Abstract

An optimal design of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting that benefits both the photosynthesis performance for plants and the visional health for human eyes has drawn considerable attention. In the present study, we have developed a multi-color driving algorithm that serves as a liaison between desired spectral power distributions and pulse-width-modulation duty cycles. With the aid of this algorithm, our multi-color plant-growth light sources can optimize correlated-color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) such that photosynthetic luminous efficacy of radiation (PLER) is maximized regardless of the number of LEDs and the type of photosynthetic action spectrum (PAS). In order to illustrate the accuracies of the proposed algorithm and the practicalities of our plant-growth light sources, we choose six color LEDs and German PAS for experiments. Finally, our study can help provide a useful guide to improve light qualities in plant factories, in which long-term co-inhabitance of plants and human beings is required.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Multi-function indoor light sources based on light-emitting diodes–a solution for healthy lighting

Tingzhu Wu, Yue Lin, Honghui Zhu, Ziquan Guo, Lili Zheng, Yijun Lu, Tien-Mo Shih, and Zhong Chen
Opt. Express 24(21) 24401-24412 (2016)

Improvements of mesopic luminance for light-emitting-diode-based outdoor light sources via tuning scotopic/photopic ratios

Tingzhu Wu, Yijun Lu, Ziquan Guo, Lili Zheng, Honghui Zhu, Yao Xiao, Tien-Mo Shih, Yue Lin, and Zhong Chen
Opt. Express 25(5) 4887-4897 (2017)

Wavelength dependence of colorimetric properties of lighting sources based on multi-color LEDs

Hongtao Li, Xianglong Mao, Yanjun Han, and Yi Luo
Opt. Express 21(3) 3775-3783 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Zoratti, K. Karppinen, A. Luengo Escobar, H. Häggman, and L. Jaakola, “Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits,” Front. Plant Sci. 5, 534 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. Singhal, G. Renger, S. Sopory, and K. Irrgang, Concepts in photobiology: photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis (Springer Science & Business Media, 2012).
  4. M. Aubé, J. Roby, and M. Kocifaj, “Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility,” PLoS One 8(7), e67798 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. J. Kim, E. J. Hahn, J. W. Heo, and K. Y. Paek, “Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 101(1), 143–151 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. D. Gupta and B. Jatothu, “Fundamentals and applications of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in in vitro plant growth and morphogenesis,” Plant Biotechnol. Rep. 7(3), 211–220 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. M. Bourget, “An introduction to light-emitting diodes,” HortScience 43(7), 1944–1946 (2008).
  8. T. M. Katona, P. M. Pattison, and S. Paolini, “Status of solid state lighting product development and future trends for general illumination,” Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 7(1), 263–281 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Singh, C. Basu, M. Meinhardt-Wollweber, and B. Roth, “LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49, 139–147 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Wu, Y. Lu, Z. Guo, L. Zheng, H. Zhu, Y. Xiao, T. M. Shih, Y. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Improvements of mesopic luminance for light-emitting-diode-based outdoor light sources via tuning scotopic/photopic ratios,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4887–4897 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Li, Z. Xu, and C. Tang, “Effect of light-emitting diodes on growth and morphogenesis of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plantlets in vitro,” Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 103(2), 155–163 (2010).
  13. K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral optimization of three-primary LEDs by considering the circadian action factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. H. Oh, H. Kang, H. K. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Optimization of the theoretical photosynthesis performance and vision-friendly quality of multi-package purplish white LED lighting,” RSC Advances 5(28), 21745–21754 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. Godo, K. Fujiwara, K. Guan, and K. Miyoshi, “Effects of wavelength of LED-light on in vitro asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Bletilla ochracea Schltr. (Orchidaceae),” Plant Biotechnol. 28(4), 397–400 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. Lang, “Energy efficient illumination for the biological clock,” in Proceedings of SPIE (2011).
  22. H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. Q. Dai, L. Hao, Y. Lin, and Z. Cui, “Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(5), 053103 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Wu, Y. Lin, H. Zhu, Z. Guo, L. Zheng, Y. Lu, T. M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Multi-function indoor light sources based on light-emitting diodes-a solution for healthy lighting,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24401–24412 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. International Commission on Illumination, CIE 2017 colour fidelity index for accurate scientific use, Tech. Rep. 224–2017 (CIE, 2017).

2017 (3)

T. Wu, Y. Lu, Z. Guo, L. Zheng, H. Zhu, Y. Xiao, T. M. Shih, Y. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Improvements of mesopic luminance for light-emitting-diode-based outdoor light sources via tuning scotopic/photopic ratios,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4887–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral optimization of three-primary LEDs by considering the circadian action factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Katona, P. M. Pattison, and S. Paolini, “Status of solid state lighting product development and future trends for general illumination,” Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 7(1), 263–281 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Dai, L. Hao, Y. Lin, and Z. Cui, “Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(5), 053103 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wu, Y. Lin, H. Zhu, Z. Guo, L. Zheng, Y. Lu, T. M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Multi-function indoor light sources based on light-emitting diodes-a solution for healthy lighting,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24401–24412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

D. Singh, C. Basu, M. Meinhardt-Wollweber, and B. Roth, “LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49, 139–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Oh, H. Kang, H. K. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Optimization of the theoretical photosynthesis performance and vision-friendly quality of multi-package purplish white LED lighting,” RSC Advances 5(28), 21745–21754 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

L. Zoratti, K. Karppinen, A. Luengo Escobar, H. Häggman, and L. Jaakola, “Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits,” Front. Plant Sci. 5, 534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Aubé, J. Roby, and M. Kocifaj, “Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility,” PLoS One 8(7), e67798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Gupta and B. Jatothu, “Fundamentals and applications of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in in vitro plant growth and morphogenesis,” Plant Biotechnol. Rep. 7(3), 211–220 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. Godo, K. Fujiwara, K. Guan, and K. Miyoshi, “Effects of wavelength of LED-light on in vitro asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Bletilla ochracea Schltr. (Orchidaceae),” Plant Biotechnol. 28(4), 397–400 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Li, Z. Xu, and C. Tang, “Effect of light-emitting diodes on growth and morphogenesis of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plantlets in vitro,” Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 103(2), 155–163 (2010).

2008 (1)

C. M. Bourget, “An introduction to light-emitting diodes,” HortScience 43(7), 1944–1946 (2008).

2004 (1)

S. J. Kim, E. J. Hahn, J. W. Heo, and K. Y. Paek, “Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 101(1), 143–151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aubé, M.

M. Aubé, J. Roby, and M. Kocifaj, “Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility,” PLoS One 8(7), e67798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Y.

M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basu, C.

D. Singh, C. Basu, M. Meinhardt-Wollweber, and B. Roth, “LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49, 139–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bourget, C. M.

C. M. Bourget, “An introduction to light-emitting diodes,” HortScience 43(7), 1944–1946 (2008).

Cao, S.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, X.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, Y.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Z.

Q. Dai, L. Hao, Y. Lin, and Z. Cui, “Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(5), 053103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

Q. Dai, L. Hao, Y. Lin, and Z. Cui, “Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(5), 053103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. R.

J. H. Oh, H. Kang, H. K. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Optimization of the theoretical photosynthesis performance and vision-friendly quality of multi-package purplish white LED lighting,” RSC Advances 5(28), 21745–21754 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, K.

T. Godo, K. Fujiwara, K. Guan, and K. Miyoshi, “Effects of wavelength of LED-light on in vitro asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Bletilla ochracea Schltr. (Orchidaceae),” Plant Biotechnol. 28(4), 397–400 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral optimization of three-primary LEDs by considering the circadian action factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Godo, T.

T. Godo, K. Fujiwara, K. Guan, and K. Miyoshi, “Effects of wavelength of LED-light on in vitro asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Bletilla ochracea Schltr. (Orchidaceae),” Plant Biotechnol. 28(4), 397–400 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guan, K.

T. Godo, K. Fujiwara, K. Guan, and K. Miyoshi, “Effects of wavelength of LED-light on in vitro asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Bletilla ochracea Schltr. (Orchidaceae),” Plant Biotechnol. 28(4), 397–400 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Gupta, S. D.

S. D. Gupta and B. Jatothu, “Fundamentals and applications of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in in vitro plant growth and morphogenesis,” Plant Biotechnol. Rep. 7(3), 211–220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Häggman, H.

L. Zoratti, K. Karppinen, A. Luengo Escobar, H. Häggman, and L. Jaakola, “Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits,” Front. Plant Sci. 5, 534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, E. J.

S. J. Kim, E. J. Hahn, J. W. Heo, and K. Y. Paek, “Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 101(1), 143–151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Han, T.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, L.

Q. Dai, L. Hao, Y. Lin, and Z. Cui, “Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(5), 053103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heo, J. W.

S. J. Kim, E. J. Hahn, J. W. Heo, and K. Y. Paek, “Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 101(1), 143–151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hsu, B. D.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, M.

K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, G.

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ikoma, Y.

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jaakola, L.

L. Zoratti, K. Karppinen, A. Luengo Escobar, H. Häggman, and L. Jaakola, “Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits,” Front. Plant Sci. 5, 534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jatothu, B.

S. D. Gupta and B. Jatothu, “Fundamentals and applications of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in in vitro plant growth and morphogenesis,” Plant Biotechnol. Rep. 7(3), 211–220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jou, J. H.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

J. H. Oh, H. Kang, H. K. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Optimization of the theoretical photosynthesis performance and vision-friendly quality of multi-package purplish white LED lighting,” RSC Advances 5(28), 21745–21754 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karppinen, K.

L. Zoratti, K. Karppinen, A. Luengo Escobar, H. Häggman, and L. Jaakola, “Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits,” Front. Plant Sci. 5, 534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, M.

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Katona, T. M.

T. M. Katona, P. M. Pattison, and S. Paolini, “Status of solid state lighting product development and future trends for general illumination,” Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 7(1), 263–281 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. J.

S. J. Kim, E. J. Hahn, J. W. Heo, and K. Y. Paek, “Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 101(1), 143–151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kiriiwa, Y.

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kocifaj, M.

M. Aubé, J. Roby, and M. Kocifaj, “Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility,” PLoS One 8(7), e67798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, D.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C. J.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, F.

H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, Z. Xu, and C. Tang, “Effect of light-emitting diodes on growth and morphogenesis of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plantlets in vitro,” Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 103(2), 155–163 (2010).

Li, Q.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, T. H.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. C.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, K.

K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Ling, L.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, W.

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Luengo Escobar, A.

L. Zoratti, K. Karppinen, A. Luengo Escobar, H. Häggman, and L. Jaakola, “Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits,” Front. Plant Sci. 5, 534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, G.

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, H.

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meinhardt-Wollweber, M.

D. Singh, C. Basu, M. Meinhardt-Wollweber, and B. Roth, “LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49, 139–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miyoshi, K.

T. Godo, K. Fujiwara, K. Guan, and K. Miyoshi, “Effects of wavelength of LED-light on in vitro asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Bletilla ochracea Schltr. (Orchidaceae),” Plant Biotechnol. 28(4), 397–400 (2011).
[Crossref]

Oh, J. H.

J. H. Oh, H. Kang, H. K. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Optimization of the theoretical photosynthesis performance and vision-friendly quality of multi-package purplish white LED lighting,” RSC Advances 5(28), 21745–21754 (2015).
[Crossref]

Paek, K. Y.

S. J. Kim, E. J. Hahn, J. W. Heo, and K. Y. Paek, “Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 101(1), 143–151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Paolini, S.

T. M. Katona, P. M. Pattison, and S. Paolini, “Status of solid state lighting product development and future trends for general illumination,” Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 7(1), 263–281 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. K.

J. H. Oh, H. Kang, H. K. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Optimization of the theoretical photosynthesis performance and vision-friendly quality of multi-package purplish white LED lighting,” RSC Advances 5(28), 21745–21754 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pattison, P. M.

T. M. Katona, P. M. Pattison, and S. Paolini, “Status of solid state lighting product development and future trends for general illumination,” Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 7(1), 263–281 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, D.

M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, S. H.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, F.

H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rehman, M.

M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roby, J.

M. Aubé, J. Roby, and M. Kocifaj, “Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility,” PLoS One 8(7), e67798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, B.

D. Singh, C. Basu, M. Meinhardt-Wollweber, and B. Roth, “LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49, 139–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shih, T. M.

Singh, D.

D. Singh, C. Basu, M. Meinhardt-Wollweber, and B. Roth, “LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49, 139–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, G. X.

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, C.

H. Li, Z. Xu, and C. Tang, “Effect of light-emitting diodes on growth and morphogenesis of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plantlets in vitro,” Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 103(2), 155–163 (2010).

Thomas, K. R. J.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, M.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullah, S.

M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaganov, V.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. C.

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral optimization of three-primary LEDs by considering the circadian action factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.

Xiao, Y.

Xu, H.

H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

H. Li, Z. Xu, and C. Tang, “Effect of light-emitting diodes on growth and morphogenesis of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plantlets in vitro,” Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 103(2), 155–163 (2010).

Yahata, M.

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, A. N.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamawaki, K.

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, F. C.

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

Zhong, Y.

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

Zhu, L.

L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral optimization of three-primary LEDs by considering the circadian action factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zoratti, L.

L. Zoratti, K. Karppinen, A. Luengo Escobar, H. Häggman, and L. Jaakola, “Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits,” Front. Plant Sci. 5, 534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. (1)

T. M. Katona, P. M. Pattison, and S. Paolini, “Status of solid state lighting product development and future trends for general illumination,” Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 7(1), 263–281 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) (1)

X. Li, W. Lu, G. Hu, X. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, G. X. Sun, and Z. Fang, “Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China,” Bot. Stud. (Taipei, Taiwan) 57(1), 2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. (1)

M. Rehman, S. Ullah, Y. Bao, B. Wang, D. Peng, and L. Liu, “Light-emitting diodes: whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants?” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 24(32), 24743–24752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front. Plant Sci. (1)

L. Zoratti, K. Karppinen, A. Luengo Escobar, H. Häggman, and L. Jaakola, “Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits,” Front. Plant Sci. 5, 534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

HortScience (1)

C. M. Bourget, “An introduction to light-emitting diodes,” HortScience 43(7), 1944–1946 (2008).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. Zheng, T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Spectral optimization of three-primary LEDs by considering the circadian action factor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Dai, L. Hao, Y. Lin, and Z. Cui, “Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(5), 053103 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

J. H. Jou, C. C. Lin, T. H. Li, C. J. Li, S. H. Peng, F. C. Yang, K. R. J. Thomas, D. Kumar, Y. Chi, and B. D. Hsu, “Plant growth absorption spectrum mimicking light sources,” Materials (Basel) 8(8), 5265–5275 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Plant Biotechnol. (1)

T. Godo, K. Fujiwara, K. Guan, and K. Miyoshi, “Effects of wavelength of LED-light on in vitro asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Bletilla ochracea Schltr. (Orchidaceae),” Plant Biotechnol. 28(4), 397–400 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plant Biotechnol. Rep. (1)

S. D. Gupta and B. Jatothu, “Fundamentals and applications of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in in vitro plant growth and morphogenesis,” Plant Biotechnol. Rep. 7(3), 211–220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Plant Cell Tiss. Org. (1)

H. Li, Z. Xu, and C. Tang, “Effect of light-emitting diodes on growth and morphogenesis of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plantlets in vitro,” Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 103(2), 155–163 (2010).

PLoS One (1)

M. Aubé, J. Roby, and M. Kocifaj, “Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility,” PLoS One 8(7), e67798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Postharvest Biol. Technol. (1)

G. Ma, L. Zhang, M. Kato, K. Yamawaki, Y. Kiriiwa, M. Yahata, Y. Ikoma, and H. Matsumoto, “Effect of the combination of ethylene and red LED light irradiation on carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in the flavedo of citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 99, 99–104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (1)

D. Singh, C. Basu, M. Meinhardt-Wollweber, and B. Roth, “LEDs for energy efficient greenhouse lighting,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49, 139–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

RSC Advances (1)

J. H. Oh, H. Kang, H. K. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Optimization of the theoretical photosynthesis performance and vision-friendly quality of multi-package purplish white LED lighting,” RSC Advances 5(28), 21745–21754 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) (3)

H. Xu, Q. Xu, F. Li, Y. Feng, F. Qin, and W. Fang, “Applications of xerophytophysiology in plant production-LED blue light as a stimulus improved the tomato crop,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 148, 190–196 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lin, M. Huang, W. Huang, M. Hsu, Z. Yang, and C. Yang, “The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata),” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 150, 86–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kim, E. J. Hahn, J. W. Heo, and K. Y. Paek, “Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 101(1), 143–151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Han, V. Vaganov, S. Cao, Q. Li, L. Ling, X. Cheng, L. Peng, C. Zhang, A. N. Yakovlev, Y. Zhong, and M. Tu, “Improving “color rendering” of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45944 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

G. Singhal, G. Renger, S. Sopory, and K. Irrgang, Concepts in photobiology: photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis (Springer Science & Business Media, 2012).

D. Lang, “Energy efficient illumination for the biological clock,” in Proceedings of SPIE (2011).

International Commission on Illumination, CIE 2017 colour fidelity index for accurate scientific use, Tech. Rep. 224–2017 (CIE, 2017).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Normalized spectra of the photosynthetic action spectrum curve P(λ) and the photopic sensitivity curve V(λ).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The flow chart of the multi-color driving algorithm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Hardware schematics and (b) experimental instruments of plant-growth light source.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) SPDs of individual chips at 20 mA. (b) Optical powers versus PWM duty cycles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Case I: (a) Measured and set values of PLER; (b) PWM duty cycles versus CCT.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Case I: (a) 2D images of overall SPDs; (b) 3D images of overall SPDs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured and set values of PLER and CRI for (a) Case II; (b) Case III.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 PWM duty cycles versus CCT for (a) Case II; (b) Case III.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 2D images of overall SPDs for (a) case II; (b) case III.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 3D images of overall SPDs for (a) case II; (b) case III.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) PLER versus CCT of three different cases as well as three commercialized white LEDs (with SPDs); (b) CRI and Rf versus CCT of three different cases.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Key parameters for the vision and photosynthesis performance

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optimization goals for three different situations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters of the six-color LEDs at 20 mA

Tables Icon

Table 4 Experimental results of six-color plant-growth light source for Case I

Tables Icon

Table 5 Experimental results of six-color plant-growth light source for case II

Tables Icon

Table 6 Experimental results of six-color plant-growth light source for case III

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R i = P i P 1 + P 2 + + P n . , ( i = 1 , 2 , , n ) ,
E o ( λ ) = R 1 E 1 ( λ ) + R 2 E 2 ( λ ) + + R n E n ( λ ) ,

Metrics