Abstract

We demonstrate the use of plasmonic effects to boost the near-infrared sensitivity of metal-semiconductor-metal detectors. Plasmon-enhanced photodetection is achieved by properly optimizing Au interdigitated electrodes, micro-fabricated on Ge, a semiconductor that features a strong near IR absorption. Finite-difference time-domain simulations, photocurrent experiments and Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy are performed to validate how a relatively simple tuning of the contact geometry allows for an enhancement of the response of the device adapting it to the specific detection needs. A 2-fold gain factor in the Ge absorption characteristics is experimentally demonstrated at 1.4 µm, highlighting the potential of this approach for optoelectronic and sensing applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (1)

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

L. Augel, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Bechler, R. Karner, J. Schulze, H. Uchida, and I. A. Fischer, “Integrated Collinear Refractive Index Sensor with Ge PIN Photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4586–4593 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Tagliabue, A. S. Jermyn, R. Sundararaman, A. J. Welch, J. S. DuChene, R. Pala, A. R. Davoyan, P. Narang, and H. A. Atwater, “Quantifying the role of surface plasmon excitationand hot carrier transport in plasmonic devices,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3394 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

V. Giliberti, E. Sakat, M. Bollani, V. Altoe, M. Melli, A. Weber-Bargioni, L. Baldassarre, M. Celebrano, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, S. Cabrini, and M. Ortolani, “Functionalization of Scanning Probe Tips with Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers,” Small Methods 1(3), 1600033 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

P. Eng, S. Song, and B. Ping, “State-of-the-art photodetectors for optoelectronic integration at telecommunication wavelength,” Nanophotonics 4(3), 277 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, and M. L. Brongersma, “Hot-Electron Photodetection with a Plasmonic Nanostripe Antenna,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1374–1380 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Nouchi, “Extraction of the Schottky parameters in metal - semiconductor – metal diodes from a single current - voltage measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(18), 184505 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium micro bridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-Photodetectors for Si-Based Optoelectronic Integration,” Sensors 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Lange, N. S. Köster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1−xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant Germanium Nanoantenna Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, “A Significant Shift of Schottky Barrier Heights at Strongly Pinned Metal/Germanium Interface by Inserting an Ultra-Thin Insulating Film,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051406 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. W. Ang, S. Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky Barrier Enhancement Layer for Dark-Current Suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM Photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. D. R. Bhat, N. C. Panoiu, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. M. Osgood, “Enhancing the signal to-noise ratio of an infrared photodetector with a circular metal grating,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4588 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Mid Infrared Photodetectors Enhanced by Surface Plasmons on Grating Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151116 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. L. Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lavel, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55 µm Operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

R. Liu, L. Jones, D. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Rubin, R. Cohen, M. A. Nicolaescu, and Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Oh, S. Banerjee, and J. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Chrastina, G. Isella, B. Rössner, M. Bollani, E. Müller, T. Hackbarth, and H. Von Känel, “High quality SiGe electronic material grown by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 37–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Oh, S. Csutak, and C. Campbell, “High-speed interdigitated Ge PIN photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 369–371 (2002).
[Crossref]

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative Role of Surface Plasmons in the Transmission of Metallic Gratings with Very Narrow Slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. Buchal, M. Löken, T. Lipinsky, L. Kappius, and S. Mantl, “Ultrafast silicon based photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 18(2), 630–634 (2000).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ahn, C. Y.

Altoe, V.

V. Giliberti, E. Sakat, M. Bollani, V. Altoe, M. Melli, A. Weber-Bargioni, L. Baldassarre, M. Celebrano, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, S. Cabrini, and M. Ortolani, “Functionalization of Scanning Probe Tips with Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers,” Small Methods 1(3), 1600033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andreas Schubert, M.

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ang, K. W.

K. W. Ang, S. Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky Barrier Enhancement Layer for Dark-Current Suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM Photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

G. Tagliabue, A. S. Jermyn, R. Sundararaman, A. J. Welch, J. S. DuChene, R. Pala, A. R. Davoyan, P. Narang, and H. A. Atwater, “Quantifying the role of surface plasmon excitationand hot carrier transport in plasmonic devices,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3394 (2018).
[Crossref]

Augel, L.

L. Augel, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Bechler, R. Karner, J. Schulze, H. Uchida, and I. A. Fischer, “Integrated Collinear Refractive Index Sensor with Ge PIN Photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4586–4593 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baldassarre, L.

V. Giliberti, E. Sakat, M. Bollani, V. Altoe, M. Melli, A. Weber-Bargioni, L. Baldassarre, M. Celebrano, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, S. Cabrini, and M. Ortolani, “Functionalization of Scanning Probe Tips with Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers,” Small Methods 1(3), 1600033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, S.

J. Oh, S. Banerjee, and J. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beals, L.

Bechler, S.

L. Augel, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Bechler, R. Karner, J. Schulze, H. Uchida, and I. A. Fischer, “Integrated Collinear Refractive Index Sensor with Ge PIN Photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4586–4593 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R. D. R.

Bollani, M.

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Giliberti, E. Sakat, M. Bollani, V. Altoe, M. Melli, A. Weber-Bargioni, L. Baldassarre, M. Celebrano, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, S. Cabrini, and M. Ortolani, “Functionalization of Scanning Probe Tips with Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers,” Small Methods 1(3), 1600033 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Chrastina, G. Isella, B. Rössner, M. Bollani, E. Müller, T. Hackbarth, and H. Von Känel, “High quality SiGe electronic material grown by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 37–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, and M. L. Brongersma, “Hot-Electron Photodetection with a Plasmonic Nanostripe Antenna,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1374–1380 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant Germanium Nanoantenna Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Mid Infrared Photodetectors Enhanced by Surface Plasmons on Grating Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Buchal, C.

C. Buchal, M. Löken, T. Lipinsky, L. Kappius, and S. Mantl, “Ultrafast silicon based photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 18(2), 630–634 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cabrini, S.

V. Giliberti, E. Sakat, M. Bollani, V. Altoe, M. Melli, A. Weber-Bargioni, L. Baldassarre, M. Celebrano, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, S. Cabrini, and M. Ortolani, “Functionalization of Scanning Probe Tips with Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers,” Small Methods 1(3), 1600033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Campbell, C.

J. Oh, S. Csutak, and C. Campbell, “High-speed interdigitated Ge PIN photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 369–371 (2002).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J.

J. Oh, S. Banerjee, and J. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant Germanium Nanoantenna Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative Role of Surface Plasmons in the Transmission of Metallic Gratings with Very Narrow Slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[Crossref]

Capellini, G.

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. L. Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lavel, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55 µm Operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Celebrano, M.

V. Giliberti, E. Sakat, M. Bollani, V. Altoe, M. Melli, A. Weber-Bargioni, L. Baldassarre, M. Celebrano, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, S. Cabrini, and M. Ortolani, “Functionalization of Scanning Probe Tips with Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers,” Small Methods 1(3), 1600033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chalabi, H.

H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, and M. L. Brongersma, “Hot-Electron Photodetection with a Plasmonic Nanostripe Antenna,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1374–1380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chatterjee, S.

C. Lange, N. S. Köster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1−xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium micro bridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lange, N. S. Köster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1−xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Chrastina, G. Isella, B. Rössner, M. Bollani, E. Müller, T. Hackbarth, and H. Von Känel, “High quality SiGe electronic material grown by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 37–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chua, K. T.

K. W. Ang, S. Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky Barrier Enhancement Layer for Dark-Current Suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM Photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Clemens, B.

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant Germanium Nanoantenna Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R.

R. Liu, L. Jones, D. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Rubin, R. Cohen, M. A. Nicolaescu, and Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Crozat, P.

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. L. Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lavel, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55 µm Operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Csutak, S.

J. Oh, S. Csutak, and C. Campbell, “High-speed interdigitated Ge PIN photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 369–371 (2002).
[Crossref]

Damlencourt, J.-F.

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R. Liu, L. Jones, D. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Rubin, R. Cohen, M. A. Nicolaescu, and Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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Pala, R.

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Paquelet Wuetz, B.

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L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant Germanium Nanoantenna Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
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D. Chrastina, G. Isella, B. Rössner, M. Bollani, E. Müller, T. Hackbarth, and H. Von Känel, “High quality SiGe electronic material grown by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 37–40 (2004).
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M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. L. Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lavel, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55 µm Operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
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M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium micro bridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium micro bridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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Song, S.

P. Eng, S. Song, and B. Ping, “State-of-the-art photodetectors for optoelectronic integration at telecommunication wavelength,” Nanophotonics 4(3), 277 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium micro bridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stolz, W.

C. Lange, N. S. Köster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1−xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium micro bridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sundararaman, R.

G. Tagliabue, A. S. Jermyn, R. Sundararaman, A. J. Welch, J. S. DuChene, R. Pala, A. R. Davoyan, P. Narang, and H. A. Atwater, “Quantifying the role of surface plasmon excitationand hot carrier transport in plasmonic devices,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3394 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tagliabue, G.

G. Tagliabue, A. S. Jermyn, R. Sundararaman, A. J. Welch, J. S. DuChene, R. Pala, A. R. Davoyan, P. Narang, and H. A. Atwater, “Quantifying the role of surface plasmon excitationand hot carrier transport in plasmonic devices,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3394 (2018).
[Crossref]

Toriumi, A.

T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, “A Significant Shift of Schottky Barrier Heights at Strongly Pinned Metal/Germanium Interface by Inserting an Ultra-Thin Insulating Film,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tosato, A.

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

Uchida, H.

L. Augel, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Bechler, R. Karner, J. Schulze, H. Uchida, and I. A. Fischer, “Integrated Collinear Refractive Index Sensor with Ge PIN Photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4586–4593 (2018).
[Crossref]

Veldhorst, M.

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

Veronis, G.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Mid Infrared Photodetectors Enhanced by Surface Plasmons on Grating Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Virgilio, M.

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. L. Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lavel, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55 µm Operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

von Känel, H.

C. Lange, N. S. Köster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1−xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Chrastina, G. Isella, B. Rössner, M. Bollani, E. Müller, T. Hackbarth, and H. Von Känel, “High quality SiGe electronic material grown by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 37–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-Photodetectors for Si-Based Optoelectronic Integration,” Sensors 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. W. Ang, S. Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky Barrier Enhancement Layer for Dark-Current Suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM Photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weber-Bargioni, A.

V. Giliberti, E. Sakat, M. Bollani, V. Altoe, M. Melli, A. Weber-Bargioni, L. Baldassarre, M. Celebrano, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, S. Cabrini, and M. Ortolani, “Functionalization of Scanning Probe Tips with Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers,” Small Methods 1(3), 1600033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Welch, A. J.

G. Tagliabue, A. S. Jermyn, R. Sundararaman, A. J. Welch, J. S. DuChene, R. Pala, A. R. Davoyan, P. Narang, and H. A. Atwater, “Quantifying the role of surface plasmon excitationand hot carrier transport in plasmonic devices,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3394 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

Yeoh, L.

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, M. B.

K. W. Ang, S. Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky Barrier Enhancement Layer for Dark-Current Suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM Photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Mid Infrared Photodetectors Enhanced by Surface Plasmons on Grating Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zaumseil, P.

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, S. Y.

K. W. Ang, S. Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky Barrier Enhancement Layer for Dark-Current Suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM Photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

L. Augel, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Bechler, R. Karner, J. Schulze, H. Uchida, and I. A. Fischer, “Integrated Collinear Refractive Index Sensor with Ge PIN Photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4586–4593 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N. W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B. Paquelet Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M. Andreas Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, and G. Scappucci, “Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(14), 1807613 (2019).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Nishimura, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, “A Significant Shift of Schottky Barrier Heights at Strongly Pinned Metal/Germanium Interface by Inserting an Ultra-Thin Insulating Film,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. L. Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lavel, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55 µm Operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Mid Infrared Photodetectors Enhanced by Surface Plasmons on Grating Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151116 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

K. W. Ang, S. Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky Barrier Enhancement Layer for Dark-Current Suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM Photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Oh, S. Csutak, and C. Campbell, “High-speed interdigitated Ge PIN photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 369–371 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Oh, S. Banerjee, and J. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
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R. Nouchi, “Extraction of the Schottky parameters in metal - semiconductor – metal diodes from a single current - voltage measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(18), 184505 (2014).
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C. Buchal, M. Löken, T. Lipinsky, L. Kappius, and S. Mantl, “Ultrafast silicon based photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 18(2), 630–634 (2000).
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Nano Lett. (2)

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant Germanium Nanoantenna Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
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H. Chalabi, D. Schoen, and M. L. Brongersma, “Hot-Electron Photodetection with a Plasmonic Nanostripe Antenna,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1374–1380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

P. Eng, S. Song, and B. Ping, “State-of-the-art photodetectors for optoelectronic integration at telecommunication wavelength,” Nanophotonics 4(3), 277 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. Tagliabue, A. S. Jermyn, R. Sundararaman, A. J. Welch, J. S. DuChene, R. Pala, A. R. Davoyan, P. Narang, and H. A. Atwater, “Quantifying the role of surface plasmon excitationand hot carrier transport in plasmonic devices,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3394 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium micro bridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
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R. Liu, L. Jones, D. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, O. Rubin, R. Cohen, M. A. Nicolaescu, and Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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C. Lange, N. S. Köster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1−xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
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Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative Role of Surface Plasmons in the Transmission of Metallic Gratings with Very Narrow Slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-Photodetectors for Si-Based Optoelectronic Integration,” Sensors 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Small Methods (1)

V. Giliberti, E. Sakat, M. Bollani, V. Altoe, M. Melli, A. Weber-Bargioni, L. Baldassarre, M. Celebrano, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, S. Cabrini, and M. Ortolani, “Functionalization of Scanning Probe Tips with Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers,” Small Methods 1(3), 1600033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. Chrastina, G. Isella, B. Rössner, M. Bollani, E. Müller, T. Hackbarth, and H. Von Känel, “High quality SiGe electronic material grown by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 37–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

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FDTD Solutions, Lumerical Solutions, Inc., Canada

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Cartoon of a metallic grating. Λ, w and g are the grating periodicity, the width and the spacing of the metallic fingers. Normal illumination and an electric field polarization orthogonal to the metal grating elements are taken into account. The accumulated charges on the structure front ends are also illustrated. The metallic fingers length and thickness are fixed to 250 μm and t = 100 nm, respectively (b) Sketch of the simulated final device showing parallel ${E_\parallel }$ and orthogonal ${E_ \bot }$ electric field polarization components. The simulated device cross section is outlined in red.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Plan view SEM micrographs of (a) the interdigitated fingers of the B device, and (b,c) details of the B and C devices fingers. (d) Characteristic I-V curve from a fabricated interdigitated Ge Schottky MSM device. The geometrical parameters of the A, B and C devices are the following: wA(=gA) = 10 µm, nA=5, and ΛA = 20 µm; wB(=gB) = 5 µm, nB=10, and ΛB=10 µm; wC(=gC) = 0.65 µm, nC=85, and ΛC=1.30 µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The simulated absorption distribution (50 × 10 µm2 two-dimensional simulation area) of (a) the non-resonant device B and (b) the resonant device C, considering a 1.4 µm illuminating wavelength. (c) The absorption distribution of resonant device C simulated at a non-resonant wavelength of 1.2 µm. Non uniform scales are used along the directions orthogonal and parallel to the interface.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The absorption spectra vs. λ of the three simulated A, B and C devices are reported in blue, red and green respectively. The experimental responsivity vs. λ for (b) the orthogonal and (c) the parallel field configuration are reported. A Savitzky-Golay digital filter, with polynomial order of 3 and a frame length of 11, is used.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The FTIR reflectance spectra vs. the wavelength λ of the non-resonant B and the resonant C devices (red and green curves, respectively).

Equations (1)

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k + 2 π Λ = 2 π λ