Abstract

Optical polarization characteristics and light extraction behavior of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diode (LED) flip-chip with full-spatial omnidirectional reflector (FSODR) have been investigated. FSODR is fabricated to be simultaneously covered on the whole flip-chip, except the sapphire surface. It is found that the FSODR greatly enhance both transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) mode light extraction at every space angle, resulting in total enhancement of 73.1% and 79.8%, respectively. Moreover, the four individual ODR structures separated from FSODR, which are covered on the surface of n-AlGaN, the interface of p-GaN/p-AlGaN, the sidewall of mesa and the sidewall of n-AlGaN/AlN, respectively, show considerably different optical polarization characteristics and extraction behaviors between each other. The achievements of FSODR cannot be obtained by any separated ODR, and all of the individual ODRs can contribute to the FSODR. Especially, the synergy effect of TM extraction behavior obviously exists in FSODR. As a result, the light extraction efficiency (LEE) enhancement of FSODR is approximately 60% at a high current density of 140A/cm2. This study is significant for understanding and modulating the extraction behavior of polarized light to realize high efficiency AlGaN-based DUV LEDs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (4)

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, L. Fu, H. M. Lu, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, F. J. Xu, and T. J. Yu, “Anisotropic dependence of light extraction behavior on propagation path in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(8), A436–A444 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, H. Yan, Z. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient GaN-based high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A669–A692 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Tang, J. Miao, Y. Liu, H. Wan, N. Li, S. Zhou, and C. Gui, “Enhanced light extraction of flip-chip mini-LEDs with prism-structured sidewall,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 9(3), 319 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (6)

M. L. Liu, S. J. Zhou, X. T. Liu, Y. L. Gao, and X. H. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Long, S. Wang, J. Dai, F. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, R. Liang, Z. C. Feng, and C. Chen, “Internal strain induced significant enhancement of deep ultraviolet light extraction efficiency for AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown by MOCVD,” Opt. Express 26(2), 680–686 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Li, K. Jiang, X. J. Sun, and C. L. Guo, “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(1), 43–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. I. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, H. J. Park, S. H. Kim, M. Asadirad, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Kwak, and J. H. Ryou, “Light-extraction efficiency control in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes: a comparison to InGaN-based visible flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20340–20349 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. J. Wierer, A. A. Allerman, I. Montano, and M. W. Moseley, “Influence of optical polarization on the improvement of light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 061106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Hou, Z. Qin, C. He, J. Cai, X. Wang, and B. Shen, “Effect of injection current on the optical polarization of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19589–19594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Z. Qin, C. He, X. Wang, B. Shen, and G. Zhang, “Strain effect on the optical polarization properties of c-plane Al0.26Ga0.74N/GaN superlattices,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6322–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep. 498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. K. Kim, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Enhanced light-extraction in GaInN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with Al-based omnidirectional reflector having NiZn/AgNiZn/Ag microcontacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141123 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Q. Xi, M. Ojha, W. Cho, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Omnidirectional reflector using nanoporous SiO2 as a low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1518–1520 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, T. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3337–3339 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1903 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, F.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alatawi, A. A.

M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
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Chen, C.

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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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Chen, J. W.

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Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Enhanced light-extraction in GaInN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with Al-based omnidirectional reflector having NiZn/AgNiZn/Ag microcontacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141123 (2006).
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Chua, C.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
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J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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Dai, J. N.

S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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M. L. Liu, S. J. Zhou, X. T. Liu, Y. L. Gao, and X. H. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
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M. Djavid and Z. T. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051102 (2016).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
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N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
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Feneberg, M.

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Fu, L.

Gao, N.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
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N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
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M. L. Liu, S. J. Zhou, X. T. Liu, Y. L. Gao, and X. H. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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Ge, W.

Gessmann, T.

J. Q. Xi, M. Ojha, W. Cho, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Omnidirectional reflector using nanoporous SiO2 as a low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1518–1520 (2005).
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Gill, W. N.

Goldhahn, R.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
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B. Tang, J. Miao, Y. Liu, H. Wan, N. Li, S. Zhou, and C. Gui, “Enhanced light extraction of flip-chip mini-LEDs with prism-structured sidewall,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 9(3), 319 (2019).
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D. B. Li, K. Jiang, X. J. Sun, and C. L. Guo, “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(1), 43–110 (2018).
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X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3337–3339 (2001).
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Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
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Han, J.

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
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Hirayama, H.

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M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, M.

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
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Hou, M.

Hou, M. J.

Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, C.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1903 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1903 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S.

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
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S. I. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
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S. I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
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Jiang, H. X.

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Jiang, K.

D. B. Li, K. Jiang, X. J. Sun, and C. L. Guo, “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(1), 43–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, N. W.

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kang, X.

Kang, X. N.

Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, A. Y.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. J.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1903 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1903 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Enhanced light-extraction in GaInN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with Al-based omnidirectional reflector having NiZn/AgNiZn/Ag microcontacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. K.

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. J.

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. W.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1903 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, T.

S. I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
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N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
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Kolbe, T.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[Crossref]

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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
[Crossref]

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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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Kwak, J. S.

Kwon, J. S.

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. M.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1903 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

Lee, K. J.

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
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D. B. Li, K. Jiang, X. J. Sun, and C. L. Guo, “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(1), 43–110 (2018).
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K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
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N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
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K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, J. M.

Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, N.

B. Tang, J. Miao, Y. Liu, H. Wan, N. Li, S. Zhou, and C. Gui, “Enhanced light extraction of flip-chip mini-LEDs with prism-structured sidewall,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 9(3), 319 (2019).
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Li, S.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
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N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
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Liang, R.

Lin, J. Y.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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M. L. Liu, S. J. Zhou, X. T. Liu, Y. L. Gao, and X. H. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
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Liu, S.

Liu, X.

S. Zhou, X. Liu, H. Yan, Z. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient GaN-based high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A669–A692 (2019).
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S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. T.

M. L. Liu, S. J. Zhou, X. T. Liu, Y. L. Gao, and X. H. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

S. Zhou, X. Liu, H. Yan, Z. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient GaN-based high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A669–A692 (2019).
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B. Tang, J. Miao, Y. Liu, H. Wan, N. Li, S. Zhou, and C. Gui, “Enhanced light extraction of flip-chip mini-LEDs with prism-structured sidewall,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 9(3), 319 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Long, H.

Long, H. L.

S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

Lu, H. M.

Ludowise, M. J.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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J. K. Kim, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Enhanced light-extraction in GaInN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with Al-based omnidirectional reflector having NiZn/AgNiZn/Ag microcontacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mehnke, F.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
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I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
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S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mi, Z. T.

M. Djavid and Z. T. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miao, J.

B. Tang, J. Miao, Y. Liu, H. Wan, N. Li, S. Zhou, and C. Gui, “Enhanced light extraction of flip-chip mini-LEDs with prism-structured sidewall,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 9(3), 319 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mino, T.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Misra, M. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[Crossref]

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J. J. Wierer, A. A. Allerman, I. Montano, and M. W. Moseley, “Influence of optical polarization on the improvement of light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 061106 (2014).
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Moon, Y. T.

Moseley, M. W.

J. J. Wierer, A. A. Allerman, I. Montano, and M. W. Moseley, “Influence of optical polarization on the improvement of light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 061106 (2014).
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Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakarmi, M. L.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nam, K. B.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

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S. I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
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M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

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T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Northrup, J. E.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Obata, T.

S. I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. J.

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ojha, M.

Ooi, B. S.

M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

Park, J. H.

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

S. Oh, K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. Han, N. W. Kang, J. S. Kwon, H. Kim, K. K. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Periodic air-nanoplate-embedded AlGaN/air/Al omnidirectional reflector for high efficiency ultraviolet emitters,” Scr. Mater. 146(15), 41–45 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1903 (2000).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Enhanced light-extraction in GaInN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with Al-based omnidirectional reflector having NiZn/AgNiZn/Ag microcontacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Plawsky, J. L.

Priante, D.

M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z.

Qin, Z. X.

Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ra, Y. H.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rass, J.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reich, C.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

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N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
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Ryou, J. H.

Sadaf, S. M.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
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T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

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D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Enhanced light-extraction in GaInN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with Al-based omnidirectional reflector having NiZn/AgNiZn/Ag microcontacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141123 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Xi, M. Ojha, W. Cho, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Omnidirectional reflector using nanoporous SiO2 as a low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1518–1520 (2005).
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X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3337–3339 (2001).
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M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
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Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, T. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907 (2005).
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M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Enhanced light-extraction in GaInN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with Al-based omnidirectional reflector having NiZn/AgNiZn/Ag microcontacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141123 (2006).
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M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
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Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
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M. S. Alias, M. Tangi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, E. Stegenburgs, A. A. Alatawi, I. Ashry, R. C. Subedi, D. Priante, M. K. Shakfa, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Review of nanophotonics approaches using nanostructures and nanofabrication for III-nitrides ultraviolet-photonic devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12, 043508 (2018).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. J.

D. B. Li, K. Jiang, X. J. Sun, and C. L. Guo, “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(1), 43–110 (2018).
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T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tamari, N.

S. I. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tang, B.

B. Tang, J. Miao, Y. Liu, H. Wan, N. Li, S. Zhou, and C. Gui, “Enhanced light extraction of flip-chip mini-LEDs with prism-structured sidewall,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 9(3), 319 (2019).
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Tang, N.

Tangi, M.

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[Crossref]

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T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

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S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
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B. Tang, J. Miao, Y. Liu, H. Wan, N. Li, S. Zhou, and C. Gui, “Enhanced light extraction of flip-chip mini-LEDs with prism-structured sidewall,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 9(3), 319 (2019).
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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
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Wang, J. X.

Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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Wang, S.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Wang, X.

Wernicke, T.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
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Wu, F.

Wu, J. J.

Wu, Y.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
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J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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J. K. Kim, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Enhanced light-extraction in GaInN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with Al-based omnidirectional reflector having NiZn/AgNiZn/Ag microcontacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, T. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Xi, M. Ojha, W. Cho, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Omnidirectional reflector using nanoporous SiO2 as a low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1518–1520 (2005).
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Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, T. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907 (2005).
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Xiang, Y.

Xie, H. Z.

Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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Xu, F. J.

Xu, L. L.

S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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Yan, J. C.

Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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S. I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
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N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
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J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
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Yu, T. J.

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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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Y. A. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. C. Yan, H. Z. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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Zhao, S.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
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B. Tang, J. Miao, Y. Liu, H. Wan, N. Li, S. Zhou, and C. Gui, “Enhanced light extraction of flip-chip mini-LEDs with prism-structured sidewall,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 9(3), 319 (2019).
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M. L. Liu, S. J. Zhou, X. T. Liu, Y. L. Gao, and X. H. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
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ACS Photonics (1)

S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

D. B. Li, K. Jiang, X. J. Sun, and C. L. Guo, “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(1), 43–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (17)

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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Temperature dependence of the field emission from the few-layer graphene film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163103 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the FSODR DUV-LED chip in three-dimensional exploded form. (b) The reflectance spectrum of the designed ODR (SiO2/Al) in the UV wavelength range.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the various ODR devices in cross-section view.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical and electric properties for the Reference and FSODR samples: (a) LOP, the inset showed a lighted FSODR DUV-LED device. (b) LEE enhancement factor, the inset showed the EQE characteristics. (c) Current-voltage characteristic, the inset showed the normalized EL spectra. (d) WPE characteristics.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical polarization characteristics of the Reference and FSODR samples: (a) Far-field distributions. (b) Normalized intensity increment of far-field distributions. (c) Full spatial TE/TM mode light intensity distributions. (d) Normalized intensity increment of full spatial TE mode light intensity distributions. (e) Normalized intensity increment of full spatial TM mode light intensity distributions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-section distributions of electric field amplitude | E | at TE- and TM-polarized light simulated by 3D FDTD: (a)-(b) for the Reference sample. (c)-(d) for the FSODR sample
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of optical and electric properties for all the samples, including Reference, SW-ODR, Mesa-ODR, n-ODR, p-ODR and FSODR: (a) LOP and Voltage. (b) Enhancement factor of the LEE, voltage and WPE. (c) Reverse leakage current characteristics.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical polarization characteristics of the four division-ODR samples, including SW-ODR of (a)-(e), Mesa-ODR of (f)-(j), n-ODR of (k)-(o) and p-ODR of (p)-(f), comparing with the Reference sample.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of the enhanced total TM intensities for all the samples.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Feature extractions of polarization intensity increment for various ODR samples

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