Abstract

The explosive growth of the internet during the last few decades has been enabled by two complementary innovations in optical communications: the use of multiple optical channels within a single optical fibre, and the increase in the bandwidth of individual channels to hundreds of Gbps. Further increases in overall bandwidth look to be provided by more spectrally efficient optical superchannels that use coherent sub-carriers generated using optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Yet, a cost effective way of generating these signals has not been demonstrated. One crucial, but missing piece is an effective means to separate the closely frequency spaced optical sub-carriers from the coherent optical comb before placing information on each sub-carrier, and thus creating the OFDM signal. Here, we demonstrate a flexible strategy implemented in a compact photonic integrated circuit (PIC) that is used to separate and amplify these sub-carriers using on-chip injection locking.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2016 (1)

B. Spaun, P. B. Changala, S. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, ”Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

E. Temprana, E. Myslivets, B. P. -P. Kuo, L. Liu, V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, ”Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission,” Science 348, 1445–1448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. G. Pascual, R. Zhou, F. Smyth, P. M. Anandarajah, and L. P. Barry, ”Software reconfigurable highly flexible gain switched optical frequency comb source,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23225–23235 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

H. Yang, P. Morrissey, W. Cotter, C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Ye, N. Kelly, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, (2013) ”Monolithic Integration of Single Facet Slotted Laser, SOA, and MMI Coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 257–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (4)

J.-P. Engelstaedter, B. Roycroft, F. H. Peters, and B. Corbett, ”Design of Tuneable Laser With Interleaved Sampled Grating Rear Mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2830–2835 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Lu, W.-H. Guo, D. Byrne, and J. F. Donegan, ”Design of Slotted Single-Mode Lasers Suitable for Photonic Integration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 787–789 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Hillerkuss, M. Winter, M. Teschke, A. Marculescu, J. Li, G. Sigurdsson, K. Worms, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, ”Simple all-optical FFT scheme enabling Tbit/s real-time signal processing,” Opt. Express 18, 9329–9340 (2010).
[Crossref]

Francisco M. Soares, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, ”Monolithic InP 100-Channel × 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 975–985 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, ”Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16, 841–859 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Sheehan, S. Horne, and F. H. Peters, ”The design of low-loss curved waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1211–1218 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

S. K. Mondal, B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, F. Peters, B. Corbett, P. Townsend, and A. Ellis, ”A Multiwavelength Low-Power Wavelength-Locked Slotted Fabry-Perot Laser Source for WDM Applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 744–746 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, ”Performance of Optical OFDM in Ultralong-Haul WDM Lightwave Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 131–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and Y. Tang, ”Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM systems over 1000km SSMF fibre,” Electron. Lett. 43, 183–184 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, ”Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1515–1517 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, ”Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42, 370–372 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, ”Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Janz, ”Planar Waveguide Echelle Gratings in Silica-On-Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 503–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, ”Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. F. C. Silva, A. J. Seeds, and P. J. Williams, ”Terahertz span >60-channel exact frequency dense WDM source using comb generation and SG-DBR injection-locked laser filtering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 370–372 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, ”Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, and B. H. Johnson, ”Integrated four-channel Mach-Zehnder multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011–1015 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

S. Chandrasekhar, S. M. Zirngibl, A. G. Dentai, C. H. Joyner, F. Storz, C. A. Burrus, and L. M. Lunardi, ”Monolithic eight-wavelength demultiplexed receiver for dense WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1342–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. Corbett and D. McDonald, ”Single longitudinal mode ridge waveguide 1.3 μm Fabry-Perot laser by modal perturbation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2181–2182 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

A. Dentai, J. Stone, E. C. Burrows, C. A. Burrus, L. W. Stulz, and M. Zirngibl, ”Electrically tunable semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 629–631 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. Marz, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, and H. W. Schneider, ”8-channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, ”More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 862–864 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. Dragone, ”An N*N optical multiplexer using a planar arrangement of two star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 812–815 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Kikuchi, C.-E. Zah, and T.-P. Lee, ”Amplitude-modulation sideband injection locking characteristics of semiconductor lasers and their application,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1821–1830 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, K. Oe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Nakano, and G. Motosugi, ”Optical frequency-selective amplification in a distributed feedback type semiconductor laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 66–67 (1987).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

L. Coldren, K. Ebeling, B. Miller, and J. Rentschler, ”Single longitudinal mode operation of two-section GaInAsP/InP lasers under pulsed excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1057–1062 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Minowa and Y. Fujii, ”Dielectric multilayer thin-film filters for WDM transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 116–121 (1983).
[Crossref]

Adamiecki, A.

G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, J. Cho, P. Winzer, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J-Y. Dupuy, M. Riet, B. Duval, K. Kim, S. Randel, D. Pilori, B. Guan, N. Fontaine, and E. C. Burrows, ”Single-carrier all-ETDM 1.08-Terabit/s line rate PDM-64-QAM transmitter using a high-speed 3-bit multiplexing DAC,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Reston, VA, USA, 2015
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

E. Temprana, E. Myslivets, B. P. -P. Kuo, L. Liu, V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, ”Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission,” Science 348, 1445–1448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anandarajah, P. M.

Andrekson, P. A.

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, and J. Toulouse, ”Investigation of a spectrally flat multi-wavelength DWDM source based on optical phase- and intensity-modulation,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. MF78, OSA, (2004).

Armstrong, J.

Ataie, V.

E. Temprana, E. Myslivets, B. P. -P. Kuo, L. Liu, V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, ”Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission,” Science 348, 1445–1448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J. H.

Francisco M. Soares, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, ”Monolithic InP 100-Channel × 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 975–985 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balakier, K.

Bao, H.

Barry, L. P.

Ben Ezra, S.

D. Hillerkuss, M. Winter, M. Teschke, A. Marculescu, J. Li, G. Sigurdsson, K. Worms, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, ”Simple all-optical FFT scheme enabling Tbit/s real-time signal processing,” Opt. Express 18, 9329–9340 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bjork, B. J.

B. Spaun, P. B. Changala, S. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, ”Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burrows, E. C.

A. Dentai, J. Stone, E. C. Burrows, C. A. Burrus, L. W. Stulz, and M. Zirngibl, ”Electrically tunable semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 629–631 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, J. Cho, P. Winzer, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J-Y. Dupuy, M. Riet, B. Duval, K. Kim, S. Randel, D. Pilori, B. Guan, N. Fontaine, and E. C. Burrows, ”Single-carrier all-ETDM 1.08-Terabit/s line rate PDM-64-QAM transmitter using a high-speed 3-bit multiplexing DAC,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Reston, VA, USA, 2015
[Crossref]

Burrus, C. A.

S. Chandrasekhar, S. M. Zirngibl, A. G. Dentai, C. H. Joyner, F. Storz, C. A. Burrus, and L. M. Lunardi, ”Monolithic eight-wavelength demultiplexed receiver for dense WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1342–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Dentai, J. Stone, E. C. Burrows, C. A. Burrus, L. W. Stulz, and M. Zirngibl, ”Electrically tunable semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 629–631 (1994).
[Crossref]

Byrne, D.

Q. Lu, W.-H. Guo, D. Byrne, and J. F. Donegan, ”Design of Slotted Single-Mode Lasers Suitable for Photonic Integration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 787–789 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carpintero, G.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, S. M. Zirngibl, A. G. Dentai, C. H. Joyner, F. Storz, C. A. Burrus, and L. M. Lunardi, ”Monolithic eight-wavelength demultiplexed receiver for dense WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1342–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

Changala, P. B.

B. Spaun, P. B. Changala, S. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, ”Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, S.

Francisco M. Soares, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Ryan P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, Jonathan P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, ”Monolithic InP 100-Channel × 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 975–985 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, J. Cho, P. Winzer, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J-Y. Dupuy, M. Riet, B. Duval, K. Kim, S. Randel, D. Pilori, B. Guan, N. Fontaine, and E. C. Burrows, ”Single-carrier all-ETDM 1.08-Terabit/s line rate PDM-64-QAM transmitter using a high-speed 3-bit multiplexing DAC,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Reston, VA, USA, 2015
[Crossref]

Clemens, P. C.

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. Marz, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, and H. W. Schneider, ”8-channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L.

L. Coldren, K. Ebeling, B. Miller, and J. Rentschler, ”Single longitudinal mode operation of two-section GaInAsP/InP lasers under pulsed excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1057–1062 (1983).
[Crossref]

Corbett, B.

H. Yang, P. Morrissey, W. Cotter, C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Ye, N. Kelly, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, (2013) ”Monolithic Integration of Single Facet Slotted Laser, SOA, and MMI Coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 257–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Cotter, D. Goulding, B. Roycroft, J. O’Callaghan, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, ”Investigation of active filter using injection-locked slotted Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7357–7361 (2012).
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van Dijk, F.

Verbeek, B. H.

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D. Hillerkuss, M. Winter, M. Teschke, A. Marculescu, J. Li, G. Sigurdsson, K. Worms, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, ”Simple all-optical FFT scheme enabling Tbit/s real-time signal processing,” Opt. Express 18, 9329–9340 (2010).
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H. Yang, P. Morrissey, W. Cotter, C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, B. Roycroft, N. Ye, N. Kelly, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, (2013) ”Monolithic Integration of Single Facet Slotted Laser, SOA, and MMI Coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 257–260 (2013).
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A. Dentai, J. Stone, E. C. Burrows, C. A. Burrus, L. W. Stulz, and M. Zirngibl, ”Electrically tunable semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 629–631 (1994).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, K. Oe, Y. Noguchi, Y. Nakano, and G. Motosugi, ”Optical frequency-selective amplification in a distributed feedback type semiconductor laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 66–67 (1987).
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Electron. Lett. (4)

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, ”Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42, 370–372 (2006).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) 100 Gbps per channel using the ITU grid with PM-QPSK and 50 GHz channel spacing. (b) A superchannel based on incoherent sources on a photonic integrated circuit, using 100 Gbps PM-QPSK modulation. (c) A coherent superchannel based on coherent optical comb, using 100 Gbps PM-QPSK modulation and resulting in a higher spectral efficiency
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 This schematic describes how on polarisation of an optical OFDM signal can be generated (a) A comb source is used to generate a coherent optical comb at a precise spacing. (b) The carrier of the optical comb are separated into individual channels. (c) Data is put onto each carrier using an optical modulator. (d) The modulated carriers are combined into the OFDM signal. In addition, each carrier may require additional phase control.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) schematic of the integrated device. The to-scale size comparison of frequency demultiplexing devices: (b) an 25 GHz arrayed waveguide grating fabricated on InP, (c) a 4 channel 25 GHz Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) designed for InP, and (d) the device featured in this paper.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Images showing the design steps of the device; (a) Schematic of device design, (b) Calculated mode interference in the MMI, (c) Calculated reflection spectrum of the mirror. The reflection peaks are separated by 400 GHz according with the slot separation of 108 μm
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup used to test the device which consisted of a tunable laser source (TLS), a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), a Polarisation Controller (PC) an erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) an multiple fibre block (FB), a high speed photodetector (PD), an electric spectrum analyser (ESA) and an optical spectrum analyser (OSA), (b) The complete device under test. Optical coupling was achieved with a lensed fibre on the input (left) side and a fibre block was used for coupling on the output (right) side. Multiple needle probes were used to contact the various sections of the device.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Laser 1 free running with a peak output of 1569.02 nm. Operating current was at 1.5 Ith (b) Optical spectrum of Laser 2 free running with a peak output of 1569.22 nm. Operating current was 1.9 Ith (c) Output of Laser 1 injection locked by and filtering the comb source line at a wavelength of 1565.76 nm (d) Output of Laser 2 injection locked by an input comb line at a wavelength of 1565.96 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical and power spectra of device with coupled outputs; (a) Optical spectrum of the coupled outputs of Laser 1 and laser two while injection locked, (b) Power spectrum of the beat-note generated from interaction of the two peak wavelength in (a). The linewidth of the beat-note was approximately 5 kHz.

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