Abstract

Designing reconfigurable metasurfaces that can dynamically control scattered electromagnetic waves and work in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical regimes remains a challenging task, which is hindered by the static material property and fixed structures. Phase change materials (PCMs) can provide high contrast optical refractive indexes at high frequencies between amorphous and crystal states, therefore are promising as feasible materials for reconfigurable metasurfaces. Here, we propose a hybrid metasurface that can arbitrarily modulate the complex amplitude of incident light with uniform amplitude and full 2π phase coverage by utilizing composite concentric rings (CCRs) with different ratios of gold and PCMs. Our designed metasurface possesses a bi-functionality that is capable of splitting beams or generating vortex beams by thermal switching between metal and semiconductor states of vanadium oxide (VO2), respectively. It can be easily integrated into low loss photonic circuits with an ultra-small footprint. Our metadevice serves as a novel paradigm for active control of beams, which may open new opportunities for signal processing, memory storage, holography, and anti-counterfeiting.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

T. Lewi, A. Butakov Nikita, and A. Schuller Jon, “Thermal tuning capabilities of semiconductor metasurface resonators,” Nanophotonics,  8, 331 (2019).

2018 (13)

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 959–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Song, L. Huang, L. Sun, X. Zhang, R. Zhao, X. Li, J. Wang, B. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Near-field plasmonic beam engineering with complex amplitude modulation based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073104 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, L. Huang, C. Tang, J. Li, X. Li, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Nanoscale polarization manipulation and encryption based on dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800490 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, B. Sain, Q. Wei, C. Tang, X. Li, T. Weiss, L. Huang, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Multichannel vectorial holographic display and encryption,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 95 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. Del Valle Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal–insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. A. Butakov, I. Valmianski, T. Lewi, C. Urban, Z. Ren, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. D. Wilson, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Switchable plasmonic–dielectric resonators with metal–insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 371–377 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Colburn, A. Zhan, and A. Majumdar, “Varifocal zoom imaging with large area focal length adjustable metalenses,” Optica 5(7), 825–831 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Howes, W. Wang, I. Kravchenko, and J. Valentine, “Dynamic transmission control based on all-dielectric Huygens metasurfaces,” Optica 5(7), 787–792 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. P. Iyer, R. A. DeCrescent, T. Lewi, N. Antonellis, and J. A. Schuller, “Uniform thermo-optic tunability of dielectric metalenses,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(4), 044029 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (>300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yan, W. Zhu, M. F. Karim, H. Cai, A. Y. Gu, Z. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, D. L. Kwong, C. W. Qiu, and A. Q. Liu, “0.2 λ0 thick adaptive retroreflector made of spin-locked metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 30(39), e1802721 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 061111 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (15)

Z. Cheng, C. Ríos, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “On-chip photonic synapse,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1700160 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, L. Huang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Tunable wave plate based on active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4216–4226 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, L. Huang, X. Li, J. Liu, and Y. Wang, “High-efficiency broadband polarization converter based on Ω-shaped metasurface,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(45), 454001 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. L. Holsteen, S. Raza, P. Fan, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas,” Science 358(6369), 1407–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, L. Huang, X. Li, J. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Broadband multiplane holography based on plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700434 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically Reconfigurable Metadevice Employing Nanostructured Phase-Change Materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kruk and Y. Kivshar, “Functional meta-optics and nanophotonics governed by mie resonances,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2638–2649 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Ji, H. Tong, H. Qian, N. Liu, M. Xu, and X.-S. Miao, “Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate,” AIP Adv. 7(12), 125024 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran, and T. Taubner, “Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 465–476 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Rao, K. Ding, Y. Zhou, Y. Zheng, M. Xia, S. Lv, Z. Song, S. Feng, I. Ronneberger, R. Mazzarello, W. Zhang, and E. Ma, “Reducing the stochasticity of crystal nucleation to enable subnanosecond memory writing,” Science 358(6369), 1423–1427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lewi, H. A. Evans, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Ultrawide thermo-optic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3940–3945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Makarov, A. S. Zalogina, M. Tajik, D. A. Zuev, and Y. Kivshar, “Light-induced tuning and reconfiguration of nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700108 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Shcherbakov, S. Liu, V. V. Zubyuk, A. Vaskin, P. P. Vabishchevich, G. Keeler, T. Pertsch, T. V. Dolgova, I. Staude, I. Brener, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Ultrafast all-optical tuning of direct-gap semiconductor metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 17 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tian and Z.-Y. Li, “Visible-near infrared ultra-broadband polarization-independent metamaterial perfect absorber involving phase-change materials,” Photon. Res. 4(4), 146 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Iyer, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Reconfigurable semiconductor phased-array metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1077–1084 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, N. A. Butakov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, and J. A. Schuller, “Widely tunable infrared antennas using free carrier refraction,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8188–8193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

N. Manca, L. Pellegrino, T. Kanki, S. Yamasaki, H. Tanaka, A. S. Siri, and D. Marré, “Programmable mechanical resonances in MEMS by localized joule heating of phase change materials,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6430–6435 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
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Abb, M.

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

Aizpurua, J.

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexeev, A. M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Antonellis, N.

P. P. Iyer, R. A. DeCrescent, T. Lewi, N. Antonellis, and J. A. Schuller, “Uniform thermo-optic tunability of dielectric metalenses,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(4), 044029 (2018).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (>300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
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Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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Au, Y.-Y.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 061111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

X. Song, L. Huang, L. Sun, X. Zhang, R. Zhao, X. Li, J. Wang, B. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Near-field plasmonic beam engineering with complex amplitude modulation based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073104 (2018).
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Basov, D. N.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergamini, L.

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertolotti, J.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

Z. Cheng, C. Ríos, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “On-chip photonic synapse,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1700160 (2017).
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M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran, and T. Taubner, “Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 465–476 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bo Li, Y.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 959–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudouris, B. W.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

M. R. Shcherbakov, S. Liu, V. V. Zubyuk, A. Vaskin, P. P. Vabishchevich, G. Keeler, T. Pertsch, T. V. Dolgova, I. Staude, I. Brener, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Ultrafast all-optical tuning of direct-gap semiconductor metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 17 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

A. L. Holsteen, S. Raza, P. Fan, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas,” Science 358(6369), 1407–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butakov, N. A.

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. Del Valle Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal–insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. A. Butakov, I. Valmianski, T. Lewi, C. Urban, Z. Ren, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. D. Wilson, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Switchable plasmonic–dielectric resonators with metal–insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 371–377 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Lewi, H. A. Evans, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Ultrawide thermo-optic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3940–3945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, N. A. Butakov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, and J. A. Schuller, “Widely tunable infrared antennas using free carrier refraction,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8188–8193 (2015).
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P. P. Iyer, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Reconfigurable semiconductor phased-array metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1077–1084 (2015).
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Butakov Nikita, A.

T. Lewi, A. Butakov Nikita, and A. Schuller Jon, “Thermal tuning capabilities of semiconductor metasurface resonators,” Nanophotonics,  8, 331 (2019).

Cai, H.

L. Yan, W. Zhu, M. F. Karim, H. Cai, A. Y. Gu, Z. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, D. L. Kwong, C. W. Qiu, and A. Q. Liu, “0.2 λ0 thick adaptive retroreflector made of spin-locked metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 30(39), e1802721 (2018).
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Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139 (2017).
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J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhuri, K.

S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 959–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
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Chen, J.

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-Y.

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 061111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. P.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-H.

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, C. Ríos, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “On-chip photonic synapse,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1700160 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, P. H. J.

L. Yan, W. Zhu, M. F. Karim, H. Cai, A. Y. Gu, Z. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, D. L. Kwong, C. W. Qiu, and A. Q. Liu, “0.2 λ0 thick adaptive retroreflector made of spin-locked metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 30(39), e1802721 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chorsi, H. T.

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. Del Valle Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal–insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, S. M.

S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 959–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, C. H.

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chung, T. F.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
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Colburn, S.

Conley, H. J.

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
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Crommie, M. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cryan, M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

de Galarreta, C. R.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

de Groot, C. H.

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeCrescent, R. A.

P. P. Iyer, R. A. DeCrescent, T. Lewi, N. Antonellis, and J. A. Schuller, “Uniform thermo-optic tunability of dielectric metalenses,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(4), 044029 (2018).
[Crossref]

Del Valle Granda, J.

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. Del Valle Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal–insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

DeVault, C.

S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 959–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R.

Ding, J.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, K.

F. Rao, K. Ding, Y. Zhou, Y. Zheng, M. Xia, S. Lv, Z. Song, S. Feng, I. Ronneberger, R. Mazzarello, W. Zhang, and E. Ma, “Reducing the stochasticity of crystal nucleation to enable subnanosecond memory writing,” Science 358(6369), 1423–1427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolgova, T. V.

M. R. Shcherbakov, S. Liu, V. V. Zubyuk, A. Vaskin, P. P. Vabishchevich, G. Keeler, T. Pertsch, T. V. Dolgova, I. Staude, I. Brener, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Ultrafast all-optical tuning of direct-gap semiconductor metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 17 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emani, N. K.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, H. A.

T. Lewi, H. A. Evans, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Ultrawide thermo-optic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3940–3945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, P. G.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically Reconfigurable Metadevice Employing Nanostructured Phase-Change Materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, P.

A. L. Holsteen, S. Raza, P. Fan, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas,” Science 358(6369), 1407–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedyanin, A. A.

M. R. Shcherbakov, S. Liu, V. V. Zubyuk, A. Vaskin, P. P. Vabishchevich, G. Keeler, T. Pertsch, T. V. Dolgova, I. Staude, I. Brener, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Ultrafast all-optical tuning of direct-gap semiconductor metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 17 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

F. Rao, K. Ding, Y. Zhou, Y. Zheng, M. Xia, S. Lv, Z. Song, S. Feng, I. Ronneberger, R. Mazzarello, W. Zhang, and E. Ma, “Reducing the stochasticity of crystal nucleation to enable subnanosecond memory writing,” Science 358(6369), 1423–1427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaskell, J. M.

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

Geng, B.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
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Gholipour, B.

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 061111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Girit, C.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldflam, M.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, A. Y.

L. Yan, W. Zhu, M. F. Karim, H. Cai, A. Y. Gu, Z. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, D. L. Kwong, C. W. Qiu, and A. Q. Liu, “0.2 λ0 thick adaptive retroreflector made of spin-locked metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 30(39), e1802721 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 061111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, G. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically Reconfigurable Metadevice Employing Nanostructured Phase-Change Materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
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G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (>300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
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J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
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T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, N. A. Butakov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, and J. A. Schuller, “Widely tunable infrared antennas using free carrier refraction,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8188–8193 (2015).
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O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
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L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
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K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
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N. Manca, L. Pellegrino, T. Kanki, S. Yamasaki, H. Tanaka, A. S. Siri, and D. Marré, “Programmable mechanical resonances in MEMS by localized joule heating of phase change materials,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6430–6435 (2013).
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G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (>300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
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Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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Tian, Z.

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H.-K. Ji, H. Tong, H. Qian, N. Liu, M. Xu, and X.-S. Miao, “Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate,” AIP Adv. 7(12), 125024 (2017).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
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R. Zhao, B. Sain, Q. Wei, C. Tang, X. Li, T. Weiss, L. Huang, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Multichannel vectorial holographic display and encryption,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 95 (2018).
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R. Zhao, L. Huang, C. Tang, J. Li, X. Li, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Nanoscale polarization manipulation and encryption based on dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800490 (2018).
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T. Li, L. Huang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Tunable wave plate based on active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4216–4226 (2017).
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T. Zhang, L. Huang, X. Li, J. Liu, and Y. Wang, “High-efficiency broadband polarization converter based on Ω-shaped metasurface,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(45), 454001 (2017).
[Crossref]

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X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 061111 (2018).
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F. Rao, K. Ding, Y. Zhou, Y. Zheng, M. Xia, S. Lv, Z. Song, S. Feng, I. Ronneberger, R. Mazzarello, W. Zhang, and E. Ma, “Reducing the stochasticity of crystal nucleation to enable subnanosecond memory writing,” Science 358(6369), 1423–1427 (2017).
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X. Song, L. Huang, L. Sun, X. Zhang, R. Zhao, X. Li, J. Wang, B. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Near-field plasmonic beam engineering with complex amplitude modulation based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073104 (2018).
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R. Zhao, B. Sain, Q. Wei, C. Tang, X. Li, T. Weiss, L. Huang, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Multichannel vectorial holographic display and encryption,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 95 (2018).
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R. Zhao, L. Huang, C. Tang, J. Li, X. Li, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Nanoscale polarization manipulation and encryption based on dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800490 (2018).
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Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
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F. Rao, K. Ding, Y. Zhou, Y. Zheng, M. Xia, S. Lv, Z. Song, S. Feng, I. Ronneberger, R. Mazzarello, W. Zhang, and E. Ma, “Reducing the stochasticity of crystal nucleation to enable subnanosecond memory writing,” Science 358(6369), 1423–1427 (2017).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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F. Rao, K. Ding, Y. Zhou, Y. Zheng, M. Xia, S. Lv, Z. Song, S. Feng, I. Ronneberger, R. Mazzarello, W. Zhang, and E. Ma, “Reducing the stochasticity of crystal nucleation to enable subnanosecond memory writing,” Science 358(6369), 1423–1427 (2017).
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L. Yan, W. Zhu, M. F. Karim, H. Cai, A. Y. Gu, Z. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, D. L. Kwong, C. W. Qiu, and A. Q. Liu, “0.2 λ0 thick adaptive retroreflector made of spin-locked metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 30(39), e1802721 (2018).
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Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically Reconfigurable Metadevice Employing Nanostructured Phase-Change Materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. R. Shcherbakov, S. Liu, V. V. Zubyuk, A. Vaskin, P. P. Vabishchevich, G. Keeler, T. Pertsch, T. V. Dolgova, I. Staude, I. Brener, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Ultrafast all-optical tuning of direct-gap semiconductor metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 17 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. V. Makarov, A. S. Zalogina, M. Tajik, D. A. Zuev, and Y. Kivshar, “Light-induced tuning and reconfiguration of nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700108 (2017).
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ACS Photonics (5)

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
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P. P. Iyer, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Reconfigurable semiconductor phased-array metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1077–1084 (2015).
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S. Kruk and Y. Kivshar, “Functional meta-optics and nanophotonics governed by mie resonances,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2638–2649 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. Del Valle Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal–insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. A. Butakov, I. Valmianski, T. Lewi, C. Urban, Z. Ren, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. D. Wilson, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Switchable plasmonic–dielectric resonators with metal–insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 371–377 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y.-Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
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N. Manca, L. Pellegrino, T. Kanki, S. Yamasaki, H. Tanaka, A. S. Siri, and D. Marré, “Programmable mechanical resonances in MEMS by localized joule heating of phase change materials,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6430–6435 (2013).
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L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
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AIP Adv. (1)

H.-K. Ji, H. Tong, H. Qian, N. Liu, M. Xu, and X.-S. Miao, “Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate,” AIP Adv. 7(12), 125024 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Song, L. Huang, L. Sun, X. Zhang, R. Zhao, X. Li, J. Wang, B. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Near-field plasmonic beam engineering with complex amplitude modulation based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073104 (2018).
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X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, A. K. Azad, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 061111 (2018).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Zhang, L. Huang, X. Li, J. Liu, and Y. Wang, “High-efficiency broadband polarization converter based on Ω-shaped metasurface,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(45), 454001 (2017).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

S. V. Makarov, A. S. Zalogina, M. Tajik, D. A. Zuev, and Y. Kivshar, “Light-induced tuning and reconfiguration of nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700108 (2017).
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Light Sci. Appl. (2)

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
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R. Zhao, B. Sain, Q. Wei, C. Tang, X. Li, T. Weiss, L. Huang, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Multichannel vectorial holographic display and encryption,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 95 (2018).
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Nano Lett. (11)

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Nanophotonics (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of reconfigurable metasurface for dynamic control. Dual functionality can be achieved within a single metasurface for two phase states when illuminated with x-polarization incident light. (a). For the semiconductor state of VO2, such array can produce the vortex beam under the same conditions. (b). For the metal state of VO2, the designed CCRs array can convert the input light into four split beams. The color of purple and orange indicate the semiconductor and metal state of VO2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Design of meta-atom and refractive index of VO2. (a) the meta-atom consists of CCR patterned above silicon substrate. Such CCR composes of different ratio of gold and VO2. t is the thickness of CCR, which is 50nm. p = 500nm is the periodicity of the unit cell. (b) The geometry of the meta-atom. R in is the inner radius and the R out is the outer radius of the CCR. θ is the opening angle while α is the orientation angle. (c) The refractive index of VO2 used in the simulation. Red/blue line corresponding to the semiconductor/metal state and the solid/dashed line is the real/imaginary part of the refractive index. The corresponding data is taken from [38].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulation results of parameter sweep of CCR. We choose the VO2 ratio ranging from 0 to 1 and outer radius of the rings from 100nm to 240nm, while keeping the width constant at 80nm, to conduct optimization. (a)and(c) corresponding to the phase and amplitude distribution of semi state for the converted y-polarized transmitted light with x-polarized incident wave. Similarly, the results of metal state are shown in (b)and(d). Black hollow circles indicate the selected four structures. Note that tyx means the complex transmitted coefficients of the output transmitted electric field component along y direction with the input incident electric field polarized in x direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Anomalous refraction and symmetry diffraction within one metasurface. The incident light with λ = 1500nm is linear-polarized along x direction and the recorded output light is along y direction. (a) The top view of the corresponding eight C-shape rings. The black dash lines indicate the orientation angle of the CCRs. The first four CCRs have the same orientation angle of 45° while the angle for the later four CCRs is 45°. (b) the left panel shows the phase distribution corresponding to the semicondutor state where the CCR array can achieve anomalously refraction with oblique angle θ t =asin( λ D )=22.02°. For the right panel, the phase distribution of the refracted beam shows the staircase-like pattern. (c) The energy distributions of grating orders according to the grating analysis (the ratio of energy distributed to each diffraction orders normalized with the total transmission efficiency), which clearly demonstrates the anomalous refraction and symmetry diffraction phenomenon.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated results of mode conversion and spatial multiplexing within one metasurface. (a) and (b) are the phase and amplitude distribution of vortex beam generation in semiconductor state. (c) and (d) is the phase and amplitude distribution of four beam splitting in metal state.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of the selected four CCRs. Rout means the outer radius of CCRs with constant width of 80nm.

Equations (2)

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E y s = 1 2 E x i sin(2α)( A s e i Φ s + A as e i Φ as )
n t sin θ t n i sin θ i = λ 2π dφ dx