Abstract

We present a heterodyne terahertz spectrometry platform based on plasmonic photomixing, which enables the resolution of narrow spectral signatures of gases over a broad terahertz frequency range. This plasmonic heterodyne spectrometer replaces the terahertz mixer and local oscillator of conventional heterodyne spectrometers with a plasmonic photomixer and a heterodyning optical pump beam, respectively. The heterodyning optical pump beam is formed by two continuous-wave, wavelength-tunable lasers with a broadly tunable terahertz beat frequency. This broadly tunable terahertz beat frequency enables spectrometry over a broad bandwidth, which is not restricted by the bandwidth limitations of conventional terahertz mixers and local oscillators. We use this plasmonic heterodyne spectrometry platform to resolve the spectral signatures of ammonia over a 1-4.5 THz frequency range.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

N. Wang, S. Cakmakyapan, Y.-J. Lin, H. Javadi, and M. Jarrahi, “Room-temperature heterodyne terahertz detection with quantum-level sensitivity,” Nat. Astron. 3(11), 977–982 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

N. T. Yardimci and M. Jarrahi, “Nanostructure-Enhanced Photoconductive Terahertz Emission and Detection,” Small 14(44), 1802437 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S.-W. Huang, J. Yang, S. H. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, T. Zelevinsky, M. Jarrahi, and C. W. Wong, “Globally stable microresonator Turing pattern formation for coherent high-power THz radiation on-chip,” Phys. Rev. X 7(4), 041002 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, V. A. Miller, R. M. Spearrin, and C. L. Strand, “SpectraPlot. com: Integrated spectroscopic modeling of atomic and molecular gases,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 200, 249–257 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

W. Y. Peng, R. Sur, C. L. Strand, R. M. Spearrin, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-sensitivity in situ QCLAS-based ammonia concentration sensor for high-temperature applications,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 122(7), 188 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Yang, R. Salas, E. M. Krivoy, H. P. Nair, S. R. Bank, and M. Jarrahi, “Characterization of ErAs: GaAs and LuAs: GaAs superlattice structures for continuous-wave terahertz wave generation through plasmonic photomixing,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 37(7), 640–648 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

S.-H. Yang and M. Jarrahi, “Frequency-tunable continuous-wave terahertz sources based on GaAs plasmonic photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(13), 131111 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Jarrahi, “Advanced photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics based on nano-antennas and nano-plasmonic light concentrators,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(3), 391–397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3816 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, R. Ichikawa, Y. D. Hsieh, K. Hayashi, H. Cahyadi, F. Hindle, Y. Sakaguchi, T. Iwata, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, and H. Inaba, “Adaptive sampling dual terahertz comb spectroscopy using dual free-running femtosecond lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10786 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Yang and M. Jarrahi, “Spectral characteristics of terahertz radiation from plasmonic photomixers,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28522–28530 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Yang, R. Watts, X. Li, N. Wang, V. Cojocaru, J. O’Gorman, L. P. Barry, and M. Jarrahi, “Tunable terahertz wave generation through a bimodal laser diode and plasmonic photomixer,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31206–31215 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

K. Owen and A. Farooq, “A calibration-free ammonia breath sensor using a quantum cascade laser with WMS 2f/1f,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 116(2), 371–383 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

N. Wang and M. Jarrahi, “Noise analysis of photoconductive terahertz detectors,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 34(9), 519–528 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Terahertz comb spectroscopy traceable to microwave frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(3), 322–330 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, and M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1622 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. Putz, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, M. Schultz, and J. Stutzki, “Terahertz hot electron bolometer waveguide mixers for GREAT,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, L2 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Heyminck, U. U. Graf, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, and P. Hartogh, “GREAT: the SOFIA high-frequency heterodyne instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, L1 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Yasui, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency metrology based on frequency comb,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 191–201 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. L. Manney, M. L. Santee, M. Rex, N. J. Livesey, M. C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E. R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L. R. Poole, M. R. Schoeberl, D. P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyrö, N. Larsen, P. F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C. T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M. C. Parrondo, D. W. Tarasick, P. von der Gathen, K. A. Walker, and N. S. Zinoviev, “Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011,” Nature 478(7370), 469–475 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Solomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of Stratospheric Water Vapor to Decadal Changes in the Rate of Global Warming,” Science 327(5970), 1219–1223 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, H. Takahashi, Y. Iwamoto, H. Inaba, and K. Minoshima, “Continuously tunable, phase-locked, continuous-wave terahertz generator based on photomixing of two continuous-wave lasers locked to two independent optical combs,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033111 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Wootten and A. R. Thompson, “The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array,” Proc. IEEE 97(8), 1463–1471 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 378–391 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. R. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Terahertz superconducting hot electron bolometer heterodyne receivers,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 252–258 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. D. Whitehead, I. D. Longley, and M. W. Gallagher, “Seasonal and diurnal variation in atmospheric ammonia in an urban environment measured using a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 183(1-4), 317–329 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

J. Zmuidzinas and P. L. Richards, “Superconducting detectors and mixers for millimeter and submillimeter astrophysics,” Proc. IEEE 92(10), 1597–1616 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Villanueva and P. Hartogh, “The high resolution chirp transform spectrometer for the SOFIA-GREAT instrument,” Exp. Astronomy 18(1-3), 77–91 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. D. Semenov, H. W. Hubers, H. Richter, M. Birk, M. Krocka, U. Mair, Y. B. Vachtomin, M. I. Finkel, S. V. Antipov, B. M. Voronov, K. V. Smirnov, N. S. Kaurova, V. N. Drakinski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting hot-electron bolometer mixer for terahertz heterodyne receivers,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 168–171 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narasimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, “Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 391–396 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Horn, O. Siebertz, F. Schmülling, C. Kunz, R. Schieder, and G. Winnewisser, “A 4×1 GHz array acousto-optical spectrometer,” Exp. Astronomy 9(1), 17–38 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

T. W. Crowe, R. J. Mattauch, H. P. Roser, W. L. Bishop, W. C. B. Peatman, and X. Liu, “GaAs Schottky diodes for THz mixing applications,” Proc. IEEE 80(11), 1827–1841 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. J. Wengler, “Submillimeter-wave detection with superconducting tunnel diodes,” Proc. IEEE 80(11), 1810–1826 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. G. Phillips and J. Keene, “Submillimeter astronomy (heterodyne spectroscopy),” Proc. IEEE 80(11), 1662–1678 (1992).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

G. Neugebauer, C. A. Beichman, B. T. Soifer, H. H. Aumann, T. J. Chester, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, C. J. Lonsdale, F. J. Low, and E. T. Young, “Early Results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite,” Science 224(4644), 14–21 (1984).
[Crossref]

Antipov, S. V.

A. D. Semenov, H. W. Hubers, H. Richter, M. Birk, M. Krocka, U. Mair, Y. B. Vachtomin, M. I. Finkel, S. V. Antipov, B. M. Voronov, K. V. Smirnov, N. S. Kaurova, V. N. Drakinski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting hot-electron bolometer mixer for terahertz heterodyne receivers,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 168–171 (2003).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

Y. D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3816 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Terahertz comb spectroscopy traceable to microwave frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(3), 322–330 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency metrology based on frequency comb,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 191–201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aumann, H. H.

G. Neugebauer, C. A. Beichman, B. T. Soifer, H. H. Aumann, T. J. Chester, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, C. J. Lonsdale, F. J. Low, and E. T. Young, “Early Results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite,” Science 224(4644), 14–21 (1984).
[Crossref]

Baghdassarian, O.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narasimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, “Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 391–396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bank, S. R.

S.-H. Yang, R. Salas, E. M. Krivoy, H. P. Nair, S. R. Bank, and M. Jarrahi, “Characterization of ErAs: GaAs and LuAs: GaAs superlattice structures for continuous-wave terahertz wave generation through plasmonic photomixing,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 37(7), 640–648 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barends, R.

J. R. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Terahertz superconducting hot electron bolometer heterodyne receivers,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 252–258 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barry, L. P.

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Terahertz superconducting hot electron bolometer heterodyne receivers,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 252–258 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beichman, C. A.

G. Neugebauer, C. A. Beichman, B. T. Soifer, H. H. Aumann, T. J. Chester, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, C. J. Lonsdale, F. J. Low, and E. T. Young, “Early Results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite,” Science 224(4644), 14–21 (1984).
[Crossref]

Berry, C. W.

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, and M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1622 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the terahertz spectrometry setup.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Broadband heterodyne spectrometry over specific frequency ranges around ω0 and ω0 with high scanning efficiency.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The detected power spectrum over a 2.35-2.47 THz range with 50 MHz frequency steps. The absorbance spectrum of ammonia, shown on the right, is produced using the simulation tools described in [27].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The resolved transmission spectra around the ammonia absorption lines at a) 1.215 THz, b) 1.764 THz, c) 2.401 THz, d) 2.950 THz, e) 3.577 THz, and f) 4.125 THz, over a 60 GHz frequency range with 50 MHz frequency steps.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Allan variance of the normalized output power as a function of integration time for an optical pump beat frequency of 2 THz.

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