Abstract

Intrapulse difference-frequency generation (IPDFG) is a relatively simple technique to produce few-cycle mid-infrared (MIR) radiations. The conversion efficiency of IPDFG could be potentially improved by using the long driving wavelength to reduce the quantum defect. In this paper, we report a high-energy MIR IPDFG source with a record-high conversion efficiency of up to 5.3%, driven by 3 µm, 35 fs, 10 kHz pulses. The IPDFG output has a 5 µJ pulse energy and 50 mW average power. It spans over a spectral range from 6 to 13.2 µm. A 68 fs of IPDFG pulse width is measured, corresponding to 2.1 cycles, centered at 9.7 µm. The high-energy, two-cycle IPDFG pulses are used to produce a 3-octave supercontinuum in a KRS-5 crystal, spanning from 2 to 16 µm, with a 2.4 µJ pulse energy and a 24 mW average power.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (5)

2018 (8)

J. Zhang, K. F. Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm− 1,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Marcinkevičiūtė, G. Tamošauskas, and A. Dubietis, “Supercontinuum generation in mixed thallous halides KRS-5 and KRS-6,” Opt. Mater. 78, 339–344 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. B. Penwell, L. Whaley-Mayda, and A. Tokmakoff, “Single-stage MHz mid-IR OPA using LiGaS2 and a fiber laser pump source,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1363–1366 (2018).
[Crossref]

B.-H. Chen, T. Nagy, and P. Baum, “Efficient middle-infrared generation in LiGaS2 by simultaneous spectral broadening and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1742–1745 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

O. Novák, P. R. Krogen, T. Kroh, T. Mocek, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “Femtosecond 8.5 µm source based on intrapulse difference-frequency generation of 2.1 µm pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1335–1338 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schülzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limepert, “Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 94 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

H. K. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 141 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Knorr, J. Raab, M. Tauer, P. Merkl, D. Peller, E. Wittmann, E. Riedle, C. Lange, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked multi-terahertz electric fields exceeding 13 MV/cm at a 190 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4367–4370 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Morimoto, N. Sono, T. Miyamoto, N. Kida, and H. Okamoto, “Generation of a carrier-envelope-phase-stable femtosecond pulse at 10 µm by direct down-conversion from a Ti: sapphire laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(12), 122701 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 11–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron–hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Z. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and W. J. Tropf, “Optical properties of KRS-5,” Proc. SPIE 3060, 344–355 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Moneim, N.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron–hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allison, T. K.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schülzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limepert, “Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 94 (2018).
[Crossref]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Antonio-Lopez, J.

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schülzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limepert, “Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 94 (2018).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

T. P. Butler, D. Gerz, C. Hofer, J. Xu, C. Gaida, T. Heuermann, M. Gebhardt, L. Vamos, W. Schweinberger, J. A. Gessner, T. Siefke, M. Heusinger, U. Zeitner, A. Apolonski, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Watt-scale 50-MHz source of single-cycle waveform-stable pulses in the molecular fingerprint region,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1730–1733 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Archipovaite, G. M.

G. M. Archipovaite, P. Malevich, E. Cormier, T. Lihao, A. Baltuska, and T. Balciunas, “Efficient few-cycle mid-IR pulse generation in the 5-11 µm window driven by an Yb amplifier,” Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper AM4A-4.

Arisholm, G.

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Austin, D. R.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. M. Archipovaite, P. Malevich, E. Cormier, T. Lihao, A. Baltuska, and T. Balciunas, “Efficient few-cycle mid-IR pulse generation in the 5-11 µm window driven by an Yb amplifier,” Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper AM4A-4.

Baltuska, A.

G. M. Archipovaite, P. Malevich, E. Cormier, T. Lihao, A. Baltuska, and T. Balciunas, “Efficient few-cycle mid-IR pulse generation in the 5-11 µm window driven by an Yb amplifier,” Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper AM4A-4.

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baudisch, M.

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C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schülzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limepert, “Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 94 (2018).
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H. K. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 141 (2017).
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M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schülzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limepert, “Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 94 (2018).
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Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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T. P. Butler, D. Gerz, C. Hofer, J. Xu, C. Gaida, T. Heuermann, M. Gebhardt, L. Vamos, W. Schweinberger, J. A. Gessner, T. Siefke, M. Heusinger, U. Zeitner, A. Apolonski, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Watt-scale 50-MHz source of single-cycle waveform-stable pulses in the molecular fingerprint region,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1730–1733 (2019).
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I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
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H. K. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 141 (2017).
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Kida, N.

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Koch, S. W.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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Krausz, F.

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J. Zhang, K. F. Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm− 1,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17180 (2018).
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H. K. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 141 (2017).
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Kroh, T.

O. Novák, P. R. Krogen, T. Kroh, T. Mocek, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “Femtosecond 8.5 µm source based on intrapulse difference-frequency generation of 2.1 µm pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1335–1338 (2018).
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H. K. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 141 (2017).
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C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
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C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seidel, M.

J. Zhang, K. F. Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm− 1,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sell, A.

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Siefke, T.

Silfies, M.

Silva, F.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sistrunk, E.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smolski, V.

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, A. Muraviev, S. Mirov, K. Vodopyanov, and V. Gapontsev, “Sub-Watt Femtosecond Laser Source with the Spectrum Spanning 3–8 µm,” Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper AM4A.6.

Smolski, V. O.

Sono, N.

T. Morimoto, N. Sono, T. Miyamoto, N. Kida, and H. Okamoto, “Generation of a carrier-envelope-phase-stable femtosecond pulse at 10 µm by direct down-conversion from a Ti: sapphire laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(12), 122701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, F.

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schülzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limepert, “Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 94 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sujecki, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sutter, D.

J. Zhang, K. F. Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm− 1,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tamošauskas, G.

A. Marcinkevičiūtė, G. Tamošauskas, and A. Dubietis, “Supercontinuum generation in mixed thallous halides KRS-5 and KRS-6,” Opt. Mater. 78, 339–344 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tauer, M.

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron–hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thai, A.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thomas, M. E.

A. Z. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and W. J. Tropf, “Optical properties of KRS-5,” Proc. SPIE 3060, 344–355 (1997).
[Crossref]

Timmers, H.

Tokmakoff, A.

Tropf, A. Z.

A. Z. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and W. J. Tropf, “Optical properties of KRS-5,” Proc. SPIE 3060, 344–355 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tropf, W. J.

A. Z. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and W. J. Tropf, “Optical properties of KRS-5,” Proc. SPIE 3060, 344–355 (1997).
[Crossref]

Trubetskov, M.

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schülzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limepert, “Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 94 (2018).
[Crossref]

Urbanek, B.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vamos, L.

Vasilyev, S.

S. Vasilyev, I. S. Moskalev, V. O. Smolski, J. M. Peppers, M. Mirov, A. V. Muraviev, K. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Mirov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Super-octave longwave mid-infrared coherent transients produced by optical rectification of few-cycle 2.5-µm pulses,” Optica 6(1), 111–114 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, A. Muraviev, S. Mirov, K. Vodopyanov, and V. Gapontsev, “Sub-Watt Femtosecond Laser Source with the Spectrum Spanning 3–8 µm,” Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper AM4A.6.

Vodopyanov, K.

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, A. Muraviev, S. Mirov, K. Vodopyanov, and V. Gapontsev, “Sub-Watt Femtosecond Laser Source with the Spectrum Spanning 3–8 µm,” Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper AM4A.6.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wang, L.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Q. J.

Wang, Z.

H. K. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 141 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of optical materials (CRC press, 2002).

Wei, Z.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Whaley-Mayda, L.

Wittmann, E.

Xiao, X.

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Ycas, G.

Zawilski, K.

S. Vasilyev, I. S. Moskalev, V. O. Smolski, J. M. Peppers, M. Mirov, A. V. Muraviev, K. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Mirov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Super-octave longwave mid-infrared coherent transients produced by optical rectification of few-cycle 2.5-µm pulses,” Optica 6(1), 111–114 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. K. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 141 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zawilski, K. T.

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zeitner, U.

Zhang, J.

Q. Wang, J. Zhang, A. Kessel, N. Nagl, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and K. F. Mak, “Broadband mid-infrared coverage (2–17 µm) with few-cycle pulses via cascaded parametric processes,” Opt. Lett. 44(10), 2566–2569 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, K. F. Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm− 1,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, B.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Znakovskaya, I.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

X. Zou, W. Li, H. K. Liang, K. Liu, S. Qu, Q. J. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “300 µJ, 3 W, few-cycle, 3 µm OPCPA based on periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 44(11), 2791–2794 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, H. K. Liang, W. Li, X. Zou, S. Qu, T. Lang, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Microjoule Sub-two-cycle Mid-infrared Intrapulse-DFG Driven by 3 µm OPCPA”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2019), https://doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2019.2944256

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Morimoto, N. Sono, T. Miyamoto, N. Kida, and H. Okamoto, “Generation of a carrier-envelope-phase-stable femtosecond pulse at 10 µm by direct down-conversion from a Ti: sapphire laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(12), 122701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 11–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (2)

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schülzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limepert, “Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 94 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, K. F. Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm− 1,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

H. K. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 141 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 1.4 µm to 13.3 µm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron–hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (9)

B.-H. Chen, T. Nagy, and P. Baum, “Efficient middle-infrared generation in LiGaS2 by simultaneous spectral broadening and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1742–1745 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. B. Penwell, L. Whaley-Mayda, and A. Tokmakoff, “Single-stage MHz mid-IR OPA using LiGaS2 and a fiber laser pump source,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1363–1366 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, H. K. Liang, L. Wang, S. Qu, T. Lang, H. Li, Q. J. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Multimicrojoule GaSe-based midinfrared optical parametric amplifier with an ultrabroad idler spectrum covering 4.2–16  µm,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 1003–1006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Zhang, A. Kessel, N. Nagl, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and K. F. Mak, “Broadband mid-infrared coverage (2–17 µm) with few-cycle pulses via cascaded parametric processes,” Opt. Lett. 44(10), 2566–2569 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. P. Butler, D. Gerz, C. Hofer, J. Xu, C. Gaida, T. Heuermann, M. Gebhardt, L. Vamos, W. Schweinberger, J. A. Gessner, T. Siefke, M. Heusinger, U. Zeitner, A. Apolonski, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Watt-scale 50-MHz source of single-cycle waveform-stable pulses in the molecular fingerprint region,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1730–1733 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Junginger, A. Sell, O. Schubert, B. Mayer, D. Brida, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Single-cycle multiterahertz transients with peak fields above 10 MV/cm,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2645–2647 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Knorr, J. Raab, M. Tauer, P. Merkl, D. Peller, E. Wittmann, E. Riedle, C. Lange, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked multi-terahertz electric fields exceeding 13 MV/cm at a 190 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4367–4370 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zou, W. Li, H. K. Liang, K. Liu, S. Qu, Q. J. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “300 µJ, 3 W, few-cycle, 3 µm OPCPA based on periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 44(11), 2791–2794 (2019).
[Crossref]

O. Novák, P. R. Krogen, T. Kroh, T. Mocek, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, “Femtosecond 8.5 µm source based on intrapulse difference-frequency generation of 2.1 µm pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1335–1338 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Marcinkevičiūtė, G. Tamošauskas, and A. Dubietis, “Supercontinuum generation in mixed thallous halides KRS-5 and KRS-6,” Opt. Mater. 78, 339–344 (2018).
[Crossref]

Optica (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Z. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and W. J. Tropf, “Optical properties of KRS-5,” Proc. SPIE 3060, 344–355 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

M. Seidel, X. Xiao, S. A. Hussain, G. Arisholm, A. Hartung, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, F. Habel, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Multi-watt, multi-octave, mid-infrared femtosecond source,” Sci. Adv. 4(4), eaaq1526 (2018).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from midinfrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

V. Smolski, S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, A. Muraviev, S. Mirov, K. Vodopyanov, and V. Gapontsev, “Sub-Watt Femtosecond Laser Source with the Spectrum Spanning 3–8 µm,” Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper AM4A.6.

G. M. Archipovaite, P. Malevich, E. Cormier, T. Lihao, A. Baltuska, and T. Balciunas, “Efficient few-cycle mid-IR pulse generation in the 5-11 µm window driven by an Yb amplifier,” Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper AM4A-4.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of optical materials (CRC press, 2002).

http://www.as-photonics.com/snlo

K. Liu, H. K. Liang, W. Li, X. Zou, S. Qu, T. Lang, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Microjoule Sub-two-cycle Mid-infrared Intrapulse-DFG Driven by 3 µm OPCPA”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2019), https://doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2019.2944256

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The schematic of experimental setups. IPDFG: intrapulse difference-frequency generation. OPCPA: optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier. LPF: long-pass filter.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Characterization of the 3 µm driving pulses. (a) The spectra before [26] and after the nonlinear compression. Inset: the beam profiles before and after the nonlinear compression. (b)-(d) show the measured frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) trace, the retrieved FROG trace and the pulse shape, respectively, for the 3 µm pulses before nonlinear compression [26]. (e)-(g) show the measured FROG trace, the retrieved FROG trace and the pulse shape, respectively, for the 3 µm pulses after nonlinear compression.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The IPDFG output energy and conversion efficiency measured behind a 7.3 µm LPF at different pump intensities. The inset shows the measured beam profile for 5 µJ IPDFG output.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The measured IPDFG spectrum with p-polarization at 5 µJ output energy. (b) The amplified signal spectrum measured behind the 3.6 µm LPF. (c) The broadened signal spectrum via self-phase modulation (SPM), measured behind the 3.6 µm LPF by rotating the azimuthal angle (φ) of GaSe to ${90^\circ }$, to turn off the amplification. In this case, the energy behind the 3.6 µm LPF is 4 times higher than that without GaSe, giving another evidence that SPM makes contribution.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The measured energy stability of IPDFG output behind the 7.3 µm LPF. (b) The measured and calculated interferometric autocorrelator (IAC) traces behind the 7.3 µm LPF. The calculated IAC is obtained by adding the −1300 $\textrm{f}{\textrm{s}^2}$ dispersion which is mainly from the 2-mm-thick GaSe and the 7.3 µm LPF with a 1-mm-thick Ge substrate into the TL pulse based on the measured spectrum.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The SC spectrum assisted by a single filament from the KRS-5 crystal driven by the IPDFG pulses. The insets show the corresponding SC beam profile and the setup of SCG, respectively. SCG: supercontinuum generation.

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