Abstract

Ability to selectively enhance the amplitude and maintain high coherence of the supercontinuum signal with long pulses is gaining significance. In this work, an extra degree of freedom afforded by varying the dispersion profile of a waveguide is utilized to selectively enhance supercontinuum. As much as 16 dB signal enhancement in the telecom window and 100 nm of wavelength extension is achieved with a cascaded waveguide, compared to a fixed dispersion waveguide. Waveguide tapering, in particular with increasing width, is determined to have a flatter and more coherent supercontinuum than a fixed dispersion waveguide when longer input pulses are used. Furthermore, due to the strong birefringence of an asymmetric silicon waveguide the supercontinuum signal is broadened by pumping simultaneously with both quasi-transverse electric (TE) and quasi-transverse magnetic (TM) mode in the anomalous dispersion regime. Thus, selective signal generation is obtained by controlling the dispersion for the two modes. Such waveguides offer several advantages over optical fiber as the variation in dispersion can be controlled with greater flexibility in an integrated platform. This work paves the way forward for various applications in fields ranging from medicine to telecom where specific wavelength windows need to be targeted.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (6)

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Du, Z. Luo, H. Zhong, Y. Zhnag, Y. Huang, T. Du, W. Zhang, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “Chip-scale broadband spectroscopic chemical sensing using an integrated supercontinuum source in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 506–510 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sinobad, C. Monat, B. L. Davies, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, S. Boutami, J. M. Hartmann, J. M. Fedeli, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation to 8.5 µm in silicon-germanium waveguides,” Optica 5(4), 360–366 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, N. Singh, M. Xin, R. Kostuban, J. Notaros, E. S. Magden, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated rare-Earth doped mode-locked lasers on a CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 10686, 106860F (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

C. Ciret and S. P. Gorza, “Generation of ultra-broadband coherent supercontinua in tapered and dispersion-managed silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(6), 1156–1162 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, T. Goto, R. Kou, T. Tsuchizawa, N. Matsuda, K. Hitachi, T. Nishikawa, K. Yamada, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation at telecommunications wavelengths in a precisely dispersion- and length-controlled silicon-wire waveguide with a double taper structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021105 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

X. Liu, M. Pu, B. Zhou, C. J. Kruckel, A. Fulop, V. T. Company, and M. Bache, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a silicon-rich nitride waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2719–2722 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Hu, W. Li, and N. K. Dutta, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered As2S3chalcogenide planar waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(19), 1965–1971 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

H. Hu, X. Zhang, W. Li, and N. K. Dutta, “Simulation of octave spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in dispersion-varying planar waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3448–3454 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Epping, T. Hellwig, M. Hoekman, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, A. van Rees, P. J. M. van des Slot, C. J. Lee, C. Fallnich, and K. J. Boller, “On-chip visible-to-infrared supercontinuum generation with more than 495 THz spectral bandwidth,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19596–19604 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. D. Dave, C. Ciret, S. P. Gorza, S. P. Gorza, S. Combrie, A. D. Rossi, F. Raineri, G. Roelkens, and B. Kuyken, “Dispersive-wave-based octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in InGaP membrane waveguides on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3584–3587 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ettabib, L. Xu, A. Bogris, A. Kapsalis, M. Belal, E. Lorent, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, K. Hammani, D. Syvridis, D. P. Shepherd, J. H. V. Price, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Broadband telecom to mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a dispersion-engineered silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 4118–4121 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picque, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, D. D. Hudson, Y. Yu, C. Grillet, S. D. Jackson, A. C. Bedoya, A. Read, P. Atanackovic, S. G. Duvall, S. Palomba, B. L. Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Midinfrared supercontinuum generation from 2 to 6 µm in a silicon nanowire,” Optica 2(9), 797–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. L. Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, A. G. Griffith, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4518–4521 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, S. P. Gorza, J. Safioui, P. Kockaert, S. Coen, U. Dave, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire waveguide pumped around the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3623–3626 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Safiou, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. P. Gorza, S. K. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Oh, D. Sell, H. Lee, K. Y. Yang, S. A. Diddams, and K. J. Vahala, “Supercontinuum generation in an on-chip silica waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 1046–1048 (2014).
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F. R. Arteaga-Sierra, C. Milian, I. T. Gomez, M. T. Cisneros, A. Ferrando, and A. Davila, “Multi-peak-spectra generation with Cherenkov radiation in a non-uniform single mode fiber,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2451–2458 (2014).
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W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, T. Barwicz, J. C. Mikkelsen, B. J. F. Taylor, G. Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters and controllers in a Si3N4-on-SOI integrated photonics platform,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11167 (2014).
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2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

M. Lehtonen, G. Genty, H. Ludvigsen, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation in a highly birefringent microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2197–2199 (2003).
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2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, “Coherence Degradation in the Process of Supercontinuum Generation in an Optical,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4(2), 215–223 (1998).
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1997 (1)

K. Mori, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and T. Morioka, “Flatly broadened supercontinuum spectrum generated in a dispersion decreasing fiber with convex dispersion profile,” Electron. Lett. 33(21), 1806–1808 (1997).
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1996 (1)

T. Morioka, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, and M. Saruwatari, “Low-noise, pulsewidth tunable picosecond to femtosecond pulse generation by spectral filtering of wideband supercontinuum with variable bandwidth arrayed-waveguide grating filters,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 836–837 (1996).
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1995 (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
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1993 (1)

T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(10), 862–864 (1993).
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Agrawal, G.

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Arteaga-Sierra, F. R.

Atanackovic, P.

Bache, M.

Baets, R.

Baiocco, C.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
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N. Singh, M. Xin, N. Li, D. Vermeulen, A Ruocco, E. S. Magden, K. Shtyrkova, P. T. Callahan, C. Baiocco, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics optical frequency synthesizer-SPOFS,” CLEO ATh4I.2 (2019).

Barwicz, T.

Bedoya, A. C.

Belal, M.

Birks, T. A.

Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Bogris, A.

Boller, K. J.

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Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Briles, T. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Brown, R. C.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
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F. X. Kärtner, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, N. Singh, M. Xin, R. Kostuban, J. Notaros, E. S. Magden, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated rare-Earth doped mode-locked lasers on a CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 10686, 106860F (2018).
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N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
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N. Singh, M. Xin, N. Li, D. Vermeulen, A Ruocco, E. S. Magden, K. Shtyrkova, P. T. Callahan, C. Baiocco, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics optical frequency synthesizer-SPOFS,” CLEO ATh4I.2 (2019).

Cao, Q.

Carlson, D. R.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
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D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
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D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
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Chang, L.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Chiles, J.

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
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Choi, D. Y.

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. L. Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
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M. R. E. Lamont, B. L. Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear (γ = 10 /W/m) As2S3chalcogenide planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14938–14944 (2008).
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Chou, C. Y.

Chu, S.

Ciret, C.

Cisneros, M. T.

Coddington, I.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
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D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
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Coen, S.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picque, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
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F. Leo, S. P. Gorza, J. Safioui, P. Kockaert, S. Coen, U. Dave, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire waveguide pumped around the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3623–3626 (2014).
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G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
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J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
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J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002).
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Cole, D. C.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Combrie, S.

Company, V. T.

Cruz, F. C.

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dadap, J. I.

Dave, U.

Dave, U. D.

Davies, B. L.

Davila, A.

Debbarma, S.

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. L. Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Diddams, S.

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Oh, D. Sell, H. Lee, K. Y. Yang, S. A. Diddams, and K. J. Vahala, “Supercontinuum generation in an on-chip silica waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 1046–1048 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

Drake, T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Droste, S.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
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Du, Q.

Q. Du, Z. Luo, H. Zhong, Y. Zhnag, Y. Huang, T. Du, W. Zhang, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “Chip-scale broadband spectroscopic chemical sensing using an integrated supercontinuum source in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 506–510 (2018).
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Du, T.

Q. Du, Z. Luo, H. Zhong, Y. Zhnag, Y. Huang, T. Du, W. Zhang, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “Chip-scale broadband spectroscopic chemical sensing using an integrated supercontinuum source in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 506–510 (2018).
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Duchesne, D.

Dudley, J. M.

Dutta, N. K.

X. Zhang, H. Hu, W. Li, and N. K. Dutta, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered As2S3chalcogenide planar waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(19), 1965–1971 (2016).
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H. Hu, X. Zhang, W. Li, and N. K. Dutta, “Simulation of octave spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in dispersion-varying planar waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3448–3454 (2015).
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Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emplit, P.

Epping, J. P.

Ettabib, M. A.

Fahrenkopf, N.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fallnich, C.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Ferrando, A.

Ferrera, M.

Fortier, T. M.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

Fox, R. W.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fredrick, C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fulop, A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gai, X.

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. L. Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
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Genty, G.

G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
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J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
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G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effect of cross-phase modulation on supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers with sub-30 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4614–4624 (2004).
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M. Lehtonen, G. Genty, H. Ludvigsen, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation in a highly birefringent microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2197–2199 (2003).
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George, A. K.

Gomez, I. T.

Gorza, S. P.

Goto, T.

A. Ishizawa, T. Goto, R. Kou, T. Tsuchizawa, N. Matsuda, K. Hitachi, T. Nishikawa, K. Yamada, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation at telecommunications wavelengths in a precisely dispersion- and length-controlled silicon-wire waveguide with a double taper structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021105 (2017).
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T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, “Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber,” Opt. Express 12(2), 317–324 (2004).
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Gotoh, H.

A. Ishizawa, T. Goto, R. Kou, T. Tsuchizawa, N. Matsuda, K. Hitachi, T. Nishikawa, K. Yamada, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation at telecommunications wavelengths in a precisely dispersion- and length-controlled silicon-wire waveguide with a double taper structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021105 (2017).
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Green, W. M.

Green, W. M. J.

Griffith, A. G.

Grillet, C.

Grosche, G.

Gu, T.

Q. Du, Z. Luo, H. Zhong, Y. Zhnag, Y. Huang, T. Du, W. Zhang, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “Chip-scale broadband spectroscopic chemical sensing using an integrated supercontinuum source in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 506–510 (2018).
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Halali, T.

Halir, R.

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N. Singh, M. Xin, N. Li, D. Vermeulen, A Ruocco, E. S. Magden, K. Shtyrkova, P. T. Callahan, C. Baiocco, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics optical frequency synthesizer-SPOFS,” CLEO ATh4I.2 (2019).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) An illustration of the cascaded waveguide with its cross-section (width is 920 nm/1070 nm). (b) The simulated dispersion curves of the cascaded waveguide are shown, with the red arrow indicating the pump wavelength at 1.95 µm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The experimental, and (b) the simulated supercontinuum spectra for the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (blue-dashed) and the cascaded waveguide (black-solid). A separate SC simulation for the 1070nm waveguide is also shown. The phase matching curves for the dispersive wave for the 920 nm and the 1070 nm wide section of the waveguide are shown in the inset.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The illustration of the three-section cascaded waveguide. (b) The dispersion curves for the cascaded waveguide: 1st section (600 nm wide – blue), 2nd section (920 nm wide – green), and 3rd section (1070 nm wide - red).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The simulated supercontinuum spectra of the three-section cascaded waveguide (black solid) and the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (blue dash). The 1st, 2nd, and the 3rd section of the waveguide mainly generate the signal under the green, blue and red bar, respectively. The dispersive wave phase matching curves are shown in the inset.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Group velocity dispersion at the pump wavelength along the length of the increasing taper, along with the device illustration (inset). The soliton fission happens around 1.1 mm. (b) Dispersion curves from the start (blue – 500 nm) to the end (red – 1100 nm) of the taper.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Experimental and, (b) simulated supercontinua from increasing taper (black) and fixed width 500 nm (blue), 700 nm (green) and 1100 nm (red) wide waveguide.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Experimental and, (b) simulated supercontinua for the increasing width taper (black) and decreasing width taper (red). (c) Dispersive wave phase matching curves for the decreasing (red) and increasing taper (black), with arrows indicating shifting dispersive wave after soliton fission point. (d) The variation of the GVD and the width along the length of the taper for the increasing (black) and decreasing (red) taper. The dispersion and width vertical axes are for the solid and dashed curve, respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) The change in the group velocity along the length of the decreasing width taper indicated by the dashed arrow. The waveguide width is labeled above the curves. (b) The temporal evolution of the pulse in the decreasing taper (the pump pulse is centered at zero).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) The calculated coherence of the decreasing (red), increasing taper (black) and the fixed width 920 nm wide waveguide (green dash). (b), (c), and (d) The pulse at the soliton fission point with (blue) and without (green) adding noise in the simulation for the decreasing, increasing and fixed width waveguide. (e) The coherence of the increasing taper (black), waveguide with the varying GVD and fixed Ao (red dash); waveguide with the varying Ao and fixed GVD (blue dash), and the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (green). (f) The normalized MI gain curves for the taper where its width is 550 nm (black) and 680 nm (red) are shown. The normalized MI gain curves for the GVD of 550 nm width and the Ao of 680 nm width (black dashed), and vice versa (red dashed), are also shown.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Experimental and (b), simulated supercontinua with the TM, TE and TE + TM (@ 45° to the plane of waveguide) mode pumping. The dispersion curves for the TE (red) and TM mode (blue), inset.

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