Abstract

Microresonator frequency combs (microcombs) are enabling new applications in frequency synthesis and metrology – from high-speed laser ranging to coherent optical communications. One critical parameter that dictates the performance of the microcomb is the optical quality factor (Q) of the microresonator. Microresonators fabricated in planar structures such as silicon nitride (Si3N4) allow for dispersion engineering and the possibility to monolithically integrate the microcomb with other photonic devices. However, the relatively large refractive index contrast and the tight optical confinement required for dispersion engineering make it challenging to attain Si3N4 microresonators with Qs > 107 using standard subtractive processing methods – i.e. photonic devices are patterned directly on the as-deposited Si3N4 film. In this work, we achieve ultra-smooth Si3N4 microresonators featuring mean intrinsic Qs around 11 million. The cross-section geometry can be precisely engineered in the telecommunications band to achieve either normal or anomalous dispersion, and we demonstrate the generation of mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr combs as well as soliton microcombs. Such high-Qs allow us to generate 100 GHz soliton microcombs, demonstrated here for the first time in Si3N4 microresonators fabricated using a subtractive processing method. These results enhance the possibilities for co-integration of microcombs with high-performance photonic devices, such as narrow-linewidth external-cavity diode lasers, ultra-narrow filters and demultiplexers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680–687 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. El Dirani, A. Kamel, M. Casale, S. Kerdiles, C. Monat, X. Letartre, M. Pu, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, and C. Sciancalepore, “Annealing-free Si3N4 frequency combs for monolithic integration with Si photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(8), 081102 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, H. Guo, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Double inverse nanotapers for efficient light coupling to integrated photonic devices,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3200–3203 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra-smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the Damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5(7), 884–892 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, B. Ghadiani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, B. Du, N. J. Engelsen, H. Guo, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-power chip-based soliton microcombs for photonic integration,” Optica 5(10), 1347–1353 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rahim, E. Ryckeboer, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, A. Hermans, M. Muneeb, S. Dhoore, Y. Li, U. Dave, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, S. Severi, X. Rottenberg, and R. Baets, “Expanding the Silicon Photonics Portfolio with Silicon Nitride Photonic Integrated Circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 639–649 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low-loss on-chip resonators with sub-milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4(6), 619–624 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4(7), 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Coupling ideality of integrated planar high- Q microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(2), 024026 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600276 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

2015 (4)

2014 (4)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(12), 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated waveguide coupled Si3N4 resonators in the ultrahigh-Q regime,” Optica 1(3), 153–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, L. Zhang, A. Matsko, Y. Yan, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, L. Maleki, and A. E. Willner, “Nonlinear conversion efficiency in Kerr frequency comb generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6126–6129 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22829–22833 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. A. Gottscho, “Microscopic uniformity in plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Process. Phenom. 10(5), 2133 (1992).
[Crossref]

Agafonova, S. E.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680–687 (2019).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

Al Noman, A.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bao, C.

Barbosa, F. A. S.

Bauters, J. F.

Bienstman, P.

Billat, A.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boller, K.-J.

Bowers, J. E.

Brasch, V.

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip – based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351(6271), 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic Damascene process for integrated high-Q microresonator based nonlinear photonics,” Optica 3(1), 20–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(12), 123901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brès, C.-S.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bryant, A.

Cardenas, J.

Casale, M.

H. El Dirani, A. Kamel, M. Casale, S. Kerdiles, C. Monat, X. Letartre, M. Pu, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, and C. Sciancalepore, “Annealing-free Si3N4 frequency combs for monolithic integration with Si photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(8), 081102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clemmen, S.

Dave, U.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dhakal, A.

Dhoore, S.

Diddams, S. A.

Drake, T. E.

Du, B.

Dutt, A.

El Dirani, H.

H. El Dirani, A. Kamel, M. Casale, S. Kerdiles, C. Monat, X. Letartre, M. Pu, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, and C. Sciancalepore, “Annealing-free Si3N4 frequency combs for monolithic integration with Si photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(8), 081102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Engelsen, N. J.

Epping, J. P.

Fallnich, C.

Fan, L.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low-loss on-chip resonators with sub-milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4(6), 619–624 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, S. A. Miller, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

Niu, B.

Okawachi, Y.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

H. El Dirani, A. Kamel, M. Casale, S. Kerdiles, C. Monat, X. Letartre, M. Pu, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, and C. Sciancalepore, “Annealing-free Si3N4 frequency combs for monolithic integration with Si photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(8), 081102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Papp, S. B.

X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pavlov, N. G.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680–687 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, H. Guo, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Double inverse nanotapers for efficient light coupling to integrated photonic devices,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3200–3203 (2018).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra-smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the Damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5(7), 884–892 (2018).
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J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, B. Ghadiani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, B. Du, N. J. Engelsen, H. Guo, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-power chip-based soliton microcombs for photonic integration,” Optica 5(10), 1347–1353 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4(7), 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Coupling ideality of integrated planar high- Q microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(2), 024026 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 94–102 (2017).
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V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip – based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351(6271), 357–360 (2016).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic Damascene process for integrated high-Q microresonator based nonlinear photonics,” Optica 3(1), 20–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Pu, M.

H. El Dirani, A. Kamel, M. Casale, S. Kerdiles, C. Monat, X. Letartre, M. Pu, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, and C. Sciancalepore, “Annealing-free Si3N4 frequency combs for monolithic integration with Si photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(8), 081102 (2018).
[Crossref]

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X. Xue, P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600276 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, L. T. Varghese, A. J. Metcalf, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, K. Han, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, A. Al Noman, C. Wang, S. Kim, M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, B. Niu, L. Fan, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “High-Q silicon nitride microresonators exhibiting low-power frequency comb initiation,” Optica 3(11), 1171–1180 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
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Raja, A. S.

Rao, A.

X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
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H. El Dirani, A. Kamel, M. Casale, S. Kerdiles, C. Monat, X. Letartre, M. Pu, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, and C. Sciancalepore, “Annealing-free Si3N4 frequency combs for monolithic integration with Si photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(8), 081102 (2018).
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Shitikov, A. E.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680–687 (2019).
[Crossref]

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X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Srinivasan, K.

X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
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B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
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Subramanian, A. Z.

Teng, M.

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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
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X. Xue, P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600276 (2017).
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X. Xue, P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600276 (2017).
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Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, L. T. Varghese, A. J. Metcalf, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, K. Han, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, A. Al Noman, C. Wang, S. Kim, M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, B. Niu, L. Fan, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “High-Q silicon nitride microresonators exhibiting low-power frequency comb initiation,” Optica 3(11), 1171–1180 (2016).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
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H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
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X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
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Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
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Xie, G.

Xuan, Y.

X. Xue, P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600276 (2017).
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Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, L. T. Varghese, A. J. Metcalf, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, K. Han, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, A. Al Noman, C. Wang, S. Kim, M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, B. Niu, L. Fan, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “High-Q silicon nitride microresonators exhibiting low-power frequency comb initiation,” Optica 3(11), 1171–1180 (2016).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
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X. Xue, P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600276 (2017).
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Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, L. T. Varghese, A. J. Metcalf, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, K. Han, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, A. Al Noman, C. Wang, S. Kim, M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, B. Niu, L. Fan, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “High-Q silicon nitride microresonators exhibiting low-power frequency comb initiation,” Optica 3(11), 1171–1180 (2016).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
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X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
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Zhang, C.

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X. Lu, G. Moille, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, A. Singh, A. Rao, S. P. Yu, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient telecom-to-visible spectral translation through ultralow power nonlinear nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(9), 593–601 (2019).
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H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 330–335 (2018).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
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P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
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H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 94–102 (2017).
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Nature (1)

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (8)

Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, L. T. Varghese, A. J. Metcalf, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, K. Han, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, A. Al Noman, C. Wang, S. Kim, M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, B. Niu, L. Fan, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “High-Q silicon nitride microresonators exhibiting low-power frequency comb initiation,” Optica 3(11), 1171–1180 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic Damascene process for integrated high-Q microresonator based nonlinear photonics,” Optica 3(1), 20–25 (2016).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra-smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the Damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5(7), 884–892 (2018).
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Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4(7), 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, B. Ghadiani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, B. Du, N. J. Engelsen, H. Guo, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-power chip-based soliton microcombs for photonic integration,” Optica 5(10), 1347–1353 (2018).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Coupling ideality of integrated planar high- Q microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(2), 024026 (2017).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(12), 123901 (2014).
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Science (1)

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip – based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351(6271), 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Fabrication flow of Si3N4 waveguides starting from deposition of crack-free thin film until overclad of Si3N4 waveguide. (b) Perspective view SEM image of fabricated Si3N4 waveguide. Little roughness can be observed, and no clear interface between two Si3N4 layers can be seen. (c) AFM measurement of the top surface of Si3N4 with thickness ∼ 600 nm. (d) Top view SEM image of fabricated Si3N4 waveguide, the magnified waveguide image is in the inset. (e) SEM image of coupling region milled by FIB. The Si3N4 bus and ring waveguides are painted with purple color. The gap between ring and bus waveguides is ∼ 400 nm, and no air void has been observed.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Intrinsic Q and dispersion characterization of microring resonator with normal (height 600 nm × width 1850 nm, a, b, c, d) and anomalous dispersion (height 740 nm × width 2000 nm, e, f, g, h). (a) Integrated dispersion of fundamental TE mode. Two weak mode crossings are observed. (b) Intrinsic Q of resonance from fundamental TE mode family. (c) Histogram of intrinsic linewidth from 6 microring resonators. (d) A representative resonance with critical coupling and FWHM of 23.4 MHz. (e)–(g) idem to (a)–(d) but for the anomalous dispersion design.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Microcomb generation from microring resonators with line spacing 210 GHz and 0.9 THz. (a) Mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr comb generation from 105 GHz microring. Its RF spectrum is shown in (b). (c) Soliton microcomb generation from 0.9 THz microring. (d) Soliton step in converted power trace by sweeping the pump laser across the resonance with on-chip power ∼ 125 mW.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Soliton comb generation from microring resonator with FSR 100 GHz with fixed pump laser and on-chip thermal heater. (a) The signal for microheater to generate a soliton microcomb. The corresponding converted power trace is shown in (b). (c) Zoomed in trace in (b) showing the single soliton step. (d) Single soliton comb generated with on-chip power ∼ 100 mW. The microscope image of microheater is in the inset. (e) Corresponding RF spectrum.