Abstract

Existing for almost four decades, liquid crystal on Silicon (LCOS) technology is rapidly growing into photonic applications. We review the basics of the technology, from the wafer to the driving solutions, the progress over the last decade and the future outlook. Furthermore we review the most exciting industrial and scientific applications of the LCOS technology.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

T. Bartlett, B. McDonald, and J. Hall, “Adapting Texas Instruments DLP technology to demonstrate a phase spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 10932, 109320S (2019).

P.-J. Chen, P. Engel, G. Lazarev, A. Mazur, and P. Urbach, “Design, implementation, and study of the high-resolution high-efficiency liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator for the telecommunication application in the short-wave infraredspectral band,” Proc.SPIE 10941, 109410E (2019).

J. Pupeikis, N. Bigler, S. Hrisafov, C. R. Phillips, and U. Keller, “Programmable pulse shaping for time-gated amplifiers,” Opt. Express 27, 175–184 (2019).
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2018 (20)

N. Bhebhe, C. Rosales-Guzmán, and A. Forbes, “Classical and quantum analysis of propagation invariant vector flat-top beams,” Appl. Opt. 57, 5451–5458 (2018).
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N. Bhebhe, P. A. Williams, C. Rosales-Guzmán, V. Rodriguez-Fajardo, and A. Forbes, “A vector holographic optical trap,” Sci. Reports 8, 17387 (2018).
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B. Ndagano, I. Nape, M. A. Cox, C. Rosales-Guzmán, and A. Forbes, “Creation and detection of vector vortex modes for classical and quantum communication,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 292–301 (2018).
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M. Erhard, R. Fickler, M. Krenn, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photons: new quantum perspectives in high dimensions,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17111–17146 (2018).
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P.-A. Moreau, E. Toninelli, T. Gregory, and M. J. Padgett, “Ghost imaging using optical correlations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1700143 (2018).
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X. Wang, Z. Nie, Y. Liang, J. Wang, T. Li, and B. Jia, “Recent advances on optical vortex generation,” Nanophotonics 7, 1533–1556 (2018).
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C. Rosales-Guzmán, B. Ndagano, and A. Forbes, “A review of complex vector light fields and their applications,” J. Opt. 20, 123001 (2018).
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J. Chen, C. Wan, and Q. Zhan, “Vectorial optical fields: recent advances and future prospects,” Sci. Bull. 63, 54–74 (2018).
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A. K. Abeeluck, A. Iverson, H. Goetz, and E. Passon, “58–2: Invited paper: High-performance displays for wearable and HUD applications,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 49, 768–771 (2018).
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S. Yan, Y. Liu, R. Wang, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “P-9.10: Design and fabrication of micro-lens array based on micro-LED projector,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 49, 688–691 (2018).
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H.-M. P. Chen, J.-P. Yang, H.-T. Yen, Z.-N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S.-T. Wu, “Pursuing high quality phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2323 (2018).
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Y. Huang, E. Liao, R. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon for augmented reality displays,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2366 (2018).
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D. Y. Alsaka, Ç. Arpali, and S. A. Arpali, “A comparison of iterative Fourier transform algorithms for image quality estimation,” Opt. Rev. 25, 625–637 (2018).
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B. Sun, P. S. Salter, C. Roider, A. Jesacher, J. Strauss, J. Heberle, M. Schmidt, and M. J. Booth, “Four-dimensional light shaping: manipulating ultrafast spatiotemporal foci in space and time,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17117 (2018).
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X.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Luo, H.-L. Huang, M.-C. Chen, Z.-E. Su, C. Liu, C. Chen, W. Li, Y.-Q. Fang, X. Jiang, J. Zhang, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “18-qubit entanglement with six photons' three degrees of freedom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 260502 (2018).
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M. Erhard, M. Malik, M. Krenn, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger entanglement beyond qubits,” Nat. Photon. 12, 759–764 (2018).
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P. J. Winzer, D. T. Neilson, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-optic transmission and networking: the previous 20 and the next 20 years,” Opt. Express 26, 24190–24239 (2018).
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R. Hashimoto, S. Yamaoka, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K.-I. Sato, K. Yamaguchi, K. Seno, and K. Suzuki, “First demonstration of subsystem-modular optical cross-connect using single-module 6× 6 wavelength-selective switch,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 1435–1442 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Haefner, J. Strauss, C. Roider, J. Heberle, and M. Schmidt, “Tailored laser beam shaping for efficient and accurate microstructuring,” Appl. Phys. A 124, 111 (2018).
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D. Mikhaylov, T. Kiedrowski, and A. F. Lasagni, “Heat accumulation effects during ultrashort pulse laser ablation with spatially shaped beams,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 13, 95–99 (2018).

2017 (18)

Z. Qu and I. B. Djordjevic, “High-speed free-space optical continuous-variable quantum key distribution enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 7919–7928 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. Agnew, T. Roger, F. S. Roux, T. Konrad, D. Faccio, J. Leach, and A. Forbes, “Simultaneous entanglement swapping of multiple orbital angular momentum states of light,” Nat. Commun. 8, 632 (2017).
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T. Haefner, J. Heberle, D. Holder, and M. Schmidt, “Speckle reduction techniques in holographic beam shaping for accurate and efficient picosecond laser structuring,” J. Laser Appl. 29, 022205 (2017).
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P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From scaling disparities to integrated parallelism: A decathlon for a decade,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 1099–1115 (2017).
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C. Alpmann, C. Schlickriede, E. Otte, and C. Denz, “Dynamic modulation of Poincaré beams,” Sci. Reports 7, 8076 (2017).
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S. McDermott, P. Li, G. Williams, and A. Maiden, “Characterizing a spatial light modulator using ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 42, 371–374 (2017).
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M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. Vaquero Caballero, “LCoS SLM study and its application in wavelength selective switch,” Photonics 4, 22 (2017).
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D. M. Marom, P. D. Colbourne, A. Derrico, N. K. Fontaine, Y. Ikuma, R. Proietti, L. Zong, J. M. Rivas-Moscoso, and I. Tomkos, “Survey of photonic switching architectures and technologies in support of spatially and spectrally flexible optical networking,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9, 1–26 (2017).
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G. Lazarev, F. Gaedeke, and J. Luberek, “Ultrahigh-resolution phase-only LCOS spatial light modulator,” Proc.vSPIE 10125, 101250M (2017).

G. Lazarev, F. Kerbstadt, and J. Luberek, “High-resolution high-reflective LCOS spatial light modulator for beam manipulation beyond visible spectrum,” Proc. SPIE 10090, 100900T (2017).
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G. Lazarev, S. Bonifer, P. Engel, D. Hoehne, and G. Notni, “High-resolution LCOS microdisplay with sub-kHz frame rate for high performance, high precision 3D sensor,” Proc.vSPIE 10335, 103351B (2017).

A. Forbes, “Controlling light’s helicity at the source: orbital angular momentum states from lasers,” Philos. Transactions Royal Soc. A 375, 20150436 (2017).
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N. Radwell, R. F. Offer, A. Selyem, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Optimisation of arbitrary light beam generation with spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. 19, 095605 (2017).
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C. Rosales-Guzmán, N. Bhebhe, N. Mahonisi, and A. Forbes, “Multiplexing 200 spatial modes with a single hologram,” J. Opt. 19, 113501 (2017).
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M. Krenn, M. Malik, M. Erhard, and A. Zeilinger, “Orbital angular momentum of photons and the entanglement of Laguerre–Gaussian modes,” Philos. Transactions Royal Soc. A 375, 20150442 (2017).
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J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15, 030005 (2017).
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C. Rosales-Guzmán, N. Bhebhe, and A. Forbes, “Simultaneous generation of multiple vector beams on a single SLM,” Opt. Express 25, 25697–25706 (2017).
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M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum 25 years on,” Opt. Express 25, 11265–11274 (2017).
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2016 (18)

B. Sephton, A. Dudley, and A. Forbes, “Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams,” Appl. Opt. 55, 7830–7835 (2016).
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M. J. Escuti, J. Kim, and M. W. Kudenov, “Controlling light with geometric-phase holograms,” Opt. Photonics News 27, 22–29 (2016).
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E. Otte, C. Alpmann, and C. Denz, “Higher-order polarization singularitites in tailored vector beams,” J. Opt. 18, 074012 (2016).
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J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4, B14–B28 (2016).
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H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
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A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8, 200–227 (2016).
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T. W. Clark, R. F. Offer, S. Franke-Arnold, A. S. Arnold, and N. Radwell, “Comparison of beam generation techniques using a phase only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 24, 6249–6264 (2016).
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D. Gossman, B. Perez-Garcia, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, and A. Forbes, “Optical interference with digital holograms,” Am. J. Phys. 84, 508–516 (2016).
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V. Lopez, A. Gonzalez-Vega, A. Aguilar, J. Landgrave, and J. Garcia-Marquez, “Non-uniform spatial response of the LCoS spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 366, 419 – 424 (2016).
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G. Lazarev, “Optimization of the liquid crystal on silicon technology for laser microprocessing applications,” Phys. Procedia 83, 1153 – 1159 (2016).
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S. Hasegawa and Y. Hayasaki, “Holographic femtosecond laser manipulation for advanced material processing,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 5, 39–54 (2016).

B. Ndagano, H. Sroor, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzmán, and A. Forbes, “Beam quality measure for vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3407–3410 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, S. Prabhakar, C. Rosales-Guzmán, F. S. Roux, E. Karimi, and A. Forbes, “Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of entangled Hermite-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033855 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, F. S. Roux, T. Konrad, M. Agnew, J. Leach, and A. Forbes, “Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501165 (2016).
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F. A. Mueller, C. Kunz, and S. Graef, “Bio-inspired functional surfaces based on laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Materials 9, 476 (2016).
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M. Malik, M. Erhard, M. Huber, M. Krenn, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Multi-photon entanglement in high dimensions,” Nat. Photon. 10, 248–252 (2016).
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H. Yang, B. Robertson, P. Wilkinson, and D. Chu, “Small phase pattern 2d beam steering and a single LCOS design of 40 1× 12 stacked wavelength selective switches,” Opt. Express 24, 12240–12253 (2016).
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X. Sun, I. B. Djordjevic, and M. A. Neifeld, “Multiple spatial modes based QKD over marine free-space optical channels in the presence of atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Express 24, 27663–27673 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (10)

L. Zong, H. Zhao, Z. Feng, and Y. Yan, “8 × 8 flexible wavelength cross-connect for CDC ROADM application,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 2603–2606 (2015).
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C. Chang, J. Xia, L. Yang, W. Lei, Z. Yang, and J. Chen, “Speckle-suppressed phase-only holographic three-dimensional display based on double-constraint Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 54, 6994–7001 (2015).
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A. Marquez, F. Martinez, S. Gallego, M. Ortuno, J. Frances, A. Belendez, and I. Pascual, “Static and dynamic effects of flicker in phase multilevel elements on LCoS devices,” Proc. SPIE 9598, 95980C (2015).

A. Andreev, T. Andreeva, I. Kompanets, R. Starikov, and N. Zalyapin, “Novel FLC- materials open new possibilities for FLCoS based microdisplays and video projectors,” Phys. Procedia 73, 87 – 94 (2015).
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H. Molsen, “3D optical metrology and super-resolution microscopy with structured illumination based on QXGA (2048x1536) resolution,” Proc.SPIE 9525, 952506 (2015).

T. Lu, M. Pivnenko, B. Robertson, and D. Chu, “Pixel-level fringing-effect model to describe the phase profile and diffraction efficiency of a liquid crystal on silicon device,” Appl. Opt. 54, 5903–5910 (2015).
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F. J. Martínez, A. Márquez, S. Gallego, M. Ortuno, J. Francés, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Predictive capability of average Stokes polarimetry for simulation of phase multilevel elements onto LCoS devices,” Appl. Opt. 54, 1379–1386 (2015).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,”Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).
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D. Spangenberg, P. Neethling, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Time-domain ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 021803 (2015).
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I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, M. M. Sánchez-López, K. Badham, and D. M. Cottrell, “Nondiffracting Bessel beams with polarization state that varies with propagation distance,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5451–5454 (2015).
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2014 (7)

D. Spangenberg, A. Dudley, P. H. Neethling, E. G. Rohwer, and A. Forbes, “White light wavefront control with a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 22, 13870–13879 (2014).
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J. L. Martínez, I. Moreno, M. del Mar Sánchez-López, A. Vargas, and P. García-Martínez, “Analysis of multiple internal reflections in a parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon SLM,” Opt. Express 22, 25866–25879 (2014).
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F. J. Martínez, A. Márquez, S. Gallego, J. Francés, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Retardance and flicker modeling and characterization of electro-optic linear retarders by averaged Stokes polarimetry,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1011–1014 (2014).
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F. J. Martínez, A. Márquez, S. Gallego, M. Ortuno, J. Francés, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, “Averaged Stokes polarimetry applied to evaluate retardance and flicker in PA-LCoS devices,” Opt. Express 22, 15064–15074 (2014).
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Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014).
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B. Neuenschwander, B. Jaeggi, M. Schmid, and G. Hennig, “Surface structuring with ultra-short laser pulses: Basics, limitations and needs for high throughput,” Phys. Procedia 56, 1047 – 1058 (2014).
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A. Dudley, G. Milione, R. R. Alfano, and A. Forbes, “All-digital wavefront sensing for structured light beams,” Opt. Express 22, 14031–14040 (2014).
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2013 (15)

C. Schulze, A. Dudley, D. Flamm, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light by modal decomposition,” New J. Phys. 15, 073025 (2013).
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D. Flamm, C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, S. Schroter, A. Forbes, and M. Duparre, “All-digital holographic tool for mode excitation and analysis in optical fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1023–1032 (2013).
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M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Huber, R. Lapkiewicz, W. Plick, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Entangled singularity patterns of photons in Ince-Gauss modes,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 012326 (2013).
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Y. Jin, O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, K. Abrams, J. Ouyang, E. Fearon, S. P. Edwardson, and G. Dearden, “Dynamic modulation of spatially structured polarization fields for real-time control of ultrafast laser-material interactions,” Opt. Express 21, 25333–25343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Negel, A. Voss, M. Abdou Ahmed, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, A. Killi, and T. Graf, “1.1 kW average output power from a thin-disk multipass amplifier for ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5442–5445 (2013).
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E. Pozhidaev, A. Kiselev, A. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, H. Kwok, and M. Minchenko, “Orientational Kerr effect and phase modulation of light in deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals with subwavelength pitch,” Phys. Rev. E 87, 052502 (2013).
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H. H. Cheng, A. K. Bhowmik, and P. J. Bos, “Fast-response liquid crystal variable optical retarder and multilevel attenuator,” Opt. Eng. 52, 107105 (2013).
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S. Reichelt, “Spatially resolved phase-response calibration of liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2610–2618 (2013).
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D. Engström, M. Persson, J. Bengtsson, and M. Goksör, “Calibration of spatial light modulators suffering from spatially varying phase response,” Opt. Express 21, 16086–16103 (2013).
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J. Pavlin, N. Vaupotič, and M. Čepič, “Liquid crystals: a new topic in physics for undergraduates,” Eur. J. Phys. 34, 745–761 (2013).
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S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
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G. Thalhammer, R. W. Bowman, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Speeding up liquid crystal SLMs using overdrive with phase change reduction,” Opt. Express 21, 1779–1797 (2013).
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W. Cheng, W. Han, and Q. Zhan, “Compact flattop laser beam shaper using vectorial vortex,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4608–4612 (2013).
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W. Han, Y. Yang, W. Cheng, and Q. Zhan, “Vectorial optical field generator for the creation of arbitrarily complex fields,” Opt. Express 21, 20692–20706 (2013).
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A. Dudley, Y. Li, T. Mhlanga, M. Escuti, and A. Forbes, “Generating and measuring nondiffracting vector Bessel beams,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3429–3432 (2013).
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2012 (12)

I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, T. M. Hernandez, D. M. Cottrell, and D. Sand, “Complete polarization control of light from a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 364–376 (2012).
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D. Huang, H. Timmers, A. Roberts, N. Shivaram, and A. S. Sandhu, “A low-cost spatial light modulator for use in undergraduate and graduate optics labs,” Am. J. Phys. 80, 211–215 (2012).
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C. Lingel, T. Haist, and W. Osten, “Examination and optimizing of a liquid crystal display used as spatial light modulator concerning the fringing field effect,” Proc. SPIE 8490, 84900H (2012).
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A. Stadler, “Transparent conducting oxides - an up-to-date overview,” Materials 5, 661–683 (2012).
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O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, s12–s20 (2012).
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M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, P. Brindel, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, and L. Provost, “Mode-division multiplexing of 2 ×100 Gb/s channels using an LCOS-based spatial modulator,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 618–623 (2012).
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R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
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M. McLaren, M. Agnew, J. Leach, F. S. Roux, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, and A. Forbes, “Entangled Bessel-Gaussian beams,” Opt. Express 20, 23589–23597 (2012).
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C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, D. Flamm, O. A. Schmidt, A. Forbes, and M. Duparré, “Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition,” Opt. Express 20, 19714–19725 (2012).
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A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photon. 6, 283 (2012).
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D. Flamm, D. Naidoo, C. Schulze, A. Forbes, and M. Duparré, “Mode analysis with a spatial light modulator as a correlation filter,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2478–2480 (2012).
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I. A. Litvin, A. Dudley, F. S. Roux, and A. Forbes, “Azimuthal decomposition with digital holograms,” Opt. Express 20, 10996–11004 (2012).
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2011 (9)

I. A. Litvin, A. Dudley, and A. Forbes, “Poynting vector and orbital angular momentum density of superpositions of Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 19, 16760–16771 (2011).
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A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
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J. P Parry, R. J Beck, J. D Shephard, and D. Hand, “Application of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to laser marking,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1779–1785 (2011).
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O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, “Patterned retarder films using reactive mesogen technology,” Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
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C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5, 81–101 (2011).
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M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photon. 5, 343–348 (2011).
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L. Lobato, A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, “Characterization of the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon in liquid crystal on silicon displays,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 6, 11012s (2011).
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P. J. M. Vanbrabant, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, R. James, and F. A. Fernandez, “Optical analysis of small pixel liquid crystal microdisplays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 156–161 (2011).
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A. M. Weiner, “Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: A tutorial review,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3669–3692 (2011).
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2010 (10)

C. López-Mariscal and K. Helmerson, “Shaped nondiffracting beams,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1215–1217 (2010).
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H. Ma, Z. Liu, P. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. Ma, and X. Xu, “Generation of flat-top beam with phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. 12, 045704 (2010).
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R. Verma, M. Swami, S. Manhas, and P. Gupta, “Mueller matrix-based optimization of reflective type twisted nematic liquid crystal SLM at oblique incidences,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2580 – 2587 (2010).
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P. J. M. Vanbrabant, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, E. Willman, and F. A. Fernandez, “Diffraction and fringing field effects in small pixel liquid crystal devices with homeotropic alignment,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 083104 (2010).
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A. Jesacher and M. J. Booth, “Parallel direct laser writing in three dimensions with spatially dependent aberration correction,” Opt. Experss 18, 21090–21099 (2010).
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J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle–orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329, 662–665 (2010).
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R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Light. Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
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T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. selected topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1150–1157 (2010).
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C. Brif, R. Chakrabarti, and H. Rabitz, “Control of quantum phenomena: past, present and future,” New J. Phys. 12, 075008 (2010).
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G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
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2009 (10)

G. Lima, A. Vargas, L. Neves, R. Guzmán, and C. Saavedra, “Manipulating spatial qudit states with programmable optical devices,” Opt. Express 17, 10688–10696 (2009).
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B. Jack, J. Leach, H. Ritsch, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Precise quantum tomography of photon pairs with entangled orbital angular momentum,” New J. Phys. 11, 103024 (2009).
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J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a Bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).
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G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17, 12546–12554 (2009).
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P. J. M. Vanbrabant, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, R. James, and F. A. Fernandez, “A finite element beam propagation method for simulation of liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Express 17, 10895–10909 (2009).
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J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernández, W. D. Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Light. Technol. 27, 3812–3819 (2009).
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C. Kohler, F. Zhang, and W. Osten, “Characterization of a spatial light modulator and its application in phase retrieval,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4003–4008 (2009).
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T. Ando, Y. Ohtake, N. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, and N. Fukuchi, “Mode purities of Laguerre–Gaussian beams generated via complex-amplitude modulation using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 34, 34–36 (2009).
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R. Vasilyeu, A. Dudley, N. Khilo, and A. Forbes, “Generating superpositions of higher-order Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 17, 23389–23395 (2009).
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E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103903 (2009).
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2008 (10)

A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, A. Schwaighofer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Full phase and amplitude control of holographic optical tweezers with high efficiency,” Opt. Express 16, 4479–4486 (2008).
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A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, A. Schwaighofer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Near-perfect hologram reconstruction with a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 16, 2597–2603 (2008).
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A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Lizana, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Mueller-Stokes characterization and optimization of a liquid crystal on silicon display showing depolarization,” Opt. Express 16, 1669–1685(2008).
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A. Lizana, A. Marquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, “Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” J. The Eur. Opt. Soc. Publ. 3, 08012 (2008).
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P. Clemente, V. Durán, L. Martínez-León, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, and J. Lancis, “Use of polar decomposition of mueller matrices for optimizing the phase response of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display,” Opt. Express 16, 1965–1974 (2008).
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I. Moreno, A. Lizana, J. Campos, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, and M. J. Yzuel, “Combined Mueller and Jones matrix method for the evaluation of the complex modulation in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display,” Opt. Lett. 33, 627–629 (2008).
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A. Lizana, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time-resolved Mueller matrix analysis of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4267–4274 (2008).
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M. Gruneisen, W. Miller, R. Dymale, and A. Sweiti, “Holographic generation of complex fields with spatial light modulators: Application to quantum key distribution,” Appl. Opt. 47, A32 (2008).
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Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2284 – 2289 (2008).
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J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling wss technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 150–154 (2008).
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2007 (11)

M. Stütz, S. Gröblacher, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “How to create and detect n-dimensional entangled photons with an active phase hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261114 (2007).
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N. Sanner, N. Huot, E. Audouard, C. Larat, and J.-P. Huignard, “Direct ultrafast laser micro-structuring of materials using programmable beam shaping,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 737–741 (2007).
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H. Zhang, J. Zhang, and L. Wu, “Evaluation of phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for phase modulation performance using a Twyman–Green interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1724–1728 (2007).
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J. Otón, P. Ambs, M. S. Millán, and E. Pérez-Cabré, “Multipoint phase calibration for improved compensation of inherent wavefront distortion in parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon displays,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5667–5679 (2007).
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G. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
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E. Karimi, G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Hypergeometric-gaussian modes,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3053–3055 (2007).
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C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
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S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. E. Lembessis, D. Ellinas, A. J. Wright, J. M. Girkin, P. Öhberg, and A. S. Arnold, “Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms,” Opt. Express 15, 8619–8625 (2007).
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E. Frumker and Y. Silberberg, “Phase and amplitude pulse shaping with two-dimensional phase-only spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2940–2947 (2007).
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V. Arrizon, U. Ruiz, R. Carrada, and L. a. González, “Pixelated phase computer holograms for the accurate encoding of scalar complex fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3500–3507 (2007).
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Y. Ohtake, T. Ando, N. Fukuchi, N. Matsumoto, H. Ito, and T. Hara, “Universal generation of higher-order multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian beams by using a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1411–1413 (2007).
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2006 (9)

R. James, M. C. Gardner, F. A. Fernández, and S. E. Day, “3d modelling of high resolution devices,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 450, 105–118 (2006).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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J. B. Bentley, J. A. Davis, M. A. Bandres, and J. C. Gutiérrez-Vega, “Generation of helical Ince-Gaussian beams with a liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Lett. 31, 649–651 (2006).
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J. E. Wolfe and R. A. Chipman, “Polarimetric characterization of liquid-crystal-on-silicon panels,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1688–1703 (2006).
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A. J. Davidson and S. J. Elston, “Three-dimensional beam propagation model for the optical path of light through a nematic liquid crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 979–989 (2006).
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Y. Song and Z. Ling, “A new driving method for LCoS with frame buffer pixels,” Proc. SPIE 6030, 60300H (2006).
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J. L. Sanford and H. V. Goetz, “Late-news paper: Small digital 1080p LCOS for TriMa technology,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 37, 1665–1668 (2006).
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J. Hoogboom, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “LCD alignment layers. Controlling nematic domain properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1305–1314 (2006).
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E. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, and S. M. Barnett, “Observation of quantum entanglement using spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 14, 13089–13094 (2006).
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2005 (3)

K.-H. F. Chiang, S.-H. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringing-field effects on high-resolution liquid crystal microdisplays,” J. Disp. Technol. 1, 304–313 (2005).
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K.-H. F. Chiang, S.-H. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Diffraction effect on high-resolution liquid-crystal-on-silicon devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3068–3072 (2005).
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B. Zhang, H.-S. Kwok, and H.-C. Huang, “Three-dimensional optical modeling and optimizations of color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123103 (2005).
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2004 (9)

H. Dai, K. X. Y. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Liu, “Characteristics of LCoS phase-only spatial light modulator and its applications,” Opt. Commun. 238, 269 – 276 (2004).
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X. Xun and R. W. Cohn, “Phase calibration of spatially nonuniform spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6400–6406 (2004).
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M. Lu, “Liquid crystal orientation induced by Van der Waals interaction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8156–8160 (2004).
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S. Lee, J. Morizio, and K. M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 132–139 (2004).
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H. D. Smet, J. V. den Steen, and D. Cuypers, “Electrical model of a liquid crystal pixel with dynamic, voltage history-dependent capacitance value,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 705–711 (2004).
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G. F. Barrick, P. J. Bos, C. M. Titus, and B. K. Winker, “Computing the liquid crystal director field in optical phased arrays,” Opt. Eng. 43, 924–932 (2004).
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X. Wang, B. Wang, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, “Performance evaluation of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2769–2774 (2004).
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R. James, F. Ferná, S. Day, M. Komarcevic, and A. William, “Modelling of high resolution phase spatial light modulators,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 422, 209–217 (2004).
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B. Apter, U. Efron, and E. Bahat-Treidel, “On the fringing-field effect in liquid-crystal beam-steering devices,” Appl. Opt. 43, 11–19 (2004).
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2002 (7)

E. Kriezis, “Numerical modelling of light wave propagation in reflective liquid crystal microdisplay devices,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2065–2081 (2002).
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M. A. A. Neil, F. Massoumian, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Method for the generation of arbitrary complex vector wave fronts,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1929–1931 (2002).
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H. D. Smet, D. Cuypers, A. V. Calster, J. V. den Steen, and G. V. Doorselaer, “Design, fabrication and evaluation of a high-performance xga van-lcos microdisplay,” Displays 23, 89 – 98 (2002).
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D.-F. Gu, B. K. Winker, D. B. Taber, J. T. Cheung, Y. Lu, P. H. Kobrin, and Z. Zhuang, “Dual frequency liquid crystal devices for infrared electro-optical applications,” Proc.SPIE 4799, 37–47 (2002).

W. A. Crossland, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, and A. B. Davey, “Telecommunications applications of LCOS devices,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 1–13 (2002).
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O. A. Peverini, D. Olivero, C. Oldano, D. K. G. de Boer, R. Cortie, R. Orta, and R. Tascone, “Reduced-order model technique for the analysis of anisotropic inhomogeneous media: application to liquid-crystal displays,” J. Opt. Soc.Am. A 19, 1901–1909 (2002).
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2000 (3)

E. E. Kriezis and S. J. Elston, “Wide-angle beam propagation method for liquid-crystal device calculations,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5707–5714 (2000).
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H.-C. Huang, D.-D. Huang, and J. Chen, “Two-dimensional optical analysis of small pixels in reflective silicon microdisplay,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 485–489 (2000).
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1999 (4)

J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, and I. Moreno, “Encoding amplitude information onto phase-only filters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5004–5013 (1999).
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E. E. Kriezis and S. J. Elston, “A wide angle beam propagation method for the analysis of tilted nematic liquid crystal structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1201–1212 (1999).
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A. Ohara, I. Rankin, M. Begbie, D. Vass, I. Underwood, and T. Stevenson, “Post-processing using microfabrication techniques to improve the optical performance of liquid crystal over silicon backplane spatial light modulators,” Proc.SPIE 2641, 129–139 (1995).

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A. K. Abeeluck, A. Iverson, H. Goetz, and E. Passon, “58–2: Invited paper: High-performance displays for wearable and HUD applications,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 49, 768–771 (2018).
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Y. Zhang, M. Agnew, T. Roger, F. S. Roux, T. Konrad, D. Faccio, J. Leach, and A. Forbes, “Simultaneous entanglement swapping of multiple orbital angular momentum states of light,” Nat. Commun. 8, 632 (2017).
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V. Lopez, A. Gonzalez-Vega, A. Aguilar, J. Landgrave, and J. Garcia-Marquez, “Non-uniform spatial response of the LCoS spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 366, 419 – 424 (2016).
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Y. Ohtake, T. Ando, N. Fukuchi, N. Matsumoto, H. Ito, and T. Hara, “Universal generation of higher-order multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian beams by using a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1411–1413 (2007).
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T. Ando, Y. Ohtake, N. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, and N. Fukuchi, “Mode purities of Laguerre–Gaussian beams generated via complex-amplitude modulation using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 34, 34–36 (2009).
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