Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) can be used to produce a cryptographic key whose security is guaranteed by quantum mechanics. The range of fiber-based QKD links is limited, by loss, to a few hundred kilometers, and cannot be used between mobile platforms. Free space QKD can, in principle, overcome these limitations. In practice, very narrow beam divergences must be used, requiring highly accurate pointing of the transmitting terminal to the receiver. This makes deployment very difficult. Here we describe the experimental implementation of a new type of free space QKD link, using modulating retro-reflectors (MRR). The MRR-QKD link eases the pointing requirements by more than three orders of magnitude, from microradians to degrees, while maintaining the narrow beam divergence necessary for long-range communication links. The system uses new, high extinction surface-normal multiple quantum well modulators with a modulation rate of 100 MHz. A laboratory-based BB84 QKD link using multiple quantum well MRRs is demonstrated, link budgets for possible applications are discussed, and security issues are considered.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

B. Heim, C. Peuntinger, N. Killoran, I. Khan, C. Wittmann, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Atmospheric continuous-variable quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 1–14 (2018).

2017 (10)

E. Diamanti, H.-K. Lo, B. Qi, and Z. Yuan, “Practical challenges in quantum key distribution,” Nature Publishing Group 2(1), 1–12 (2017).

S. K. Liao, W. Q. Cai, W. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J. G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z. P. Li, F. Z. Li, X. W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J. J. Jia, J. C. Wu, X. J. Jiang, J. F. Wang, Y. M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y. A. Chen, N. L. Liu, X. B. Wang, Z. C. Zhu, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takenaka, A. Carrasco-Casado, M. Fujiwara, M. Kitamura, M. Sasaki, and M. Toyoshima, “Satellite-to-ground quantum-limited communication using a 50-kg-class microsatellite,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 502 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Quintana, Q. Wang, D. Jakonis, X. Piao, G. Erry, D. Platt, Y. Thueux, A. Gomez, G. Faulkner, H. Chun, M. Salter, and D. O’Brien, “High speed electro-absorption bodulator for long range retroreflective free space optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 707–710 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 1–10 (2017).

B. Moision, B. Erkmen, E. Keyes, T. Belt, O. Bowen, D. Brinkley, P. Csonka, M. Eglington, A. Kazmierski, N.-H. Kim, J. Moody, T. Tu, and W. Vermeer, “Demonstration of free-space optical communication for long-range data links between balloons on Project Loon,” Proc. SPIE 10096, 100960Z (2017).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Bashkansky, R. Freeman, and J. Reintjes, “A scintillation playback system for quantum links,” Proc. SPIE 10096, 1009604 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, I. Choi, G. Faulkner, L. Clarke, B. Barber, G. George, C. Capon, A. Niskanen, J. Wabnig, D. O’Brien, and D. Bitauld, “Handheld free space quantum key distribution with dynamic motion compensation,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6784–6795 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Lee, M. K. Woo, J. Jung, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, and S. Moon, “Free-space QKD system hacking by wavelength control using an external laser,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11124–11131 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gunthner, I. Khan, D. Elser, B. Stiller, M. Bayraktar, C. R. M. ller, K. Saucke, D. T. ndle, F. Heine, S. Seel, P. Greulich, H. Zech, B. R. G. tlich, S. Philipp-May, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-limited measurements of optical signals from a geostationary satellite,” Optica 4(6), 611 (2017).

2016 (1)

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent quantum key distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92(5), 052339 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Rabinovich, C. I. Moore, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, J. L. Murphy, L. M. Thomas, G. C. Gilbreath, M. Vilcheck, and M. R. Suite, “Free-space optical communications research and demonstrations at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F189–F200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Bourgoin, B. L. Higgins, N. Gigov, C. Holloway, C. J. Pugh, S. Kaiser, M. Cranmer, and T. Jennewein, “Free-space quantum key distribution to a moving receiver,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33437–33447 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Vallone, D. G. Marangon, M. Canale, I. Savorgnan, D. Bacco, M. Barbieri, S. Calimani, C. Barbieri, N. Laurenti, and P. Villoresi, “Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 042320 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Erven, B. Heim, E. Meyer-Scott, J. P. Bourgoin, R. Laflamme, G. Weihs, and T. Jennewein, “Studying free-space transmission statistics and improving free-space quantum key distribution in the turbulent atmosphere,” New J. Phys. 14(12), 123018 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
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J. H. Shapiro, “Scintillation has minimal impact on far-field Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 84(3), 032340 (2011).
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2010 (1)

F. Fidler, M. Knapek, J. Horwath, and W. R. Leeb, “Optical communications for high-altitude platforms,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1058–1070 (2010).
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2009 (3)

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
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S. Nauerth, M. Fürst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11(6), 065001 (2009).
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2008 (1)

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 kilometers over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retroreflector array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
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2007 (5)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. J. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46(10), 104001 (2007).
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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-Performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-Reflector modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
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N. Gisin, S. Fasel, B. Kraus, H. Zbinden, and G. Ribordy, “Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 022320 (2006).
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T. Chan and J. Ford, “Retroreflecting optical modulator using an MEMS deformable micromirror array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 516–525 (2006).
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2005 (3)

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
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W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Steil, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
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H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
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2004 (1)

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, “A surface-normal coupled-quantum-well modulator at 1.55 mu m,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2036–2038 (2004).
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2003 (2)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(5), 057901 (2003).
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W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, and G. C. Gilbreath, “A cat’s eye multiple quantum-well modulating retro-reflector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(3), 461–463 (2003).
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2002 (3)

N. Gisin, G. G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4(1), 82 (2002).
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R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4(1), 43 (2002).
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2001 (1)

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
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1997 (2)

C. Swenson, C. Steed, I. De La Rue, and R. Fugate, “Low-power FLC-based retromodulator communications system,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 296–310 (1997).
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A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 793–795 (1997).
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1995 (1)

1993 (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Millimeter accuracy satellite laser ranging: a review,” Geodynamics 25, 133–162 (1993).
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1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptol. 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
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Bacco, D.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
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G. Vallone, D. G. Marangon, M. Canale, I. Savorgnan, D. Bacco, M. Barbieri, S. Calimani, C. Barbieri, N. Laurenti, and P. Villoresi, “Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 042320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barbehenn, R.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barber, B.

Barbieri, C.

G. Vallone, D. G. Marangon, M. Canale, I. Savorgnan, D. Bacco, M. Barbieri, S. Calimani, C. Barbieri, N. Laurenti, and P. Villoresi, “Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 042320 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, M.

G. Vallone, D. G. Marangon, M. Canale, I. Savorgnan, D. Bacco, M. Barbieri, S. Calimani, C. Barbieri, N. Laurenti, and P. Villoresi, “Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 042320 (2015).
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Bashkansky, M.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Bashkansky, R. Freeman, and J. Reintjes, “A scintillation playback system for quantum links,” Proc. SPIE 10096, 1009604 (2017).
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Bayraktar, M.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Belt, T.

B. Moision, B. Erkmen, E. Keyes, T. Belt, O. Bowen, D. Brinkley, P. Csonka, M. Eglington, A. Kazmierski, N.-H. Kim, J. Moody, T. Tu, and W. Vermeer, “Demonstration of free-space optical communication for long-range data links between balloons on Project Loon,” Proc. SPIE 10096, 100960Z (2017).

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptol. 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
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C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, (IEEE, 1984) pp. 175–179

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptol. 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
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Bianco, G.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binari, S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. J. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46(10), 104001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Binari, S. C.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-Performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-Reflector modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, and S. C. Binari, “A surface-normal coupled-quantum-well modulator at 1.55 mu m,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2036–2038 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, and G. C. Gilbreath, “A cat’s eye multiple quantum-well modulating retro-reflector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(3), 461–463 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bitauld, D.

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bonato, C.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
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Bourgoin, J. P.

C. Erven, B. Heim, E. Meyer-Scott, J. P. Bourgoin, R. Laflamme, G. Weihs, and T. Jennewein, “Studying free-space transmission statistics and improving free-space quantum key distribution in the turbulent atmosphere,” New J. Phys. 14(12), 123018 (2012).
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Bourgoin, J.-P.

J.-P. Bourgoin, B. L. Higgins, N. Gigov, C. Holloway, C. J. Pugh, S. Kaiser, M. Cranmer, and T. Jennewein, “Free-space quantum key distribution to a moving receiver,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33437–33447 (2015).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92(5), 052339 (2015).
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Bovais, C. S.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bowen, O.

B. Moision, B. Erkmen, E. Keyes, T. Belt, O. Bowen, D. Brinkley, P. Csonka, M. Eglington, A. Kazmierski, N.-H. Kim, J. Moody, T. Tu, and W. Vermeer, “Demonstration of free-space optical communication for long-range data links between balloons on Project Loon,” Proc. SPIE 10096, 100960Z (2017).

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptol. 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, (IEEE, 1984) pp. 175–179

Brinkley, D.

B. Moision, B. Erkmen, E. Keyes, T. Belt, O. Bowen, D. Brinkley, P. Csonka, M. Eglington, A. Kazmierski, N.-H. Kim, J. Moody, T. Tu, and W. Vermeer, “Demonstration of free-space optical communication for long-range data links between balloons on Project Loon,” Proc. SPIE 10096, 100960Z (2017).

Burris, H. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, C. I. Moore, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, J. L. Murphy, L. M. Thomas, G. C. Gilbreath, M. Vilcheck, and M. R. Suite, “Free-space optical communications research and demonstrations at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F189–F200 (2015).
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P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
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W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Steil, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Burris, H. R. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. J. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46(10), 104001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burris, R.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cai, W. Q.

S. K. Liao, W. Q. Cai, W. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J. G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z. P. Li, F. Z. Li, X. W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J. J. Jia, J. C. Wu, X. J. Jiang, J. F. Wang, Y. M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y. A. Chen, N. L. Liu, X. B. Wang, Z. C. Zhu, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calimani, S.

G. Vallone, D. G. Marangon, M. Canale, I. Savorgnan, D. Bacco, M. Barbieri, S. Calimani, C. Barbieri, N. Laurenti, and P. Villoresi, “Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 042320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Canale, M.

G. Vallone, D. G. Marangon, M. Canale, I. Savorgnan, D. Bacco, M. Barbieri, S. Calimani, C. Barbieri, N. Laurenti, and P. Villoresi, “Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 042320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

S. K. Liao, W. Q. Cai, W. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J. G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z. P. Li, F. Z. Li, X. W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J. J. Jia, J. C. Wu, X. J. Jiang, J. F. Wang, Y. M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y. A. Chen, N. L. Liu, X. B. Wang, Z. C. Zhu, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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Capon, C.

Carrasco-Casado, A.

H. Takenaka, A. Carrasco-Casado, M. Fujiwara, M. Kitamura, M. Sasaki, and M. Toyoshima, “Satellite-to-ground quantum-limited communication using a 50-kg-class microsatellite,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 502 (2017).
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Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, T.

Chen, H.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent quantum key distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-J.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent quantum key distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Chen, T.-Y.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent quantum key distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Chen, X. W.

S. K. Liao, W. Q. Cai, W. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J. G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z. P. Li, F. Z. Li, X. W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J. J. Jia, J. C. Wu, X. J. Jiang, J. F. Wang, Y. M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y. A. Chen, N. L. Liu, X. B. Wang, Z. C. Zhu, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. A.

S. K. Liao, W. Q. Cai, W. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J. G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z. P. Li, F. Z. Li, X. W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J. J. Jia, J. C. Wu, X. J. Jiang, J. F. Wang, Y. M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y. A. Chen, N. L. Liu, X. B. Wang, Z. C. Zhu, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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Choi, I.

Chun, H.

H. Chun, I. Choi, G. Faulkner, L. Clarke, B. Barber, G. George, C. Capon, A. Niskanen, J. Wabnig, D. O’Brien, and D. Bitauld, “Handheld free space quantum key distribution with dynamic motion compensation,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6784–6795 (2017).
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C. Quintana, Q. Wang, D. Jakonis, X. Piao, G. Erry, D. Platt, Y. Thueux, A. Gomez, G. Faulkner, H. Chun, M. Salter, and D. O’Brien, “High speed electro-absorption bodulator for long range retroreflective free space optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 707–710 (2017).
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Clarke, L.

Cochrell, K.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
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Nature Publishing Group (1)

E. Diamanti, H.-K. Lo, B. Qi, and Z. Yuan, “Practical challenges in quantum key distribution,” Nature Publishing Group 2(1), 1–12 (2017).

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W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Steil, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
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M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 kilometers over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retroreflector array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
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G. Vallone, D. G. Marangon, M. Canale, I. Savorgnan, D. Bacco, M. Barbieri, S. Calimani, C. Barbieri, N. Laurenti, and P. Villoresi, “Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 042320 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of a classical modulating retro-reflector link using a cat’s eye retro-reflector with a multiple quantum well modulator in its focal plane. (a) The interrogating laser uses active tracking to illuminate the MRR. (b) When the modulator is driven with a binary one the reflection is high. (c) When it is driven with a binary zero the reflection is low.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of a quantum key distribution link using modulating retro-reflectors showing (a) the components. (b) An example of the interrogation of the MRR array from the ground station using a strong beam of unencoded circularly polarized light. (c) Three of the four modulators are in a low transmission state and one, the vertically polarized MRR in this example, is in a high transmission state. This MRR retro-reflects vertically polarized light. The interrogation steps and the retro-reflection step happen simultaneously, but are shown here sequentially for clarity.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Exciton electro-absorption spectra and (b) Double-pass extinction of the MQW modulator measured at a 1 MHz modulation rate.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A 6.5 mm diameter multiple quantum well modulator.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the MRR-QKD BB84 link experiment, showing (a) Details of the interrogator and the control electronics. TDC, time to digital converter; DDG, digital delay generator; GMD, Geiger mode photodetector; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; NPBS, non-polarizing bam splitter; WP, waveplate; ND, neutral density filter; LD, laser diode; FPGA, field programmable gate array; (b) Details of the MRR-QKD array. Beam dumps are not shown, for clarity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Quantum bit error rate for three different modulation rates as a function of laser interrogation wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 . Definitions of Terms in MRR-QKD Link Budget

Equations (3)

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C V 2 f
P retro = P las G Tx L Tx L R L atm G MRR M
P sig = P retro G MRR L atm L VA G Rx L Rx

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