Abstract

Biosensing based on whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators has been continuously studied with great attention due to its excellent sensitivity guaranteeing the label-free detection. However, its practical impact is insignificant to date despite notable achievements in academic research. Here, we demonstrate a novel practical platform of on-chip WGM sensors integrated with microfluidic channels. By placing silicon nanoclusters as a stable active compound in micro-resonators, the sensor chip can be operated with a remote pump and readout, which simplifies the chip integration and connection to the external setup. In addition, silicon nanoclusters having large absorption cross-section over broad wavelength range allow active sensing for the first time with an LED pump in a top-illumination scheme which significantly reduces the complexity and cost of the measurement setup. The nano-slot structure of 25 nm gap width is embedded in the resonator where the target bio-molecules are selectively detected with the sensitivity enhanced by strongly confined mode-field. The sensitivity confirmed by real-time measurements for the streptavidin-biotin complex is 0.012 nm/nM, improved over 20 times larger than the previously reported WGM sensors with remote readout.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Subramanian, H. Y. Wu, T. Constant, J. Xavier, and F. Vollmer, “Label-Free Optical Single-Molecule Micro- and Nanosensors,” Adv. Mater. 30(51), 1801246 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Arnold, S. I. Shopova, and S. Holler, “Whispering gallery mode bio-sensor for label-free detection of single molecules: thermo-optic vs. reactive mechanism,” Opt. Express 18(1), 281–287 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Wienhold, S. Kraemmer, S. F. Wondimu, T. Siegle, U. Bog, U. Weinzierl, S. Schmidt, H. Becker, H. Kalt, T. Mappes, S. Koeber, and C. Koos, “All-polymer photonic sensing platform based on whispering-gallery mode microgoblet lasers,” Lab Chip 15(18), 3800–3806 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. Xu, W. Chen, G. Zhao, Y. Li, C. Lu, and L. Yang, “Wireless whispering-gallery-mode sensor for thermal sensing and aerial mapping,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 62 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Express 22(15), 1129–1131 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. A. Barrios, “Integrated microring resonator sensor arrays for labs-on-chips,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(6), 1467–1475 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Wienhold, S. Kraemmer, A. Bacher, H. Kalt, C. Koos, S. Koeber, and T. Mappes, “Efficient free-space read-out of WGM lasers using circular micromirrors,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1025–1034 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. F. Wondimu, M. Hippler, C. Hussal, A. Hofmann, S. Krämmer, J. Lahann, H. Kalt, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Robust label-free biosensing using microdisk laser arrays with on-chip references,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3161–3173 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, “Label-free detection of single nanoparticles and biological molecules using microtoroid optical resonators,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16001 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. F. Lupi, D. Navarro-Urrios, J. Monserrat, C. Dominguez, P. Pellegrino, and B. Garrido, “High Q light-emitting Si-rich Si3N4 microdisks,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1344–1346 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Kim and J. H. Shin, “Luminescent Silicon-Rich Nitride Horizontal Air-Slot Microdisk Resonators for Biosensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2331–2334 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. N.-M. Park, T.-S. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Band gap engineering of amorphous silicon quantum dots for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2575–2577 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. D. Nguyen, D. M. Kepaptsoglou, Q. M. Ramasse, and A Olsen, “Direct observation of quantum confinement of Si nanocrystals in Si-rich nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 085315 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  24. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. G. Scullion, T. F. Krauss, and A. D. Falco, “Slotted photonic crystal sensors,” Sensors 13(3), 3675–3710 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. Liu, K. Samanta, B. D. Smith, and L. Isaacs, “Synthetic mimics of biotin/(strept)avidin,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(9), 2391–2403 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Halperin, A. Buhot, and E. B. Zhulina, “On the hybridization isotherms of DNA microarrays: the Langmuir model and its extensions,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18(18), S463–S490 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-Free Quantitation of a Cancer Biomarker in Complex Media Using Silicon Photonic Microring Resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. A. Latour, “The Langmuir isotherm: a commonly applied but misleading approach for the analysis of protein adsorption behavior,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 103(3), 949–958 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. A. Hanaor, M. Ghadiri, W. Chrzanowski, and Y. Gan, “Scalable surface area characterization by electrokinetic analysis of complex anion adsorption,” Langmuir 30(50), 15143–15152 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. I. Langmuir, “The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40(9), 1361–1403 (1918).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. A. Morton, D. G. Myszka, and I. M. Chaiken, “Interpreting complex binding kinetics from optical biosensors: a comparison of analysis by linearization, the integrated rate equation, and numerical integration,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 176–185 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Nair, C. Escobedo, and R. G. Sabat, “Crossed surface relief gratings as nanoplasmonic biosensors,” ACS Sens. 2(3), 379–385 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  35. R. D’Agata, G. Grasso, and G. Spoto, “Real-Time Binding Kinetics Monitored with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging in a Diffusion-Free Environment,” Open Spectrosc. J. 2(1), 1–9 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. J. Eddowes, “Direct immunochemical sensing: Basic Chemical Principles and Fundamental Limitations,” Biosensors 3(1), 1–15 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  38. L. F. Hoyt, “Table of the Refractive Index of Pure Glycerol at 20°C,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(3), 329–332 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. Abdelgawad, M. W. L. Watson, E. W. K. Young, J. M. Mudrik, M. D. Ungrin, and A. R. Wheeler, “Soft lithography: masters on demand,” Lab Chip 8(8), 1379–1385 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  40. E. H. Williams, A. V. Davydov, A. Motayed, S. G. Sundaresan, P. Bocchini, L. J. Richter, G. Stan, K. Steffens, R. Zangmeister, J. A. Schreifels, and M. V. Rao, “Immobilization of streptavidin on 4H–SiC for biosensor development,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(16), 6056–6063 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2018 (3)

S. Subramanian, H. Y. Wu, T. Constant, J. Xavier, and F. Vollmer, “Label-Free Optical Single-Molecule Micro- and Nanosensors,” Adv. Mater. 30(51), 1801246 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, W. Chen, G. Zhao, Y. Li, C. Lu, and L. Yang, “Wireless whispering-gallery-mode sensor for thermal sensing and aerial mapping,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 62 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. F. Wondimu, M. Hippler, C. Hussal, A. Hofmann, S. Krämmer, J. Lahann, H. Kalt, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Robust label-free biosensing using microdisk laser arrays with on-chip references,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3161–3173 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

E. Kim, M. D. Baaske, and F. Vollmer, “Towards next-generation label-free biosensors: recent advances in whispering gallery mode sensors,” Lab Chip 17(7), 1190–1205 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, K. Samanta, B. D. Smith, and L. Isaacs, “Synthetic mimics of biotin/(strept)avidin,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(9), 2391–2403 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. M. Lowe, K. Sun, I. Zeimpekis, C. K. Skylaris, and N. G. Green, “Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system,” Analyst 142(22), 4173–4200 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Nair, C. Escobedo, and R. G. Sabat, “Crossed surface relief gratings as nanoplasmonic biosensors,” ACS Sens. 2(3), 379–385 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, “Label-free detection of single nanoparticles and biological molecules using microtoroid optical resonators,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16001 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Kim and J. H. Shin, “Luminescent Silicon-Rich Nitride Horizontal Air-Slot Microdisk Resonators for Biosensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2331–2334 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

T. Wienhold, S. Kraemmer, A. Bacher, H. Kalt, C. Koos, S. Koeber, and T. Mappes, “Efficient free-space read-out of WGM lasers using circular micromirrors,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1025–1034 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. A. Latour, “The Langmuir isotherm: a commonly applied but misleading approach for the analysis of protein adsorption behavior,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 103(3), 949–958 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Wienhold, S. Kraemmer, S. F. Wondimu, T. Siegle, U. Bog, U. Weinzierl, S. Schmidt, H. Becker, H. Kalt, T. Mappes, S. Koeber, and C. Koos, “All-polymer photonic sensing platform based on whispering-gallery mode microgoblet lasers,” Lab Chip 15(18), 3800–3806 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Hanaor, M. Ghadiri, W. Chrzanowski, and Y. Gan, “Scalable surface area characterization by electrokinetic analysis of complex anion adsorption,” Langmuir 30(50), 15143–15152 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. G. Scullion, T. F. Krauss, and A. D. Falco, “Slotted photonic crystal sensors,” Sensors 13(3), 3675–3710 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

P. D. Nguyen, D. M. Kepaptsoglou, Q. M. Ramasse, and A Olsen, “Direct observation of quantum confinement of Si nanocrystals in Si-rich nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 085315 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. A. Barrios, “Integrated microring resonator sensor arrays for labs-on-chips,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(6), 1467–1475 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. H. Williams, A. V. Davydov, A. Motayed, S. G. Sundaresan, P. Bocchini, L. J. Richter, G. Stan, K. Steffens, R. Zangmeister, J. A. Schreifels, and M. V. Rao, “Immobilization of streptavidin on 4H–SiC for biosensor development,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(16), 6056–6063 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. F. Lupi, D. Navarro-Urrios, J. Monserrat, C. Dominguez, P. Pellegrino, and B. Garrido, “High Q light-emitting Si-rich Si3N4 microdisks,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1344–1346 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Arnold, S. I. Shopova, and S. Holler, “Whispering gallery mode bio-sensor for label-free detection of single molecules: thermo-optic vs. reactive mechanism,” Opt. Express 18(1), 281–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-Free Quantitation of a Cancer Biomarker in Complex Media Using Silicon Photonic Microring Resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Abdelgawad, M. W. L. Watson, E. W. K. Young, J. M. Mudrik, M. D. Ungrin, and A. R. Wheeler, “Soft lithography: masters on demand,” Lab Chip 8(8), 1379–1385 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. D’Agata, G. Grasso, and G. Spoto, “Real-Time Binding Kinetics Monitored with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging in a Diffusion-Free Environment,” Open Spectrosc. J. 2(1), 1–9 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Halperin, A. Buhot, and E. B. Zhulina, “On the hybridization isotherms of DNA microarrays: the Langmuir model and its extensions,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18(18), S463–S490 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (2)

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[Crossref]

N.-M. Park, T.-S. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Band gap engineering of amorphous silicon quantum dots for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2575–2577 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Express 22(15), 1129–1131 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. A. Morton, D. G. Myszka, and I. M. Chaiken, “Interpreting complex binding kinetics from optical biosensors: a comparison of analysis by linearization, the integrated rate equation, and numerical integration,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 176–185 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. J. Eddowes, “Direct immunochemical sensing: Basic Chemical Principles and Fundamental Limitations,” Biosensors 3(1), 1–15 (1987).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

L. F. Hoyt, “Table of the Refractive Index of Pure Glycerol at 20°C,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(3), 329–332 (1934).
[Crossref]

1918 (1)

I. Langmuir, “The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40(9), 1361–1403 (1918).
[Crossref]

Abdelgawad, M.

M. Abdelgawad, M. W. L. Watson, E. W. K. Young, J. M. Mudrik, M. D. Ungrin, and A. R. Wheeler, “Soft lithography: masters on demand,” Lab Chip 8(8), 1379–1385 (2008).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arnold, S.

S. Arnold, S. I. Shopova, and S. Holler, “Whispering gallery mode bio-sensor for label-free detection of single molecules: thermo-optic vs. reactive mechanism,” Opt. Express 18(1), 281–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baaske, M. D.

E. Kim, M. D. Baaske, and F. Vollmer, “Towards next-generation label-free biosensors: recent advances in whispering gallery mode sensors,” Lab Chip 17(7), 1190–1205 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bacher, A.

Bailey, R. C.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-Free Quantitation of a Cancer Biomarker in Complex Media Using Silicon Photonic Microring Resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

C. A. Barrios, “Integrated microring resonator sensor arrays for labs-on-chips,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(6), 1467–1475 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref]

Becker, H.

T. Wienhold, S. Kraemmer, S. F. Wondimu, T. Siegle, U. Bog, U. Weinzierl, S. Schmidt, H. Becker, H. Kalt, T. Mappes, S. Koeber, and C. Koos, “All-polymer photonic sensing platform based on whispering-gallery mode microgoblet lasers,” Lab Chip 15(18), 3800–3806 (2015).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Express 22(15), 1129–1131 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bocchini, P.

E. H. Williams, A. V. Davydov, A. Motayed, S. G. Sundaresan, P. Bocchini, L. J. Richter, G. Stan, K. Steffens, R. Zangmeister, J. A. Schreifels, and M. V. Rao, “Immobilization of streptavidin on 4H–SiC for biosensor development,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(16), 6056–6063 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bog, U.

T. Wienhold, S. Kraemmer, S. F. Wondimu, T. Siegle, U. Bog, U. Weinzierl, S. Schmidt, H. Becker, H. Kalt, T. Mappes, S. Koeber, and C. Koos, “All-polymer photonic sensing platform based on whispering-gallery mode microgoblet lasers,” Lab Chip 15(18), 3800–3806 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brown, S. W.

S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, S. W. Brown, and S. C. Rand, “Optical properties of silicon nitride films deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(12), 6534–6541 (1995).
[Crossref]

Buhot, A.

A. Halperin, A. Buhot, and E. B. Zhulina, “On the hybridization isotherms of DNA microarrays: the Langmuir model and its extensions,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18(18), S463–S490 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chaiken, I. M.

T. A. Morton, D. G. Myszka, and I. M. Chaiken, “Interpreting complex binding kinetics from optical biosensors: a comparison of analysis by linearization, the integrated rate equation, and numerical integration,” Anal. Biochem. 227(1), 176–185 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

X. Xu, W. Chen, G. Zhao, Y. Li, C. Lu, and L. Yang, “Wireless whispering-gallery-mode sensor for thermal sensing and aerial mapping,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 62 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheung, G.

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Express 22(15), 1129–1131 (1997).
[Crossref]

Choi, C. J.

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chrzanowski, W.

D. A. Hanaor, M. Ghadiri, W. Chrzanowski, and Y. Gan, “Scalable surface area characterization by electrokinetic analysis of complex anion adsorption,” Langmuir 30(50), 15143–15152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Constant, T.

S. Subramanian, H. Y. Wu, T. Constant, J. Xavier, and F. Vollmer, “Label-Free Optical Single-Molecule Micro- and Nanosensors,” Adv. Mater. 30(51), 1801246 (2018).
[Crossref]

D’Agata, R.

R. D’Agata, G. Grasso, and G. Spoto, “Real-Time Binding Kinetics Monitored with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging in a Diffusion-Free Environment,” Open Spectrosc. J. 2(1), 1–9 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davydov, A. V.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Images of the microresonator and on-chip sensor (a) SEM image of a disk resonator. (b) A magnified image of the yellow box region in Fig. 1a shows two separate disks and a 25 nm gap. (c) The intensity profile of transverse magnetic (TM) fundamental mode numerically analyzed by COMSOL multi-physics in an aqueous environment. (d) Photograph of the on-chip sensor. The fabricated disk resonators integrated with a microfluidic channel.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup and measurement results. (a) The schematic of the experimental setup and the photograph of the SRSN disk resonator in a microfluidic channel pumped by the argon laser beam from the top. (b) PL spectrum of an SRSN disk resonator measured in an air environment. (c) PL spectrum of an SRSN disk resonator measured in an aqueous environment. Blue circles represent the fundamental TM modes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Biosensing demonstration. (a) Scheme depicting the side view of a microfluidic channel for detecting streptavidin binding to biotin immobilized SRSN resonator array. (b) PL spectrum of biotinylated SRSN disk resonator before (black line) and after (red line) interaction with streptavidin in an aqueous environment.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Real-time measurement results and analysis. (a) Real-time measurement of the peak shift for the different concentrations of streptavidin (point). The experimental data are fitted by the association curves based on the Langmuir model (line). The gray dashed line represents the resolution limit of the spectrometer, 0.05 nm. (b) The wavelength shift of the resonance peak over time in DPBS. The gray dashed line represents the resolution limit of the spectrometer, 0.05 nm. (c) Resonance peak shift in an equilibrium state (black square point) and the results of fitting with Hill-Langmuir equation (red line). The inset of Fig. 4c is in a logarithm scale of Fig. 4c. The blue dashed line represents dissociation constant, Kd. (d) The initial slope of the association curve for each concentration in Fig.4a and the results of linear fitting (red line).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The measurement with a LED light source and refractometric sensing. (a) The schematic of the measurement setup based on an LED pump used in this experiment. (b) PL spectrum of an SRSN microresonator induced by a single LED pump irradiation in an air environment. The red circles represent the fundamental TM mode. (c) The response of the sensor to the change of the refractive index of the medium. The inset of Fig. 5c shows the resonance peak shift induced by the injection of different refractive index solutions of glycerol diluted in DI water through the microfluidic channel. The black square points indicate the peak shift of resonance wavelength and the orange line represents the numerically analyzed sensitivity of the resonator.