plasma channel wall evolving at 0, 12, 167 and 217 ps measured directly from the sets of images(a)–(d).

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