Abstract

A compact, flat lens with dynamically tunable focal length will be an essential component in advanced reconfigurable optical systems. One approach to realize a flat tunable lens is by utilizing metasurfaces, which are two-dimensional nanostructures capable of tailoring the wavefront of incident light. When a metasurface with a hyperboloidal phase profile, i.e., a metalens, is fabricated on a substrate that can be actuated, its focal length can be adjusted dynamically. Here, we design and realize the first reflection type, tunable metalens (i.e., metamirror) operating in the visible regime (670 nm). It is shown that the focal length can be continuously adjusted by up to 45% with a 0% to 20% lateral stretching of the substrate, while maintaining diffraction-limited focusing and high focusing efficiency. Our design as a flat optics element has potential in widespread applications, such as wearable mixed reality systems, biomedical instruments and integrated optics devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (16)

D. K. Nikolov, F. Cheng, N. Basaran, A. Bauer, J. P. Rolland, and N. Vamivakas, “Long-term efficiency preservation for gradient phase metasurface diffraction gratings in the visible,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2125–2130 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, L. Ding, L. Qiu, D. Nikolov, A. Bauer, J. P. Rolland, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Polarization-switchable holograms based on efficient, broadband multifunctional metasurfaces in the visible regime,” Opt. Express 26(23), 30678–30688 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, E. Khaidarov, S. Choi, V. Leong, R. M. Bakker, X. Liang, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. A. Krivitsky, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “A metalens with a near-unity numerical aperture,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 2124–2132 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liang, Q. Lin, X. Xie, Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, L. Liu, X. Yu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, and J. Li, “Ultrahigh numerical aperture metalens at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4460–4466 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. R. Zhang, D. D. Wen, C. M. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Q. Chen, and X. Z. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1794–1799 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Komar, R. Paniagua-Dominguez, A. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, Y. S. Kivshar, A. I. Kuznetsov, and D. Neshev, “Dynamic beam switching by liquid crystal tunable dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1742–1748 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift,” Sci. Adv. 4(2), eaap9957 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Afridi, J. Canet-Ferrer, L. Philippet, J. Osmond, P. Berto, and R. Quidant, “Electrically driven varifocal silicon metalens,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4497–4503 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liu, J. Zheng, S. Colburn, T. K. Fryett, Y. Chen, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Ultrathin van der Waals metalenses,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6961–6966 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Colburn, A. Zhan, and A. Majumdar, “Varifocal zoom imaging with large area focal length adjustable metalenses,” Optica 5(7), 825–831 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photonics 3(2), 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Deshpande, V. A. Zenin, F. Ding, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Direct characterization of near-field coupling in gap plasmon-based metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 18(10), 6265–6270 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (9)

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zarate, S. Kruk, G. Q. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(31), 1700580 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. C. Malek, H. S. Ee, and R. Agarwal, “Strain multiplexed metasurface holograms on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3641–3645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bao, Q. Jiang, Y. Kang, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Enhanced optical performance of multifocal metalens with conic shapes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(10), e17071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lewi, H. A. Evans, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Ultrawide thermo-optic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3940–3945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Komar, Z. Fang, J. Bohn, J. Sautter, M. Decker, A. Miroshnichenko, T. Pertsch, I. Brener, Y. S. Kivshar, I. Staude, and D. N. Neshev, “Electrically tunable all-dielectric optical metasurfaces based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071109 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Parry, A. Komar, B. Hopkins, S. Campione, S. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, J. Nogan, M. B. Sinclair, I. Brener, and D. N. Neshev, “Active tuning of high-Q dielectric metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 053102 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. L. Tseng, J. Yang, M. Semmlinger, C. Zhang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Two-dimensional active tuning of an aluminum plasmonic array for full-spectrum response,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6034–6039 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (11)

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, S. T. Mei, K. Huang, and C. W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
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Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. Ee and R. Agarwal, “Tunable metasurface and flat optical zoom lens on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2818–2823 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, and J. A. Schuller, “Electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces using heterojunction resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1582–1588 (2016).
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T. Sun, J. Kim, J. M. Yuk, A. Zettl, F. Wang, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal electro-optic spatial light modulator using graphene integrated on a high-contrast grating resonator,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26035–26043 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength metasurfaces through spatial multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32803 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8660 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband plasmonic half-wave plates in reflection,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 513–515 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. F. Yang, A. Z. Jin, Q. Luo, J. J. Li, C. Z. Gu, and Z. Cui, “Electron beam lithography of HSQ/PMMA bilayer resists for negative tone lift-off process,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 814–817 (2008).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Afridi, A.

A. Afridi, J. Canet-Ferrer, L. Philippet, J. Osmond, P. Berto, and R. Quidant, “Electrically driven varifocal silicon metalens,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4497–4503 (2018).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, R.

S. C. Malek, H. S. Ee, and R. Agarwal, “Strain multiplexed metasurface holograms on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3641–3645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Ee and R. Agarwal, “Tunable metasurface and flat optical zoom lens on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2818–2823 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aksu, S.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength metasurfaces through spatial multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32803 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength metasurfaces through spatial multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32803 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Artar, A.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker, R. M.

R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, E. Khaidarov, S. Choi, V. Leong, R. M. Bakker, X. Liang, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. A. Krivitsky, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “A metalens with a near-unity numerical aperture,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 2124–2132 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banar, B.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Y.

Y. Bao, Q. Jiang, Y. Kang, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Enhanced optical performance of multifocal metalens with conic shapes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(10), e17071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Basaran, N.

Bauer, A.

Berto, P.

A. Afridi, J. Canet-Ferrer, L. Philippet, J. Osmond, P. Berto, and R. Quidant, “Electrically driven varifocal silicon metalens,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4497–4503 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bohn, J.

A. Komar, Z. Fang, J. Bohn, J. Sautter, M. Decker, A. Miroshnichenko, T. Pertsch, I. Brener, Y. S. Kivshar, I. Staude, and D. N. Neshev, “Electrically tunable all-dielectric optical metasurfaces based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boroviks, S.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
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R. Deshpande, V. A. Zenin, F. Ding, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Direct characterization of near-field coupling in gap plasmon-based metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 18(10), 6265–6270 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband plasmonic half-wave plates in reflection,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 513–515 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

M. Parry, A. Komar, B. Hopkins, S. Campione, S. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, J. Nogan, M. B. Sinclair, I. Brener, and D. N. Neshev, “Active tuning of high-Q dielectric metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 053102 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Komar, Z. Fang, J. Bohn, J. Sautter, M. Decker, A. Miroshnichenko, T. Pertsch, I. Brener, Y. S. Kivshar, I. Staude, and D. N. Neshev, “Electrically tunable all-dielectric optical metasurfaces based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071109 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butakov, N. A.

T. Lewi, H. A. Evans, N. A. Butakov, and J. A. Schuller, “Ultrawide thermo-optic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3940–3945 (2017).
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Butun, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Morales, R.

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zarate, S. Kruk, G. Q. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(31), 1700580 (2017).
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Campione, S.

M. Parry, A. Komar, B. Hopkins, S. Campione, S. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, J. Nogan, M. B. Sinclair, I. Brener, and D. N. Neshev, “Active tuning of high-Q dielectric metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 053102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Canet-Ferrer, J.

A. Afridi, J. Canet-Ferrer, L. Philippet, J. Osmond, P. Berto, and R. Quidant, “Electrically driven varifocal silicon metalens,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4497–4503 (2018).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
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A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift,” Sci. Adv. 4(2), eaap9957 (2018).
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T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photonics 3(2), 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
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Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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Wang, W.

Z. R. Zhang, D. D. Wen, C. M. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Q. Chen, and X. Z. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1794–1799 (2018).
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Wang, Y.

H. Liang, Q. Lin, X. Xie, Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, L. Liu, X. Yu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, and J. Li, “Ultrahigh numerical aperture metalens at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4460–4466 (2018).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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Wen, D. D.

Z. R. Zhang, D. D. Wen, C. M. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Q. Chen, and X. Z. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1794–1799 (2018).
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P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
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Wong, P. W.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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Wu, J.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
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Wu, J. Q.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
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B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
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H. Liang, Q. Lin, X. Xie, Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, L. Liu, X. Yu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, and J. Li, “Ultrahigh numerical aperture metalens at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4460–4466 (2018).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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C. H. Liu, J. Zheng, S. Colburn, T. K. Fryett, Y. Chen, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Ultrathin van der Waals metalenses,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6961–6966 (2018).
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H. F. Yang, A. Z. Jin, Q. Luo, J. J. Li, C. Z. Gu, and Z. Cui, “Electron beam lithography of HSQ/PMMA bilayer resists for negative tone lift-off process,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 814–817 (2008).
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M. L. Tseng, J. Yang, M. Semmlinger, C. Zhang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Two-dimensional active tuning of an aluminum plasmonic array for full-spectrum response,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6034–6039 (2017).
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S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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H. Liang, Q. Lin, X. Xie, Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, L. Liu, X. Yu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, and J. Li, “Ultrahigh numerical aperture metalens at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4460–4466 (2018).
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R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, E. Khaidarov, S. Choi, V. Leong, R. M. Bakker, X. Liang, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. A. Krivitsky, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “A metalens with a near-unity numerical aperture,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 2124–2132 (2018).
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A. Komar, R. Paniagua-Dominguez, A. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, Y. S. Kivshar, A. I. Kuznetsov, and D. Neshev, “Dynamic beam switching by liquid crystal tunable dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1742–1748 (2018).
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Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
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Yue, F.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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Yuk, J. M.

Zarate, Y.

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zarate, S. Kruk, G. Q. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(31), 1700580 (2017).
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R. Deshpande, V. A. Zenin, F. Ding, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Direct characterization of near-field coupling in gap plasmon-based metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 18(10), 6265–6270 (2018).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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Zhan, A.

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M. L. Tseng, J. Yang, M. Semmlinger, C. Zhang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Two-dimensional active tuning of an aluminum plasmonic array for full-spectrum response,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6034–6039 (2017).
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Zhang, C. M.

Z. R. Zhang, D. D. Wen, C. M. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Q. Chen, and X. Z. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1794–1799 (2018).
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Zhang, G. Q.

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zarate, S. Kruk, G. Q. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(31), 1700580 (2017).
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J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
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L. Zhang, S. T. Mei, K. Huang, and C. W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
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A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift,” Sci. Adv. 4(2), eaap9957 (2018).
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T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photonics 3(2), 021302 (2018).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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Zhang, Z. R.

Z. R. Zhang, D. D. Wen, C. M. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Q. Chen, and X. Z. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1794–1799 (2018).
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Zhao, B.

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
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A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
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J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
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Zheng, G.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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Zheng, J.

C. H. Liu, J. Zheng, S. Colburn, T. K. Fryett, Y. Chen, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Ultrathin van der Waals metalenses,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6961–6966 (2018).
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Zhou, J.

H. Liang, Q. Lin, X. Xie, Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, L. Liu, X. Yu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, and J. Li, “Ultrahigh numerical aperture metalens at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4460–4466 (2018).
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Zhou, L.

H. Liang, Q. Lin, X. Xie, Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. Zhou, L. Liu, X. Yu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, and J. Li, “Ultrahigh numerical aperture metalens at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4460–4466 (2018).
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Zhu, A. Y.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
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Zhu, S.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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Zhu, X.

Y. Bao, Q. Jiang, Y. Kang, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Enhanced optical performance of multifocal metalens with conic shapes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(10), e17071 (2017).
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Zou, C.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
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ACS Nano (2)

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
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J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (4)

Z. R. Zhang, D. D. Wen, C. M. Zhang, M. Chen, W. Wang, S. Q. Chen, and X. Z. Chen, “Multifunctional light sword metasurface lens,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1794–1799 (2018).
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S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
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A. Komar, R. Paniagua-Dominguez, A. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, Y. S. Kivshar, A. I. Kuznetsov, and D. Neshev, “Dynamic beam switching by liquid crystal tunable dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1742–1748 (2018).
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A. Afridi, J. Canet-Ferrer, L. Philippet, J. Osmond, P. Berto, and R. Quidant, “Electrically driven varifocal silicon metalens,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4497–4503 (2018).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zarate, S. Kruk, G. Q. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(31), 1700580 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

P. P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, and J. A. Schuller, “Electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces using heterojunction resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1582–1588 (2016).
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L. Zhang, S. T. Mei, K. Huang, and C. W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photonics 3(2), 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Komar, Z. Fang, J. Bohn, J. Sautter, M. Decker, A. Miroshnichenko, T. Pertsch, I. Brener, Y. S. Kivshar, I. Staude, and D. N. Neshev, “Electrically tunable all-dielectric optical metasurfaces based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071109 (2017).
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M. Parry, A. Komar, B. Hopkins, S. Campione, S. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, J. Nogan, M. B. Sinclair, I. Brener, and D. N. Neshev, “Active tuning of high-Q dielectric metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(5), 053102 (2017).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1002–1008 (2016).
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Light Sci. Appl. (1)

Y. Bao, Q. Jiang, Y. Kang, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Enhanced optical performance of multifocal metalens with conic shapes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(10), e17071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

H. F. Yang, A. Z. Jin, Q. Luo, J. J. Li, C. Z. Gu, and Z. Cui, “Electron beam lithography of HSQ/PMMA bilayer resists for negative tone lift-off process,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 814–817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (17)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The working principle of a reflection type metalens. (a) Schematic illustration of a reflective metasurface encapsulated in a flexible polymer. The metamirror has a lateral size of L along one dimension and it focuses incident light backwards to a focal distance of f from the surface. (b) Illustration of the metamirror’ response after it is stretched by a ratio of s: the focal length of the metamirror under stretching is elongated to f’.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic structure of the unit cell geometry used in our design. The elements are encapsulated in PDMS and are arranged in a square lattice with the pitch fixed at 330 nm. The thickness of the top thin Ag layer, SiO2 spacer and ground Ag layer are 30nm, 50nm and 75 nm, respectively. The top Ag surface is 200 nm below the top PDMS surface. (b) The simulated complex reflection coefficients r = |r|ei∠r for a unit cell under normal incident light (E field along y axis, λ = 670 nm). Left panel: the contour map of reflected phase arg(r) as a function of the nanoantenna lateral dimensions from 60 to 300 nm. Right panel: the contour map of reflectance |r| as a function of the nanoantenna lateral dimensions. (c) Calculated profiles of reflected electric field intensity within the x-z plane. The 0% stretched size of the metamirror is 9.9 × 9.9 μm2. It is located at z = 0 (above the image) and stretched by 0%, 10% and 20% within x-y plane from left to right panels, respectively. The calculated electric field intensity at the focal plane (white dashed lines indicated on the x-z planes) are also shown in the inset of each panel. Scale bar: 1 μm. (d) Electric field intensity distribution along the optical axis under different stretching ratios. (e) Calculated focal lengths of the metamirror (red square) extracted from (d) as a function of the stretching ratio. The predicted focal length is also displayed as the black line. (f) Calculated focusing efficiencies of the metamirror as a function of the stretching ratio.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic illustration showing the fabrication process of the tunable metamirror encapsulated in PDMS (detailed depicted in the text). (b) Optical image of a 100 × 100 μm2 metamirror fabricated on the Si wafer corresponding to step iii (before PDMS casting). (c) An SEM image taken from the same metamirror on the Si wafer corresponding to step iii (before PDMS casting). (d) Optical image of the same metamirror transferred to PDMS film corresponding to step v. (e) An SEM image taken from the complementary structure of the metamirror on the Si wafer after the transfer process. Scale bar for (d) and (e): 1 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for testing the optical response of the fabricated metamirror. (b) Side view and top view of a custom-built sample stage holding the stretched PDMS film. The PDMS film is held by four self-locking tweezer clamps mounted on four linear translation stages. The black dashed box indicates the location of the sample. The amount of isotropic stretching of the metamirror can be monitored during the measurement. (c) Optical microscope images of the metamirror isotropically stretched by 0, 10% and 20%, respectively (left to right). The dashed square shows the outline of the metamirror and the scale bar is 20 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured beam intensity profiles taken at their respective focal planes (x-y plane) for different stretching ratios of 0 (top), 10% (middle) and 20% (bottom). Scale bar: 5 μm. (b) Measured FWHM values (red dots) extracted from (a) at the focal plane as a function of the numerical aperture (corresponding to different stretching ratios). The error bars are from a Gaussian fit of the FWHM as a function of the NA. The theoretical diffraction limited spot sizes are also plotted as a comparison (black line). (c) Measured longitudinal beam intensity profiles of the metamirror for stretching ratios of 0 (top), 10% (middle) and 20% (bottom). The metamirror is located at z = 0 (left side of images). (d) Measured focal length (red dots) extracted from (c) and predicted focal lengths of the metamirror (black line) as a function of the stretching ratio. The error bars show ranges of focal distance where the intensity is larger than 90% of the peak value. (e) Measured focusing efficiencies of the metamirror as a function of the stretching ratio.

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