Abstract

We proposed and numerically investigated a coupled photonic crystal nanobeam (PCN) cavity-waveguide system which is composed of a bus waveguide and two one-dimensional PCN cavities, acting as bright and dark mode cavities, to achieve a distinct electromagnetically induced transparency analogue (EIT-like) effect by changing the near-field coupling strength between two cavities. By further integrating with graphene on top of the dark mode cavity, the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation results show that the generated EIT-like transparency window can be actively tuned and a complete on-to-off modulation of the EIT-like effect is realized by electrically tuning the graphene’s Fermi level without reoptimizing or refabricating the structure. Theoretical analysis based on the coupled mode theory is then conducted and the results are highly consistent with the numerical results. In addition, we demonstrated that the group delay of the system can also be actively modulated by changing the Fermi level of graphene, achieving a well-controlled slow light effect. Our proposed coupled PCN cavity-waveguide system, combining the merits of PCN cavity and graphene in a single device, may provide a new platform for applications in chip-integrated slow light devices, tunable switches, optical modulators and high-sensitive sensors.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (2)

R. Yahiaoui, J. A. Burrow, S. M. Mekonen, A. Sarangan, J. Mathews, I. Agha, and T. A. Searles, “Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 97(15), 155403 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, T. Wang, T. Liu, X. Yan, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Active modulation of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 126, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

2015 (4)

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. Wang, B. Wang, G. Liu, and S. Xia, “Combined theoretical analysis for plasmon-induced transparency in integrated graphene waveguides with direct and indirect couplings,” EPL 111(3), 34004 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, W. Li, and X. Jiang, “Tunable control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in a compact graphene-based waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2325–2328 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Pan, C. Qiu, J. Wu, X. Jiang, B. Liu, Y. Yang, H. Zhou, R. Soref, and Y. Su, “Analysis of an electro-optic modulator based on a graphene-silicon hybrid 1d photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23357–23364 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Shi, G. Zhou, J. Deng, F. Tian, and F. S. Chau, “Tuning all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in nanobeam cavities using nanoelectromechanical system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14379 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 $\mu$μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Deng, Y.-S. Gao, X.-Z. Wu, M.-J. Li, and J.-X. Zhong, “Ultrahigh-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal holey fishbone-like nanobeam cavities,” EPL 108(5), 54006 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kronwald and F. Marquardt, “Optomechanically induced transparency in the nonlinear quantum regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133601 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. S. Fegadolli, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Compact and low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3861–3871 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

I. Novikova, R. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(3), 333–353 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043901 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, D. Mu, J. Yang, W. Han, and X. Di, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency in photonic crystal waveguide resonator systems,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4856–4861 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Lu, X. Liu, D. Mao, Y. Gong, and G. Wang, “Induced transparency in nanoscale plasmonic resonator systems,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3233–3235 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observations of temporal group delays in slow-light multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221111 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. F. Mingaleev, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Coupled-resonator-induced reflection in photonic-crystal waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11647–11659 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. W. Brown, and M. Xiao, “Opening four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing channels via dual electromagnetically induced transparency windows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123603 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, “Induced transparency and absorption in coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 043804 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, L. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[Crossref]

Agha, I.

R. Yahiaoui, J. A. Burrow, S. M. Mekonen, A. Sarangan, J. Mathews, I. Agha, and T. A. Searles, “Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 97(15), 155403 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 $\mu$μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alegre, T. M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Anlage, S. M.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4562–4565 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brown, A. W.

Y. Zhang, A. W. Brown, and M. Xiao, “Opening four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing channels via dual electromagnetically induced transparency windows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123603 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burrow, J. A.

R. Yahiaoui, J. A. Burrow, S. M. Mekonen, A. Sarangan, J. Mathews, I. Agha, and T. A. Searles, “Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 97(15), 155403 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4562–4565 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, J.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, D. E.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chau, F. S.

P. Shi, G. Zhou, J. Deng, F. Tian, and F. S. Chau, “Tuning all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in nanobeam cavities using nanoelectromechanical system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

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A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, “Induced transparency and absorption in coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 043804 (2005).
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Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
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Schliesser, A.

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Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
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Shi, P.

P. Shi, G. Zhou, J. Deng, F. Tian, and F. S. Chau, “Tuning all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in nanobeam cavities using nanoelectromechanical system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shopova, S. I.

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, “Induced transparency and absorption in coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 043804 (2005).
[Crossref]

Singh, N.

P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analog in terahertz MEMS metamaterial,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(4), 541–547 (2016).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analog in terahertz MEMS metamaterial,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(4), 541–547 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. D.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smith, H. I.

J. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, L. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, L. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Su, Y.

Suh, W.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taniyama, H.

Tassin, P.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thoen, E.

J. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, L. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tian, F.

P. Shi, G. Zhou, J. Deng, F. Tian, and F. S. Chau, “Tuning all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in nanobeam cavities using nanoelectromechanical system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4562–4565 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213904 (2007).
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W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
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K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213904 (2007).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ustinov, A. V.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043901 (2011).
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Vajtai, R.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 $\mu$μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, L. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R.

I. Novikova, R. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(3), 333–353 (2012).
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Wang, B.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. Wang, B. Wang, G. Liu, and S. Xia, “Combined theoretical analysis for plasmon-induced transparency in integrated graphene waveguides with direct and indirect couplings,” EPL 111(3), 34004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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Wang, G.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, W. Li, and X. Jiang, “Tunable control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in a compact graphene-based waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2325–2328 (2015).
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Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. Wang, B. Wang, G. Liu, and S. Xia, “Combined theoretical analysis for plasmon-induced transparency in integrated graphene waveguides with direct and indirect couplings,” EPL 111(3), 34004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

S. Xiao, T. Wang, T. Liu, X. Yan, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Active modulation of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 126, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
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S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Winger, M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. W.

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observations of temporal group delays in slow-light multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221111 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Wu, X.-Z.

C.-S. Deng, Y.-S. Gao, X.-Z. Wu, M.-J. Li, and J.-X. Zhong, “Ultrahigh-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal holey fishbone-like nanobeam cavities,” EPL 108(5), 54006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, S.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. Wang, B. Wang, G. Liu, and S. Xia, “Combined theoretical analysis for plasmon-induced transparency in integrated graphene waveguides with direct and indirect couplings,” EPL 111(3), 34004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, M.

Y. Zhang, A. W. Brown, and M. Xiao, “Opening four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing channels via dual electromagnetically induced transparency windows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123603 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, T. Wang, T. Liu, X. Yan, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Active modulation of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 126, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

I. Novikova, R. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(3), 333–353 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, B.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

S. Xiao, T. Wang, T. Liu, X. Yan, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Active modulation of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 126, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Xu, N.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4562–4565 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 $\mu$μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
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R. Yahiaoui, J. A. Burrow, S. M. Mekonen, A. Sarangan, J. Mathews, I. Agha, and T. A. Searles, “Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 97(15), 155403 (2018).
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Yan, X.

S. Xiao, T. Wang, T. Liu, X. Yan, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Active modulation of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 126, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, X.

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observations of temporal group delays in slow-light multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221111 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, M. B.

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observations of temporal group delays in slow-light multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, C.

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhai, X.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. Wang, B. Wang, G. Liu, and S. Xia, “Combined theoretical analysis for plasmon-induced transparency in integrated graphene waveguides with direct and indirect couplings,” EPL 111(3), 34004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4562–4565 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Q. Xu, X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, C. Hu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4562–4565 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. W. Brown, and M. Xiao, “Opening four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing channels via dual electromagnetically induced transparency windows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123603 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

Zhao, X.

Zheludev, N. I.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
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Zheng, M.

Zhong, J.-X.

C.-S. Deng, Y.-S. Gao, X.-Z. Wu, M.-J. Li, and J.-X. Zhong, “Ultrahigh-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal holey fishbone-like nanobeam cavities,” EPL 108(5), 54006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

P. Shi, G. Zhou, J. Deng, F. Tian, and F. S. Chau, “Tuning all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in nanobeam cavities using nanoelectromechanical system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Zhou, J.

Zhu, L.

Zhuravel, A. P.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analog in terahertz MEMS metamaterial,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(4), 541–547 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observations of temporal group delays in slow-light multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221111 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

S. Xiao, T. Wang, T. Liu, X. Yan, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Active modulation of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 126, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

EPL (2)

C.-S. Deng, Y.-S. Gao, X.-Z. Wu, M.-J. Li, and J.-X. Zhong, “Ultrahigh-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal holey fishbone-like nanobeam cavities,” EPL 108(5), 54006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. Wang, B. Wang, G. Liu, and S. Xia, “Combined theoretical analysis for plasmon-induced transparency in integrated graphene waveguides with direct and indirect couplings,” EPL 111(3), 34004 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

I. Novikova, R. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(3), 333–353 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 $\mu$μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, L. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, “Induced transparency and absorption in coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 043804 (2005).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic perspective view (a), top view (b) and left view (c) of the coupled PCN cavity-waveguide system. Notice that cavity $C_2$ is covered with graphene. PCN cavities are symmetric with respect to their centers. (d) Theoretical model of two resonant cavities coupled to a bus waveguide.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Normalized transmission spectra of the system without graphene for different coupling distances $d$. (b) Magnetic field $H_z$ profile at point A denoted in Fig. 2(a) when $d = 850$ nm. (c)-(e) Magnetic field $H_z$ profiles at points B, C and D denoted in Fig. 2(a) when $d = 350$ nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized transmission spectra of the system when $C_2$ is covered by (a) a monolayer and (b) three layers of graphene for different Fermi levels at $d = 350$ nm. The blue balls denote the numerical results calculated by the FDTD method while the solid red curves show the analytical fitting results obtained by the CMT.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Normalized transmission spectrum of the system without graphene at $d = 350$ nm. The blue balls denote the numerical results calculated by the FDTD method while the solid red curves show the analytical fitting results obtained by the CMT. (b) Fitting parameters $\omega _{d1}$, $\omega _{d2}$ and $\kappa _c$ as a function of $d$ when there is no graphene covered on top of cavity $C_2$. (c)-(d) Fitting parameters $\omega _{d1}$, $\omega _{d2}$ and $\kappa _2$ as a function of Fermi level $E_F$ when $C_2$ is covered by (c) a monolayer and (d) three layers of graphene.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Group delay $\tau$ of the system without graphene for different coupling distances $d$. (b)-(c) Group delay $\tau$ of the system when $C_2$ is covered by (b) a monolayer and (c) three layers of graphene for different Fermi levels $E_F$ at $d = 575$ nm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The dependence of the group delay $\tau _0$ at the transparency frequency on (a) coupling distance $d$ when there is no graphene covered on top of cavity $C_2$ and on (b) Fermi level $E_F$ when $C_2$ is covered by a monolayer (blue circles) and three layers of graphene (cyan squares) at $d = 575$ nm.

Equations (7)

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σ g = j e 2 π 2 ( ω + j 2 Γ ) 0 ξ ( f d ( ξ ) ξ f d ( ξ ) ξ ) d ξ + j e 2 ( ω + j 2 Γ ) π 2 0 f d ( ξ ) f d ( ξ ) ( ω + j 2 Γ ) 2 4 ( ξ / ) 2 d ξ ,
d a 1 d t = ( j ω 1 κ 1 κ w ) a 1 + j ( S 1 + + S 2 ) κ w + j κ c a 2 ,
d a 2 d t = ( j ω 2 κ 2 ) a 2 + j κ c a 1 ,
ω d 1 , d 2 = ω 1 + ω 2 2 Re ( Ω 0 ) ,
Ω 0 2 = κ c 2 + ( j ω 1 κ 1 κ w ) ( j ω 2 κ 2 ) ( j ω 1 + ω 2 2 κ 1 2 κ w 2 κ 2 2 ) 2 .
T = | S 2 + S 1 + | 2 = | 1 [ j ( ω 2 ω ) + κ 2 ] κ w [ j ( ω 1 ω ) + κ 1 + κ w ] [ j ( ω 2 ω ) + κ 2 ] + κ c 2 | 2 .
χ = χ r + j χ i δ κ c 2 κ 2 2 ( κ c 2 + κ 1 κ 2 ) 2 + j κ 2 κ c 2 + κ 1 κ 2 + j O ( δ 2 ) ,