Abstract

We demonstrate a technique to simultaneously stabilize the frequency and output power of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser (QCL). This technique exploits frequency and power variations upon near-infrared illumination of the QCL with a diode laser. It does not require an external terahertz optical modulator. By locking the frequency to a molecular absorption line, we obtain a long-term (one-hour) linewidth of 260 kHz (full width at half maximum) and a root-mean-square power stability below 0.03%. With respect to the free-running case, this stabilization scheme improves the frequency stability by nearly two orders of magnitude and the power stability by a factor of three.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (2)

2018 (2)

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne Spectroscopy of Frequency Instabilities in Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. R. Freeman, L. Ponnampalam, H. Shams, R. A. Mohandas, C. C. Renaud, P. Dean, L. Li, A. G. Davies, A. J. Seeds, and E. H. Linfield, “Injection locking of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a telecommunications wavelength frequency comb,” Optica 4(9), 1059–1064 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(19), 191106 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz Local Oscillator for the GREAT Heterodyne Spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Danylov, N. Erickson, A. Light, and J. Waldman, “Phase locking of 2.324 and 2.959 terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a Schottky diode harmonic mixer,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5090–5092 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2012 (5)

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Cappelli, I. Galli, S. Borri, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, S. Bartalini, and P. D. Natale, “Subkilohertz linewidth room-temperature mid-infrared quantum cascade laser using a molecular sub-doppler reference,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4811–4813 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, D. J. Hayton, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and amplitude stabilized terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Ajili, L.

Akikusa, N.

Aladro, R.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alam, T.

Almond, N. W.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alton, J.

Arie, A.

Barbieri, S.

Barkan, A.

Bartalini, S.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1040 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Cappelli, I. Galli, S. Borri, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, S. Bartalini, and P. D. Natale, “Subkilohertz linewidth room-temperature mid-infrared quantum cascade laser using a molecular sub-doppler reference,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4811–4813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bartolini, P.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baryshev, A.

Bava, E.

Beere, H. E.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1040 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, S. Withington, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, and J. Faist, “Heterodyne mixing of two far-infrared quantum cascade lasers by use of a point-contact Schottky diode,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1632–1634 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bell, A.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bertinetto, F.

Betz, A. L.

Biermann, K.

T. Alam, M. Wienold, X. Lü, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Wideband, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by light-induced frequency tuning of quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5420–5432 (2019).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne Spectroscopy of Frequency Instabilities in Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz Local Oscillator for the GREAT Heterodyne Spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, R. Sharma, A. Tahraoui, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3334–3348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blary, K.

Boreiko, R. T.

Borri, S.

Braeuninger-Weimer, P.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Buchbender, C.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Büchel, D.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Cancio, P.

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Cohen, E. A.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998).
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M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
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Coulombe, M. J.

Csengeri, T.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
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Cui, M.

Y. Ren, D. J. Hayton, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and amplitude stabilized terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101111 (2012).
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Danylov, A.

Danylov, A. A.

Davies, A. G.

De Natale, P.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1040 (2012).
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M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
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Dean, P.

Degl’lnnocenti, R.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
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H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998).
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Dengler, R.

Duran, C.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
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Eichholz, R.

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne Spectroscopy of Frequency Instabilities in Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–6 (2017).
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Erickson, N.

Faist, J.

Fischer, M.

Freeman, J. R.

Fusco, P.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
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C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
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Galli, I.

Galzerano, G.

Gao, J. R.

Y. Ren, D. J. Hayton, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and amplitude stabilized terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101111 (2012).
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P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
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Gatesman, A. J.

Giles, R. H.

Giusfredi, G.

Goodhue, W. D.

Goyette, T. M.

Graf, U. U.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
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C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
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D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1159–1168 (2009).
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Grahn, H. T.

T. Alam, M. Wienold, X. Lü, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Wideband, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by light-induced frequency tuning of quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5420–5432 (2019).
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H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne Spectroscopy of Frequency Instabilities in Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(19), 191106 (2016).
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H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz Local Oscillator for the GREAT Heterodyne Spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
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M. Wienold, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, R. Sharma, A. Tahraoui, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3334–3348 (2014).
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Gustafson, E. K.

Güsten, R.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
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C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
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Hayton, D. J.

Y. Ren, D. J. Hayton, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and amplitude stabilized terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hempel, M.

M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(19), 191106 (2016).
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Hesler, J. L.

Heyminck, S.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
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Higgins, R. D.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
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Hofmann, S.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Honingh, C. E.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hovenier, J. N.

Y. Ren, D. J. Hayton, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and amplitude stabilized terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101111 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

Hübers, H.-W.

T. Alam, M. Wienold, X. Lü, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Wideband, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by light-induced frequency tuning of quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5420–5432 (2019).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, and M. Wienold, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy with quantum-cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 125(15), 151401 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne Spectroscopy of Frequency Instabilities in Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(19), 191106 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz Local Oscillator for the GREAT Heterodyne Spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Inguscio, M.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, K.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jagtap, V.

Jellema, W.

Justen, M.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kao, T.-Y.

Y. Ren, D. J. Hayton, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and amplitude stabilized terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S.

Khanna, S. P.

Khosropanah, P.

Kindness, S. J.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Klapwijk, T. M.

Y. Ren, D. J. Hayton, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and amplitude stabilized terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101111 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[Crossref]

Klein, B.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
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M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(19), 191106 (2016).
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H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz Local Oscillator for the GREAT Heterodyne Spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
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Tittel, F. K.

Torre, R.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1040 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vowinkel, B.

Waldman, J.

Wallis, R.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Walther, C.

Wei, B.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wiedner, M. C.

Wienold, M.

T. Alam, M. Wienold, X. Lü, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Wideband, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by light-induced frequency tuning of quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5420–5432 (2019).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, and M. Wienold, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy with quantum-cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 125(15), 151401 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne Spectroscopy of Frequency Instabilities in Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz Local Oscillator for the GREAT Heterodyne Spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, R. Sharma, A. Tahraoui, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3334–3348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wiesemeyer, H.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. S.

Withington, S.

Wohler, B.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wunsch, H.-J.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamanishi, M.

Zhang, W.

Ziebart, M.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, D. J. Hayton, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and amplitude stabilized terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101111 (2012).
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B. Wei, S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, R. Wallis, Y. Wu, Y. Ren, S. C. Shi, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’lnnocenti, “Amplitude stabilization and active control of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a graphene loaded split-ring-resonator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(19), 191106 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne Spectroscopy of Frequency Instabilities in Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz Local Oscillator for the GREAT Heterodyne Spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(4), 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, and M. Wienold, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy with quantum-cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 125(15), 151401 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Astron. Instrum. (1)

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. Csengeri, C. Duran, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT Dual Frequency Heterodyne Arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrum. 07(04), 1840014 (2018).
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[Crossref]

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M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
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[Crossref]

Optica (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The schematic diagram of the setup used to stabilize the frequency and output power. The QCL is operated in a mechanical cryocooler. The combination of the absorption cell and the Ge:Ga detector A is used to lock the frequency, and the second Ge:Ga detector B is used as a reference for the output power stabilization. (b) Rear-facet illumination with a low-NA single-mode fiber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Absorption spectra of CH3OH in a 60-cm cell, at a pressure of 1 hPa and heat sink temperature of 45 K, (a) by varying the QCL driving current and (b) by varying the diode laser intensity. The insets in (a) and (b) depict the derived frequency ($\nu$) tuning characteristics, where the solid lines refer to a linear and a square-root data fit, respectively, and $\nu _0 = 3.14589$ THz.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Derivative-like absorption spectrum of CH3OH for a modulation frequency of 1 MHz, a cell length of 60 cm, a pressure of $1.5$ hPa, and a heat sink temperature of 45 K. (b) Absorption line of CH3OH for a pressure of 1.5 hPa, where $\nu _0 = 3.14685$ THz. The transmission signal is measured in direct detection, while the frequency-modulated signal is measured with the lock-in amplifier. The locking range is indicated by the rectangular box.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Frequency stability versus time detected by the lock-in amplifier in the locking range indicated in Fig. 3(b). (b) DC output of detector B reflecting the QCL output power versus time. Three different cases are shown: (1) free running, (2) frequency stabilized, and (3) both, frequency and amplitude, stabilized. (c) Magnified region around 2.7 sec showing the frequency-locked signal in comparison to the detector noise level. (d) Normalized tuning vectors for the QCL current and the diode laser tuning.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Histograms of the (a)–(c) frequency and (d)–(f) power fluctuations corresponding to the unlocked state and the locked states shown in Fig. 4. Dotted lines refer to a normal distribution.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. PSD of the (a) frequency noise and (b) amplitude noise for the free-running, the frequency-locked, and the frequency and power-locked QCL. The bandwidth of the PID control loops for frequency and output power stabilization is 193 kHz and 1.7 kHz, respectively.

Equations (1)

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( Δ ν Δ P ) = Δ I Q C L α I + Δ I D L α L .

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