Abstract

We present a design for an analog phase shifter based on Silicon Photonic MEMS technology. The operation principle is based on a two-step parallel plate electrostatic actuation mechanism to bring a vertically movable suspended tapered waveguide in a first step into proximity of the bus waveguide and to tune the phase of the propagating coupled mode in a second step by actuation of the suspended waveguide to tune the vertical gap. In the coupled state, the effective index of the optical supermode and the total accumulated phase delay can be varied by changing the vertical separation between the adiabatically tapered suspended and the fixed bus waveguides. Simulations predict that π phase shift can be achieved with an actuation voltage of 19 V, corresponding to a displacement of 19 nm. With an adiabatic coupler geometry, the optical signal can be coupled between the moving waveguide and the bus waveguide with low loss in a wide wavelength range from 1.5 μm to 1.6 μm keeping the average insertion loss below 0.3 dB.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

M. W. Pruessner, D. Park, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, and W. S. Rabinovich, “Broadband opto-electro-mechanical effective refractive index tuning on a chip,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13917–13930 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and D. Pérez, “The programmable processor: Microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 6–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “Large-scale broadband digital silicon photonic switches with vertical adiabatic couplers,” Optica, OPTICA 3(1), 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, L. Chen, M. G. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on a silicon chip using Berry’s phase,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Poot and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanoelectromechanical phase shifting of light on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061101 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, Y. Ma, J. Mower, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Englund, M. Hochberg, and C. Galland, “Efficient, compact and low loss thermo-optic phase shifter in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10487–10493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

G. N. Nielson and G. Barbastathis, “Dynamic pull-in of parallel-plate and torsional electrostatic MEMS actuators,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 811–821 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. C. L. Hopman, K. O. van der Werf, A. J. Hollink, W. Bogaerts, V. Subramaniam, and R. M. de Ridder, “Nano-mechanical tuning and imaging of a photonic crystal micro-cavity resonance,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8745–8752 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bryzek, S. Roundy, B. Bircumshaw, C. Chung, K. Castellino, J. R. Stetter, and M. Vestel, “Marvelous MEMS,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 22(2), 8–28 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, “Monolithic integration of MEMS-based phase shifters and optical waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 142–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

A. Hardy and W. Streifer, “Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(5), 1135–1146 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abasahl, B.

B. Abasahl, I. Zand, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, N. Quack, M. A. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, K. B. Gylfason, M. G. Porcel, and W. Bogaerts, “Towards low-power reconfigurable photonic ICs based on MEMS technology,” in Australian Institute of Physics Congress (2018).

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barbastathis, G.

G. N. Nielson and G. Barbastathis, “Dynamic pull-in of parallel-plate and torsional electrostatic MEMS actuators,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 811–821 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baumann, F.

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, “Monolithic integration of MEMS-based phase shifters and optical waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 142–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bircumshaw, B.

J. Bryzek, S. Roundy, B. Bircumshaw, C. Chung, K. Castellino, J. R. Stetter, and M. Vestel, “Marvelous MEMS,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 22(2), 8–28 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. C. L. Hopman, K. O. van der Werf, A. J. Hollink, W. Bogaerts, V. Subramaniam, and R. M. de Ridder, “Nano-mechanical tuning and imaging of a photonic crystal micro-cavity resonance,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8745–8752 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abasahl, I. Zand, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, N. Quack, M. A. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, K. B. Gylfason, M. G. Porcel, and W. Bogaerts, “Towards low-power reconfigurable photonic ICs based on MEMS technology,” in Australian Institute of Physics Congress (2018).

Bryzek, J.

J. Bryzek, S. Roundy, B. Bircumshaw, C. Chung, K. Castellino, J. R. Stetter, and M. Vestel, “Marvelous MEMS,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 22(2), 8–28 (2006).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and D. Pérez, “The programmable processor: Microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 6–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carolan, J.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellino, K.

J. Bryzek, S. Roundy, B. Bircumshaw, C. Chung, K. Castellino, J. R. Stetter, and M. Vestel, “Marvelous MEMS,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 22(2), 8–28 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chan, H. B.

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, “Monolithic integration of MEMS-based phase shifters and optical waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 142–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. K.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Q. Xu, L. Chen, M. G. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on a silicon chip using Berry’s phase,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chetrit, Y.

Chung, C.

J. Bryzek, S. Roundy, B. Bircumshaw, C. Chung, K. Castellino, J. R. Stetter, and M. Vestel, “Marvelous MEMS,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 22(2), 8–28 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ciftcioglu, B.

de Ridder, R. M.

Dinu, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duan, N.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Englund, D.

Fang, Q.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fiore, A.

Freude, W.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, D. T.

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, “Monolithic integration of MEMS-based phase shifters and optical waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 142–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Galland, C.

Gasulla, I.

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and D. Pérez, “The programmable processor: Microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 6–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Graziosi, T.

H. Sattari, T. Graziosi, M. Kiss, T. J. Seok, S. Han, M. C. Wu, and N. Quack, “Analog Silicon Photonic MEMS phase-shifter with double-step electrostatic actuation,” in 2017 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Greywall, D.

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, “Monolithic integration of MEMS-based phase shifters and optical waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 142–143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gylfason, K. B.

B. Abasahl, I. Zand, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, N. Quack, M. A. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, K. B. Gylfason, M. G. Porcel, and W. Bogaerts, “Towards low-power reconfigurable photonic ICs based on MEMS technology,” in Australian Institute of Physics Congress (2018).

Han, S.

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “Large-scale broadband digital silicon photonic switches with vertical adiabatic couplers,” Optica, OPTICA 3(1), 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Sattari, T. Graziosi, M. Kiss, T. J. Seok, S. Han, M. C. Wu, and N. Quack, “Analog Silicon Photonic MEMS phase-shifter with double-step electrostatic actuation,” in 2017 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Hardy, A.

A. Hardy and W. Streifer, “Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(5), 1135–1146 (1985).
[Crossref]

Harris, N. C.

Harrold, C.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, T.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henriksson, J.

J. Henriksson, T. J. Seok, J. Luo, K. Kwon, N. Quack, and M. C. Wu, “Digital silicon photonic mems phase-shifter,” in 2018 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (2018), pp. 1–2.

Hillerkuss, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Hollink, A. J.

Hopman, W. C. L.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

B. Abasahl, I. Zand, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, N. Quack, M. A. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, K. B. Gylfason, M. G. Porcel, and W. Bogaerts, “Towards low-power reconfigurable photonic ICs based on MEMS technology,” in Australian Institute of Physics Congress (2018).

Itoh, M.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izhaky, N.

Jezzini, M. A.

B. Abasahl, I. Zand, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, N. Quack, M. A. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, K. B. Gylfason, M. G. Porcel, and W. Bogaerts, “Towards low-power reconfigurable photonic ICs based on MEMS technology,” in Australian Institute of Physics Congress (2018).

Khan, M. H.

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J. Henriksson, T. J. Seok, J. Luo, K. Kwon, N. Quack, and M. C. Wu, “Digital silicon photonic mems phase-shifter,” in 2018 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (2018), pp. 1–2.

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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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Marshall, G. D.

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T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “Large-scale broadband digital silicon photonic switches with vertical adiabatic couplers,” Optica, OPTICA 3(1), 64–70 (2016).
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Palmer, R.

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B. Abasahl, I. Zand, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, N. Quack, M. A. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, K. B. Gylfason, M. G. Porcel, and W. Bogaerts, “Towards low-power reconfigurable photonic ICs based on MEMS technology,” in Australian Institute of Physics Congress (2018).

Pruessner, M. W.

Qi, M.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010).
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T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “Large-scale broadband digital silicon photonic switches with vertical adiabatic couplers,” Optica, OPTICA 3(1), 64–70 (2016).
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B. Abasahl, I. Zand, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, N. Quack, M. A. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, K. B. Gylfason, M. G. Porcel, and W. Bogaerts, “Towards low-power reconfigurable photonic ICs based on MEMS technology,” in Australian Institute of Physics Congress (2018).

J. Henriksson, T. J. Seok, J. Luo, K. Kwon, N. Quack, and M. C. Wu, “Digital silicon photonic mems phase-shifter,” in 2018 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (2018), pp. 1–2.

H. Sattari, T. Graziosi, M. Kiss, T. J. Seok, S. Han, M. C. Wu, and N. Quack, “Analog Silicon Photonic MEMS phase-shifter with double-step electrostatic actuation,” in 2017 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–2.
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Reano, R. M.

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Russell, N. J.

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T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “Large-scale broadband digital silicon photonic switches with vertical adiabatic couplers,” Optica, OPTICA 3(1), 64–70 (2016).
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H. Sattari, T. Graziosi, M. Kiss, T. J. Seok, S. Han, M. C. Wu, and N. Quack, “Analog Silicon Photonic MEMS phase-shifter with double-step electrostatic actuation,” in 2017 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–2.
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J. Henriksson, T. J. Seok, J. Luo, K. Kwon, N. Quack, and M. C. Wu, “Digital silicon photonic mems phase-shifter,” in 2018 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (2018), pp. 1–2.

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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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J. Bryzek, S. Roundy, B. Bircumshaw, C. Chung, K. Castellino, J. R. Stetter, and M. Vestel, “Marvelous MEMS,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 22(2), 8–28 (2006).
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Sun, J.

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Q. Xu, L. Chen, M. G. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on a silicon chip using Berry’s phase,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5337 (2014).
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A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
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Van Thourhout, D.

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J. Bryzek, S. Roundy, B. Bircumshaw, C. Chung, K. Castellino, J. R. Stetter, and M. Vestel, “Marvelous MEMS,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 22(2), 8–28 (2006).
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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
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Q. Xu, L. Chen, M. G. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on a silicon chip using Berry’s phase,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5337 (2014).
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T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “Large-scale broadband digital silicon photonic switches with vertical adiabatic couplers,” Optica, OPTICA 3(1), 64–70 (2016).
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H. Sattari, T. Graziosi, M. Kiss, T. J. Seok, S. Han, M. C. Wu, and N. Quack, “Analog Silicon Photonic MEMS phase-shifter with double-step electrostatic actuation,” in 2017 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–2.
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M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010).
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Q. Xu, L. Chen, M. G. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on a silicon chip using Berry’s phase,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5337 (2014).
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M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic presentation of the concept for an electrostatically actuated phase shifter, (b) top view sketch of the symmetric tapered waveguide, and (c) cross-section of the adiabatic coupler system at the input and output planes including dimensions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 3D representation of the phase shifter unit and (b) cross-section of the actuator in OFF and ON states. The folded soft spring section, the stiff section, and the compliant connection section designs allow for two-step actuation, first switching the phase shifter ON, and subsequently tuning the phase continuously.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized profile of the supermode for different locations along the coupler for g = 185nm and λ = 1.55um. (b) Supermode effective index dispersion for g = 185nm. (c) Normalized electric field distribution on y = 0 symmetry plane along the propagation direction. Light transfers between the bus and tapered waveguides with minimum of loss.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Averaged effective index and the relative phase shift versus the vertical gap for λ = 1.55 µm, and (b) the transmission spectrum of the phase shifter in two distinct vertical gap states, g1 = 185 nm and g2 = 166 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Vertical gap and phase shift versus bias voltage at the inner electrodes. The insets show the exaggerated deformation for two defined vertical gaps (blue = no deformation, red = maximum deformation).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Vertical component of the displacement with 400 MPa compressive material stress and no electrostatic force. The top waveguide has no in-plane displacement thanks to the symmetric structure and the use of folded springs. (b) Vertical component of the displacement field with 400 MPa compressive material stress and electrostatic force applied on both electrodes pair. The waveguide bows along the propagation direction caused by the variation of cross section. Inset shows the bow profile for a cut-line along center of the tapered waveguide. Deformation is exaggerated.

Equations (1)

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w(x)= w 1 +(x/L)( w 2 w 1 ),