Abstract

A technique to integrate key functions of a Kerr-microresonator optical frequency comb into one device, i.e., a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometer (DP-MZI), is proposed. In the technique, a DP-MZI enables the control of carrier envelope offset frequency (fceo), as well as repetition frequency (frep), in addition to generating a stable dissipative Kerr soliton. In experiments, influences on fceo and frep by pump frequency and power modulation via a DP-MZI are investigated, followed by a demonstration of long-term full stabilization of a microresonator soliton comb to a fiber-based optical frequency comb. As another example demonstration, timing jitter of a microresonator soliton comb is significantly suppressed by referencing to a fiber through a two-wavelength delayed self-heterodyne interferometer (TWDI).

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (12)

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Thermal and nonlinear dissipative-soliton dynamics in Kerr-microresonator frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 063902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kuse and M. E. Fermann, “A photonic frequency discriminator based on a two wavelength delayed self-heterodyne interferometer for low phase noise tunable micro/mm wave synthesis,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13719 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Hummon, S. Kang, D. G. Bopp, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, S. Kim, C. Fredrick, S. A. Diddams, K. Srinivasan, V. Aksyuk, and J. E. Kitching, “Photonic chip for laser stabilization to an atomic vapor with 10−11 instability,” Optica 5, 443–449 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra-smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the Damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5, 884–892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, A. Bruch, M. Shen, X. Guo, H. Jung, L. Fan, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Li, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “High-fidelity cavity soliton generation in crystalline AlN micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4366–4369 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, B. Ghadiani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, B. Du, N. J. Engelsen, H. Guo, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-power chip-based soliton microcombs for photonic integration,” Optica 5, 1347–1353 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

C. Bao, Y. Xuan, C. Wang, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 759–762 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low-loss on-chip resonators with sub-milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4, 619–624 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Kwon, C.-G. Jeon, J. Shin, M.-S. Heo, S. E. Park, Y. Song, and J. Kim, “Reference-free, high-resolution measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40917 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kuse and M. E. Fermann, “Electro-optic comb based real time ultra-high sensitivity phase noise measurement system for high frequency microwaves,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2847 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (10)

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10, 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 24, 3095–3102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Active capture and stabilization of temporal solitons in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2037–2040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Danion, L. Frein, D. Bacquet, G. Pillet, S. Molin, L. Morvan, G. Ducournau, M. Vallet, P. Szriftgiser, and M. Alouini, “Mode-hopping suppression in long Brillouin fiber laser with non-resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2362–2365 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, S. A. Miller, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, and K. Yvind, “Efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator,” Optica 3, 823–826 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Webb, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Experimental observation of coherent cavity soliton frequency combs in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4613–4616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Jung and J. Kim, “All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16250 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

H. Lee, M.-G. Suh, T. Chen, J. Li, S. A. Diddams, and K. J. Vahala, “Spiral resonators for on-chip laser frequency stabilization,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aksyuk, V.

Alouini, M.

Anderson, M. H.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bacquet, D.

Bao, C.

Barbosa, F. A. S.

Beha, K.

Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bopp, D. G.

Bowers, J. E.

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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Frederick, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, B. R. Illic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons for accurate carrier-envelope-frequency stabilization,” arXiv:1711.06251 (2017).

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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” arXiv:1811.00616 (2018).

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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Frederick, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, B. R. Illic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons for accurate carrier-envelope-frequency stabilization,” arXiv:1711.06251 (2017).

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T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Frederick, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, B. R. Illic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons for accurate carrier-envelope-frequency stabilization,” arXiv:1711.06251 (2017).

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Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” arXiv:1811.00616 (2018).

Vahala, K. J.

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, M.-G. Suh, T. Chen, J. Li, S. A. Diddams, and K. J. Vahala, “Spiral resonators for on-chip laser frequency stabilization,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallet, M.

Venkataraman, V.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vijayan, K.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volet, N.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wang, C. Y.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Webb, K. E.

Weimann, C.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Westly, D.

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” arXiv:1811.00616 (2018).

Westly, D. A.

M. T. Hummon, S. Kang, D. G. Bopp, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, S. Kim, C. Fredrick, S. A. Diddams, K. Srinivasan, V. Aksyuk, and J. E. Kitching, “Photonic chip for laser stabilization to an atomic vapor with 10−11 instability,” Optica 5, 443–449 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Frederick, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, B. R. Illic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons for accurate carrier-envelope-frequency stabilization,” arXiv:1711.06251 (2017).

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, S.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, Y.

Yan, J.

Yang, K. Y.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Active capture and stabilization of temporal solitons in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2037–2040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” arXiv:1811.00616 (2018).

Yang, Q.-F.

Yi, X.

Yvind, K.

Zervas, M.

J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, B. Ghadiani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, B. Du, N. J. Engelsen, H. Guo, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-power chip-based soliton microcombs for photonic integration,” Optica 5, 1347–1353 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

J. Light. Technol. (1)

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, M.-G. Suh, T. Chen, J. Li, S. A. Diddams, and K. J. Vahala, “Spiral resonators for on-chip laser frequency stabilization,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10, 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

G. Danion, L. Frein, D. Bacquet, G. Pillet, S. Molin, L. Morvan, G. Ducournau, M. Vallet, P. Szriftgiser, and M. Alouini, “Mode-hopping suppression in long Brillouin fiber laser with non-resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2362–2365 (2016).
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C. Bao, Y. Xuan, C. Wang, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 759–762 (2017).
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C. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, S. A. Miller, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2565–2568 (2016).
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K. E. Webb, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Experimental observation of coherent cavity soliton frequency combs in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4613–4616 (2016).
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Z. Gong, A. Bruch, M. Shen, X. Guo, H. Jung, L. Fan, X. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Li, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “High-fidelity cavity soliton generation in crystalline AlN micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4366–4369 (2018).
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T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Active capture and stabilization of temporal solitons in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2037–2040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optica (7)

M. Pu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, and K. Yvind, “Efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator,” Optica 3, 823–826 (2016).
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X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low-loss on-chip resonators with sub-milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4, 619–624 (2017).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra-smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the Damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5, 884–892 (2018).
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J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, B. Ghadiani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, B. Du, N. J. Engelsen, H. Guo, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-power chip-based soliton microcombs for photonic integration,” Optica 5, 1347–1353 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hummon, S. Kang, D. G. Bopp, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, S. Kim, C. Fredrick, S. A. Diddams, K. Srinivasan, V. Aksyuk, and J. E. Kitching, “Photonic chip for laser stabilization to an atomic vapor with 10−11 instability,” Optica 5, 443–449 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
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J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Thermal and nonlinear dissipative-soliton dynamics in Kerr-microresonator frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 063902 (2018).
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R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
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K. Jung and J. Kim, “All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16250 (2015).
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D. Kwon, C.-G. Jeon, J. Shin, M.-S. Heo, S. E. Park, Y. Song, and J. Kim, “Reference-free, high-resolution measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40917 (2017).
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N. Kuse and M. E. Fermann, “Electro-optic comb based real time ultra-high sensitivity phase noise measurement system for high frequency microwaves,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2847 (2017).
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Science (6)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Frederick, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, B. R. Illic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons for accurate carrier-envelope-frequency stabilization,” arXiv:1711.06251 (2017).

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” arXiv:1811.00616 (2018).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of working principle. (b) Schematic of pump frequency scan for accessing a stable soliton comb. (c) Schematic of pump frequency control for fceo/ frep control. (d) Schematic of pump power control for fceo/ frep control. VCO, Voltage-controlled oscillator; DP-MZI, dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of experimental setup. (b) Output power from the microresonator without strong pump. VCO frequency scan is turned on at time = 0. (c) Optical spectrum of the soliton comb. EDFA, Er-doped fiber amplifier; BPF, bandpass filter; PD, photo detector.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Influence on fceo and frep from pump frequency changes. (a) Schematic of a method. Red and blue lines show optical comb modes of the fiber comb and soliton comb, respectively. (b) fceo shift and nfrep shift, depending on detuning change. (c) Modulation coefficient for fceo and nfrep, depending on detuning. (d) Center frequency shift of the soliton comb, depending on detuning change.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Influence on fceo and frep by pump power change. (a) Schematic of the method. Red and blue lines show optical comb modes of the fiber comb and soliton comb, respectively. (b) Optical power of the sideband and the residual carrier measured by an optical spectrum analyzer in two cases. fceo shift and nfrep, depending on pump power changes at detuning of 400 MHz (c), 1000 MHz (d), and 1200 MHz (e).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Frequency of fpump when phase locked. (b) Frequency of fk (k = −2) when phase locked.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic of experimental setup. (b) Phase nose power spectrum density (PSD) of frep for free-running (blue) and locked (out-of-loop measurement) (red) frep. AOM, acouto-optic modulator.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f pump = ( f ceo + n f rep ) ( f ceo + n f rep ) f k = { f ceo + ( n + k ) f rep } { f ceo + ( n + k ) f rep }
δ f ceo = ( 1 + n k ) δ f pump + n k δ f k n δ f rep = n k ( δ f k δ f pump )
δ f ceo = n k δ f k n δ f rep = n k δ f k + n δ f rep
PD 1 : n { φ rep ( t ) φ rep ( t τ ) } + { φ ceo ( t ) φ ceo ( t τ ) } PD 2 : ( n + k ) { φ rep ( t ) φ rep ( t τ ) } + { φ ceo ( t ) φ ceo ( t τ ) }
k { φ rep ( t ) φ rep ( t τ ) }
k 2 | H ( j f ) | 2 L rep ( f )