Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a multi-task deep neutral network (MT-DNN) enabled optical performance monitoring (OPM) for PDM-QPSK/8QAM/16QAM signals, by using the asynchronous amplitude histogram (AAH) after the direct detection. Consequently, we can simultaneously realize the modulation format identification (MFI), baud rate identification (BRI), and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring simultaneously. In the simulation, when both 20Gbaud and 30Gbaud PDM-QPSK, PDM-8QAM and PDM-16QAM signals are taken into account, the accuracies of both MFI and BRI are 100%. Meanwhile, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of OSNR monitoring is 0.58dB over a range of 10-22dB, 14-24dB, and 17-26dB for PDM-QPSK, PDM-8QAM and PDM-16QAM, respectively. Furthermore, the numerical results show that RMSE of OSNR monitoring is degraded from 0.58dB to 0.97dB, when chromatic dispersion (CD) is accumulated from 0 to 1600ps/nm. Meanwhile, the MFI accuracy is degraded from 100% to 97.25%, and the BRI accuracy remains 100%. When 2.8Gbaud and 9.8Gbaud signals are used for the experimental verification under the condition of back-to-back transmission, the accuracies of MFI and BRI are 100% and 96.8%, respectively, and the RMSE of OSNR monitoring is 0.76dB. Since only one photodetector (PD) with the asynchronous sampling and one MT-DNN are required, the proposed OPM scheme has the advantage of high cost performance.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (3)

2018 (4)

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Al-Arashi, W. H.

Almaiman, A.

Arlunno, V.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bilal, S. M.

Borkowski, R.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bosco, G.

Caballero, A.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. C.-K.

Chen, W.

X. Fan, Y. Xie, F. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Huang, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, and J. Wang, “Joint Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification by CNN-Based Multi-Task Learning,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chitgarha, M. R.

Chung, Y. C.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Daab, W.

Dahan, D.

D. Dahan, D. Levy, and U. Mahlab, “Low cost multi-impairment monitoring technique for 43 Gbps DPSK and 86 Gbps DP-DPSK using delay tap asynchronous sampling method,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Diniz, J. C.

Do, C.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, Y. Xie, F. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Huang, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, and J. Wang, “Joint Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification by CNN-Based Multi-Task Learning,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fathallah, H.

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guesmi, L.

Guo, P.

He, P.

Hewitt, D.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoshida, T.

Hu, Z.

Huang, X.

X. Fan, Y. Xie, F. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Huang, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, and J. Wang, “Joint Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification by CNN-Based Multi-Task Learning,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jones, R.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, D. K.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

Khaleghi, S.

Khan, F. N.

Kim, C. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lau, A. P. T.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Levy, D.

D. Dahan, D. Levy, and U. Mahlab, “Low cost multi-impairment monitoring technique for 43 Gbps DPSK and 86 Gbps DP-DPSK using delay tap asynchronous sampling method,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Li, J.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liu, D.

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

Lu, J.

Luo, M.

Mahlab, U.

D. Dahan, D. Levy, and U. Mahlab, “Low cost multi-impairment monitoring technique for 43 Gbps DPSK and 86 Gbps DP-DPSK using delay tap asynchronous sampling method,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Menif, M.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mohajerin-Ariaei, A.

Monroy, I. T.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morikawa, H.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piels, M.

Ragheb, A. M.

Ren, F.

X. Fan, Y. Xie, F. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Huang, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, and J. Wang, “Joint Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification by CNN-Based Multi-Task Learning,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rogawski, D.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shu, L.

Skafidas, E.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, C.

Sui, Q.

Tan, M. C.

Tang, M.

Tanimura, T.

Thrane, J.

Touch, J. D.

Tran, A. V.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

Vusirikala, V.

Wan, Z.

Wang, C.

Wang, D.

Wang, J.

X. Fan, Y. Xie, F. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Huang, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, and J. Wang, “Joint Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification by CNN-Based Multi-Task Learning,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wass, J.

Watanabe, S.

Willner, A. E.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

Wu, Q.

Xie, Y.

X. Fan, Y. Xie, F. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Huang, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, and J. Wang, “Joint Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification by CNN-Based Multi-Task Learning,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

Xu, Z.

Yang, A.

Yoo, S. B.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Yu, Y.

Yu, Z.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Y.

X. Fan, Y. Xie, F. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Huang, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, and J. Wang, “Joint Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification by CNN-Based Multi-Task Learning,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhangsun, T.

X. Fan, Y. Xie, F. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Huang, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, and J. Wang, “Joint Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification by CNN-Based Multi-Task Learning,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

Zhao, Y.

Zhong, K.

Zhou, X.

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, C.

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zibar, D.

J. Thrane, J. Wass, M. Piels, J. C. Diniz, R. Jones, and D. Zibar, “Machine learning techniques for optical performance monitoring from directly detected PDM-QAM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 868–875 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ziyadi, M.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. (3)

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Stokes space-based optical modulation format recognition for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 25(21), 2129–2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, D. Hewitt, and E. Skafidas, “Data-aided OSNR estimation for QPSK and 16-QAM coherent optical system,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6601609 (2013).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 AAHs with 80 bins for signals with various OSNRs, modulation formats and baud rates after asynchronous sampling.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 DNN structure for (a) classification and (b) regression.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 MT-DNN structure with AAHs bins vector as input and identified OSNRs, symbol rates and modulation formats as output.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation setup for joint MFI, BRI and OSNR monitoring with a single MT-DNN and directly detected PDM-QAM signals.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Variation of MFI, BRI and OSNR monitoring results with respect to λ3 during the testing process.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) MFI and BRI accuracy versus epoch during the training process, and (b) OSNR monitoring error for all signals with three modulation formats and two baud rates during the testing process of back-to-back transmission system.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) RMSE of DNN-based OSNR monitoring with respect to four modulation formats, and (b) OSNR monitoring error for 64QAM signals during the testing process.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) BRI accuracy for three modulation formats during the testing process, and (b) BRI accuracy versus symbol rate of QPSK signals during the testing process.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Variation of BRI and OSNR monitoring results with respect to CD for 20Gbaud and 30Gbaud PDM-16QAM signals during the testing process. (b) AAHs with 80 bins for 30Gbaud PDM-16QAM signals with various CDs (I) and OSNRs (II).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Variation of BRI and OSNR monitoring results with respect to DGD for 20Gbaud and 30Gbaud PDM-16QAM signals during the testing process, and (b) AAHs for 30Gbaud PDM-16QAM with various DGDs (0ps,10ps) after asynchronous sampling (OSNR is 26dB).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) MFI accuracy versus epoch during the training process with a ST-DNN, and (b) MFI and BRI accuracy versus epoch during the training process with a MT-DNN. (c) AAHs for signals at 1600ps/nm CD with various formats after the asynchronous sampling.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 OSNR monitoring error for all signals at 1600ps/nm CD and 6ps DGD during the testing process.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Experimental setup of MFI, BRI and OSNR monitoring with a single MT-DNN and directly detected PDM-QAM signals.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 (a) BRI accuracy for three modulation formats during the testing process, and (b) OSNR monitoring error of all testing data set in the experiment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 MFI accuracies for three modulation formats during the testing process under the condition of back-to-back transmission

Tables Icon

Table 2 MFI accuracies for various modulation formats during the testing process in the experiment

Equations (5)

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Softmax( x i )= e x i i m e x i
L= λ 1 L 1 + λ 2 L 2 + λ 3 L 3
L 1 = L 2 = 1 m [ i=1 m y i log y i +(1 y i )log( 1 y i ) ]
L 3 = 1 m i=1 m ( y i y i ) 2
RMSE= i=1 n ( y i y i ) 2 n