Abstract

Wide-bandgap perovskites are attractive top-cell materials for tandem photovoltaic applications. Comprehensive optical modeling is essential to minimize the optical losses of state-of-the-art perovskite/perovskite, perovskite/CIGS, and perovskite/silicon tandems. Such models require accurate optical constants of wide-bandgap perovskites. Here, we report optical constants determined with ellipsometry and spectrophotometry for two new wide-bandgap, cesium-formamidinium-based perovskites. We validate the optical constants by comparing simulated quantum efficiency and reflectance spectra with measured cell results for semi-transparent single-junction perovskite cells and find less than 0.3 mA/cm2 error in the short-circuit current densities. Such simulations further reveal that reflection and parasitic absorption in the front ITO layer and electron contact are responsible for the biggest optical losses. We also show that the complex refractive index of methylammonium lead triiodide, the most common perovskite absorber for solar cells, can be used to generate approximate optical constants for an arbitrary wide-bandgap perovskite by translating the data along the wavelength axis. Finally, these optical constants are used to map the short-circuit current density of a textured two-terminal perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell as a function of the perovskite thickness and bandgap, providing a guide to nearly 20 mA/cm2 matched current density with any perovskite bandgap between 1.56 and 1.68 eV.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

H. Shen, J. Peng, D. Jacobs, N. Wu, J. Gong, Y. Wu, S. K. Karuturi, X. Fu, K. Weber, and X. Xiao, “Mechanically-stacked perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cells with efficiency of 23.9% and reduced oxygen sensitivity,” Energy Environ. Sci. 11(2), 394–406 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. A. Bush, K. Frohna, R. Prasanna, R. E. Beal, T. Leijtens, S. A. Swifter, and M. D. McGehee, “Compositional engineering for efficient wide band gap perovskites with improved stability to photoinduced phase segregation,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(2), 428–435 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, Q. Wang, C. J. Traverse, C. Yang, M. Young, P. S. Kuttipillai, S. Y. Lunt, T. W. Hamann, and R. R. Lunt, “Impact of ultrathin C60 on perovskite photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano 12(1), 876–883 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (11)

J. Guerra, A. Tejada, L. Korte, L. Kegelmann, J. Töfflinger, S. Albrecht, B. Rech, and R. Weingärtner, “Determination of the complex refractive index and optical bandgap of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(17), 173104 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical analysis of planar multicrystalline perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700151 (2017).

K. Jäger, L. Korte, B. Rech, and S. Albrecht, “Numerical optical optimization of monolithic planar perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells with regular and inverted device architectures,” Opt. Express 25(12), A473–A482 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Hörantner, T. Leijtens, M. E. Ziffer, G. E. Eperon, M. G. Christoforo, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “The potential of multijunction perovskite solar cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(10), 2506–2513 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Manzoor, J. Y. Zhengshan, A. Ali, W. Ali, K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, S. F. Bent, M. D. McGehee, and Z. C. Holman, “Improved light management in planar silicon and perovskite solar cells using PDMS scattering layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 59–65 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hörantner and H. J. Snaith, “Predicting and optimising the energy yield of perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells under real world conditions,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(9), 1983–1993 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Duong, Y. Wu, H. Shen, J. Peng, X. Fu, D. Jacobs, E. C. Wang, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, M. Stocks, E. Franklin, A. Blakers, N. Zin, K. McIntosh, W. Li, Y.-B. Cheng, T. P. White, K. Weber, and K. Catchpole, “Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite‐silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(14), 1700228 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Forgacs, L. Gil‐Escrig, D. Pérez‐Del‐Rey, C. Momblona, J. Werner, B. Niesen, C. Ballif, M. Sessolo, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(8), 1602121 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T.-W. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, S. Kumar, J. Bär, F. Bertolotti, N. Masciocchi, A. Guagliardi, M. Grotevent, I. Shorubalko, M. I. Bodnarchuk, C. J. Shih, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Dismantling the “Red Wall” of colloidal perovskites: highly luminescent formamidinium and formamidinium–cesium lead iodide nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 11(3), 3119–3134 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (9)

Q. Zhou, Z. Bai, W. G. Lu, Y. Wang, B. Zou, and H. Zhong, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystal‐embedded polymer composite films with enhanced photoluminescence for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 28(41), 9163–9168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Yu, M. Leilaeioun, and Z. Holman, “Selecting tandem partners for silicon solar cells,” Nat. Energy 1(11), 16137 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi‐transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution‐processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ITO electrode,” Adv. Mater. 28(20), 3937–3943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Conings, A. Babayigit, M. T. Klug, S. Bai, N. Gauquelin, N. Sakai, J. T. W. Wang, J. Verbeeck, H. G. Boyen, and H. J. Snaith, “A universal deposition protocol for planar heterojunction solar cells with high efficiency based on hybrid lead halide perovskite families,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10701–10709 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic silver optical constants for plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shirayama, H. Kadowaki, T. Miyadera, T. Sugita, M. Tamakoshi, M. Kato, T. Fujiseki, D. Murata, S. Hara, T. N. Murakami, S. Fujimoto, M. Chikamatsu, and H. Fujiwara, “Optical transitions in hybrid perovskite solar cells: ellipsometry, density functional theory, and quantum efficiency analyses for CH3NH3PbI3,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5(1), 014012 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J.-P. Correa-Baena, K. Jäger, L. Korte, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Towards optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064012 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Todorov, T. Gershon, O. Gunawan, Y. S. Lee, C. Sturdevant, L. Y. Chang, and S. Guha, “Monolithic perovskite‐CIGS tandem solar cells via in situ band gap engineering,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(23), 1500799 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Lee, D. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, S. W. Seo, S. M. Cho, and N. G. Park, “Formamidinium and cesium hybridization for photo‐and moisture‐stable perovskite solar cell,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1501310 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X= Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, C. Menelaou, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Formamidinium lead trihalide: a broadly tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 982–988 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Nguyen, F. E. Rougieux, B. Mitchell, and D. Macdonald, “Temperature dependence of the band-band absorption coefficient in crystalline silicon from photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043710 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

G. Yin, C. Merschjann, and M. Schmid, “The effect of surface roughness on the determination of optical constants of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(21), 213510 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. C. Baker‐Finch and K. R. McIntosh, “Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 406–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

B. Johs and J. S. Hale, “Dielectric function representation by B‐splines,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(4), 715–719 (2008).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and A. Matsuda, “Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the nucleation and grain growth processes in microcrystalline silicon thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 115306 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Lee, P. Rovira, I. An, and R. Collins, “Rotating-compensator multichannel ellipsometry: Applications for real time Stokes vector spectroscopy of thin film growth,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(4), 1800–1810 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

D. Bruggeman, “The calculation of various physical constants of heterogeneous substances. I. The dielectric constants and conductivities of mixtures composed of isotropic substances,” Ann. Phys. 416, 636–791 (1935).
[Crossref]

Abate, A.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aernouts, T.

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical analysis of planar multicrystalline perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700151 (2017).

Albrecht, S.

K. Jäger, L. Korte, B. Rech, and S. Albrecht, “Numerical optical optimization of monolithic planar perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells with regular and inverted device architectures,” Opt. Express 25(12), A473–A482 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Guerra, A. Tejada, L. Korte, L. Kegelmann, J. Töfflinger, S. Albrecht, B. Rech, and R. Weingärtner, “Determination of the complex refractive index and optical bandgap of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(17), 173104 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J.-P. Correa-Baena, K. Jäger, L. Korte, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Towards optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ali, A.

S. Manzoor, J. Y. Zhengshan, A. Ali, W. Ali, K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, S. F. Bent, M. D. McGehee, and Z. C. Holman, “Improved light management in planar silicon and perovskite solar cells using PDMS scattering layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 59–65 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ali, W.

S. Manzoor, J. Y. Zhengshan, A. Ali, W. Ali, K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, S. F. Bent, M. D. McGehee, and Z. C. Holman, “Improved light management in planar silicon and perovskite solar cells using PDMS scattering layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 59–65 (2017).
[Crossref]

An, I.

J. Lee, P. Rovira, I. An, and R. Collins, “Rotating-compensator multichannel ellipsometry: Applications for real time Stokes vector spectroscopy of thin film growth,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(4), 1800–1810 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[Crossref]

Atatüre, M.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babayigit, A.

G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Conings, A. Babayigit, M. T. Klug, S. Bai, N. Gauquelin, N. Sakai, J. T. W. Wang, J. Verbeeck, H. G. Boyen, and H. J. Snaith, “A universal deposition protocol for planar heterojunction solar cells with high efficiency based on hybrid lead halide perovskite families,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10701–10709 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, S.

B. Conings, A. Babayigit, M. T. Klug, S. Bai, N. Gauquelin, N. Sakai, J. T. W. Wang, J. Verbeeck, H. G. Boyen, and H. J. Snaith, “A universal deposition protocol for planar heterojunction solar cells with high efficiency based on hybrid lead halide perovskite families,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10701–10709 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Z.

Q. Zhou, Z. Bai, W. G. Lu, Y. Wang, B. Zou, and H. Zhong, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystal‐embedded polymer composite films with enhanced photoluminescence for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 28(41), 9163–9168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailie, C. D.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi‐transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution‐processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ITO electrode,” Adv. Mater. 28(20), 3937–3943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker-Finch, S. C.

S. C. Baker‐Finch and K. R. McIntosh, “Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 406–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ball, J. M.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Forgacs, L. Gil‐Escrig, D. Pérez‐Del‐Rey, C. Momblona, J. Werner, B. Niesen, C. Ballif, M. Sessolo, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(8), 1602121 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bär, J.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, S. Kumar, J. Bär, F. Bertolotti, N. Masciocchi, A. Guagliardi, M. Grotevent, I. Shorubalko, M. I. Bodnarchuk, C. J. Shih, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Dismantling the “Red Wall” of colloidal perovskites: highly luminescent formamidinium and formamidinium–cesium lead iodide nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 11(3), 3119–3134 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beal, R. E.

K. A. Bush, K. Frohna, R. Prasanna, R. E. Beal, T. Leijtens, S. A. Swifter, and M. D. McGehee, “Compositional engineering for efficient wide band gap perovskites with improved stability to photoinduced phase segregation,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(2), 428–435 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bein, T.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belisle, R. A.

G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bent, S.

G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bent, S. F.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Manzoor, J. Y. Zhengshan, A. Ali, W. Ali, K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, S. F. Bent, M. D. McGehee, and Z. C. Holman, “Improved light management in planar silicon and perovskite solar cells using PDMS scattering layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 59–65 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, F.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, S. Kumar, J. Bär, F. Bertolotti, N. Masciocchi, A. Guagliardi, M. Grotevent, I. Shorubalko, M. I. Bodnarchuk, C. J. Shih, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Dismantling the “Red Wall” of colloidal perovskites: highly luminescent formamidinium and formamidinium–cesium lead iodide nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 11(3), 3119–3134 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blakers, A.

T. Duong, Y. Wu, H. Shen, J. Peng, X. Fu, D. Jacobs, E. C. Wang, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, M. Stocks, E. Franklin, A. Blakers, N. Zin, K. McIntosh, W. Li, Y.-B. Cheng, T. P. White, K. Weber, and K. Catchpole, “Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite‐silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(14), 1700228 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boccard, M.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bodnarchuk, M. I.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, S. Kumar, J. Bär, F. Bertolotti, N. Masciocchi, A. Guagliardi, M. Grotevent, I. Shorubalko, M. I. Bodnarchuk, C. J. Shih, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Dismantling the “Red Wall” of colloidal perovskites: highly luminescent formamidinium and formamidinium–cesium lead iodide nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 11(3), 3119–3134 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X= Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolink, H. J.

D. Forgacs, L. Gil‐Escrig, D. Pérez‐Del‐Rey, C. Momblona, J. Werner, B. Niesen, C. Ballif, M. Sessolo, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(8), 1602121 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bowring, A. R.

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi‐transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution‐processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ITO electrode,” Adv. Mater. 28(20), 3937–3943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyen, H. G.

B. Conings, A. Babayigit, M. T. Klug, S. Bai, N. Gauquelin, N. Sakai, J. T. W. Wang, J. Verbeeck, H. G. Boyen, and H. J. Snaith, “A universal deposition protocol for planar heterojunction solar cells with high efficiency based on hybrid lead halide perovskite families,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10701–10709 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bräuninger, M.

J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bruggeman, D.

D. Bruggeman, “The calculation of various physical constants of heterogeneous substances. I. The dielectric constants and conductivities of mixtures composed of isotropic substances,” Ann. Phys. 416, 636–791 (1935).
[Crossref]

Buonassisi, T.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bush, K. A.

K. A. Bush, K. Frohna, R. Prasanna, R. E. Beal, T. Leijtens, S. A. Swifter, and M. D. McGehee, “Compositional engineering for efficient wide band gap perovskites with improved stability to photoinduced phase segregation,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(2), 428–435 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Manzoor, J. Y. Zhengshan, A. Ali, W. Ali, K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, S. F. Bent, M. D. McGehee, and Z. C. Holman, “Improved light management in planar silicon and perovskite solar cells using PDMS scattering layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 59–65 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi‐transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution‐processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ITO electrode,” Adv. Mater. 28(20), 3937–3943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caputo, R.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X= Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K.

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K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi‐transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution‐processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ITO electrode,” Adv. Mater. 28(20), 3937–3943 (2016).
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G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
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G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
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K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
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K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi‐transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution‐processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ITO electrode,” Adv. Mater. 28(20), 3937–3943 (2016).
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G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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M. Shirayama, H. Kadowaki, T. Miyadera, T. Sugita, M. Tamakoshi, M. Kato, T. Fujiseki, D. Murata, S. Hara, T. N. Murakami, S. Fujimoto, M. Chikamatsu, and H. Fujiwara, “Optical transitions in hybrid perovskite solar cells: ellipsometry, density functional theory, and quantum efficiency analyses for CH3NH3PbI3,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5(1), 014012 (2016).
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M. Shirayama, H. Kadowaki, T. Miyadera, T. Sugita, M. Tamakoshi, M. Kato, T. Fujiseki, D. Murata, S. Hara, T. N. Murakami, S. Fujimoto, M. Chikamatsu, and H. Fujiwara, “Optical transitions in hybrid perovskite solar cells: ellipsometry, density functional theory, and quantum efficiency analyses for CH3NH3PbI3,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5(1), 014012 (2016).
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M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
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H. T. Nguyen, F. E. Rougieux, B. Mitchell, and D. Macdonald, “Temperature dependence of the band-band absorption coefficient in crystalline silicon from photoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043710 (2014).
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J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
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J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
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D. Forgacs, L. Gil‐Escrig, D. Pérez‐Del‐Rey, C. Momblona, J. Werner, B. Niesen, C. Ballif, M. Sessolo, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(8), 1602121 (2017).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
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J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
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M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical analysis of planar multicrystalline perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700151 (2017).

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G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
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K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
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S. Manzoor, J. Y. Zhengshan, A. Ali, W. Ali, K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, S. F. Bent, M. D. McGehee, and Z. C. Holman, “Improved light management in planar silicon and perovskite solar cells using PDMS scattering layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 59–65 (2017).
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G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
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K. A. Bush, K. Frohna, R. Prasanna, R. E. Beal, T. Leijtens, S. A. Swifter, and M. D. McGehee, “Compositional engineering for efficient wide band gap perovskites with improved stability to photoinduced phase segregation,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(2), 428–435 (2018).
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M. Shirayama, H. Kadowaki, T. Miyadera, T. Sugita, M. Tamakoshi, M. Kato, T. Fujiseki, D. Murata, S. Hara, T. N. Murakami, S. Fujimoto, M. Chikamatsu, and H. Fujiwara, “Optical transitions in hybrid perovskite solar cells: ellipsometry, density functional theory, and quantum efficiency analyses for CH3NH3PbI3,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5(1), 014012 (2016).
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J. Guerra, A. Tejada, L. Korte, L. Kegelmann, J. Töfflinger, S. Albrecht, B. Rech, and R. Weingärtner, “Determination of the complex refractive index and optical bandgap of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(17), 173104 (2017).
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Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T.-W. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).
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D. Liu, Q. Wang, C. J. Traverse, C. Yang, M. Young, P. S. Kuttipillai, S. Y. Lunt, T. W. Hamann, and R. R. Lunt, “Impact of ultrathin C60 on perovskite photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano 12(1), 876–883 (2018).
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M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
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G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354(6314), 861–865 (2016).
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K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi‐transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution‐processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ITO electrode,” Adv. Mater. 28(20), 3937–3943 (2016).
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Q. Zhou, Z. Bai, W. G. Lu, Y. Wang, B. Zou, and H. Zhong, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystal‐embedded polymer composite films with enhanced photoluminescence for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 28(41), 9163–9168 (2016).
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H. Shen, J. Peng, D. Jacobs, N. Wu, J. Gong, Y. Wu, S. K. Karuturi, X. Fu, K. Weber, and X. Xiao, “Mechanically-stacked perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cells with efficiency of 23.9% and reduced oxygen sensitivity,” Energy Environ. Sci. 11(2), 394–406 (2018).
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T. Duong, Y. Wu, H. Shen, J. Peng, X. Fu, D. Jacobs, E. C. Wang, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, M. Stocks, E. Franklin, A. Blakers, N. Zin, K. McIntosh, W. Li, Y.-B. Cheng, T. P. White, K. Weber, and K. Catchpole, “Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite‐silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(14), 1700228 (2017).
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J. Guerra, A. Tejada, L. Korte, L. Kegelmann, J. Töfflinger, S. Albrecht, B. Rech, and R. Weingärtner, “Determination of the complex refractive index and optical bandgap of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(17), 173104 (2017).
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J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
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D. Forgacs, L. Gil‐Escrig, D. Pérez‐Del‐Rey, C. Momblona, J. Werner, B. Niesen, C. Ballif, M. Sessolo, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(8), 1602121 (2017).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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White, T. P.

T. Duong, Y. Wu, H. Shen, J. Peng, X. Fu, D. Jacobs, E. C. Wang, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, M. Stocks, E. Franklin, A. Blakers, N. Zin, K. McIntosh, W. Li, Y.-B. Cheng, T. P. White, K. Weber, and K. Catchpole, “Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite‐silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(14), 1700228 (2017).
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Wu, N.

H. Shen, J. Peng, D. Jacobs, N. Wu, J. Gong, Y. Wu, S. K. Karuturi, X. Fu, K. Weber, and X. Xiao, “Mechanically-stacked perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cells with efficiency of 23.9% and reduced oxygen sensitivity,” Energy Environ. Sci. 11(2), 394–406 (2018).
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Wu, Y.

H. Shen, J. Peng, D. Jacobs, N. Wu, J. Gong, Y. Wu, S. K. Karuturi, X. Fu, K. Weber, and X. Xiao, “Mechanically-stacked perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cells with efficiency of 23.9% and reduced oxygen sensitivity,” Energy Environ. Sci. 11(2), 394–406 (2018).
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T. Duong, Y. Wu, H. Shen, J. Peng, X. Fu, D. Jacobs, E. C. Wang, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, M. Stocks, E. Franklin, A. Blakers, N. Zin, K. McIntosh, W. Li, Y.-B. Cheng, T. P. White, K. Weber, and K. Catchpole, “Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite‐silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(14), 1700228 (2017).
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Xiao, X.

H. Shen, J. Peng, D. Jacobs, N. Wu, J. Gong, Y. Wu, S. K. Karuturi, X. Fu, K. Weber, and X. Xiao, “Mechanically-stacked perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cells with efficiency of 23.9% and reduced oxygen sensitivity,” Energy Environ. Sci. 11(2), 394–406 (2018).
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Xiao, Z.

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T.-W. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).
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Xing, G.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, S. Kumar, J. Bär, F. Bertolotti, N. Masciocchi, A. Guagliardi, M. Grotevent, I. Shorubalko, M. I. Bodnarchuk, C. J. Shih, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Dismantling the “Red Wall” of colloidal perovskites: highly luminescent formamidinium and formamidinium–cesium lead iodide nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 11(3), 3119–3134 (2017).
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L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X= Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

D. Liu, Q. Wang, C. J. Traverse, C. Yang, M. Young, P. S. Kuttipillai, S. Y. Lunt, T. W. Hamann, and R. R. Lunt, “Impact of ultrathin C60 on perovskite photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano 12(1), 876–883 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R. X.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X= Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T. C.-J.

J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yantara, N.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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G. Yin, C. Merschjann, and M. Schmid, “The effect of surface roughness on the determination of optical constants of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(21), 213510 (2013).
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Young, M.

D. Liu, Q. Wang, C. J. Traverse, C. Yang, M. Young, P. S. Kuttipillai, S. Y. Lunt, T. W. Hamann, and R. R. Lunt, “Impact of ultrathin C60 on perovskite photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano 12(1), 876–883 (2018).
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Yu, Z. J.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
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Z. J. Yu, M. Leilaeioun, and Z. Holman, “Selecting tandem partners for silicon solar cells,” Nat. Energy 1(11), 16137 (2016).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zakeeruddin, S. M.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
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Zhang, W.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
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Zhao, L.

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T.-W. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).
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Zhengshan, J. Y.

S. Manzoor, J. Y. Zhengshan, A. Ali, W. Ali, K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, S. F. Bent, M. D. McGehee, and Z. C. Holman, “Improved light management in planar silicon and perovskite solar cells using PDMS scattering layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 59–65 (2017).
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Zhong, H.

Q. Zhou, Z. Bai, W. G. Lu, Y. Wang, B. Zou, and H. Zhong, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystal‐embedded polymer composite films with enhanced photoluminescence for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 28(41), 9163–9168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, Z. Bai, W. G. Lu, Y. Wang, B. Zou, and H. Zhong, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystal‐embedded polymer composite films with enhanced photoluminescence for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 28(41), 9163–9168 (2016).
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Ziffer, M. E.

M. T. Hörantner, T. Leijtens, M. E. Ziffer, G. E. Eperon, M. G. Christoforo, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “The potential of multijunction perovskite solar cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(10), 2506–2513 (2017).
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Zin, N.

T. Duong, Y. Wu, H. Shen, J. Peng, X. Fu, D. Jacobs, E. C. Wang, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, M. Stocks, E. Franklin, A. Blakers, N. Zin, K. McIntosh, W. Li, Y.-B. Cheng, T. P. White, K. Weber, and K. Catchpole, “Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite‐silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(14), 1700228 (2017).
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Zou, B.

Q. Zhou, Z. Bai, W. G. Lu, Y. Wang, B. Zou, and H. Zhong, “In situ fabrication of halide perovskite nanocrystal‐embedded polymer composite films with enhanced photoluminescence for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 28(41), 9163–9168 (2016).
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ACS Energy Lett. (3)

J. Werner, G. Nogay, F. Sahli, T. C.-J. Yang, M. Bräuninger, G. Christmann, A. Walter, B. A. Kamino, P. Fiala, P. Löper, S. Nicolay, Q. Jeangros, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive indices of cesium–formamidinium-based mixed-halide perovskites with optical band gaps from 1.5 to 1.8 eV,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. A. Bush, K. Frohna, R. Prasanna, R. E. Beal, T. Leijtens, S. A. Swifter, and M. D. McGehee, “Compositional engineering for efficient wide band gap perovskites with improved stability to photoinduced phase segregation,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(2), 428–435 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hörantner, T. Leijtens, M. E. Ziffer, G. E. Eperon, M. G. Christoforo, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “The potential of multijunction perovskite solar cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(10), 2506–2513 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

D. Liu, Q. Wang, C. J. Traverse, C. Yang, M. Young, P. S. Kuttipillai, S. Y. Lunt, T. W. Hamann, and R. R. Lunt, “Impact of ultrathin C60 on perovskite photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano 12(1), 876–883 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, S. Kumar, J. Bär, F. Bertolotti, N. Masciocchi, A. Guagliardi, M. Grotevent, I. Shorubalko, M. I. Bodnarchuk, C. J. Shih, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Dismantling the “Red Wall” of colloidal perovskites: highly luminescent formamidinium and formamidinium–cesium lead iodide nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 11(3), 3119–3134 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater. (4)

J. W. Lee, D. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, S. W. Seo, S. M. Cho, and N. G. Park, “Formamidinium and cesium hybridization for photo‐and moisture‐stable perovskite solar cell,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1501310 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Todorov, T. Gershon, O. Gunawan, Y. S. Lee, C. Sturdevant, L. Y. Chang, and S. Guha, “Monolithic perovskite‐CIGS tandem solar cells via in situ band gap engineering,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(23), 1500799 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Forgacs, L. Gil‐Escrig, D. Pérez‐Del‐Rey, C. Momblona, J. Werner, B. Niesen, C. Ballif, M. Sessolo, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(8), 1602121 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Duong, Y. Wu, H. Shen, J. Peng, X. Fu, D. Jacobs, E. C. Wang, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, M. Stocks, E. Franklin, A. Blakers, N. Zin, K. McIntosh, W. Li, Y.-B. Cheng, T. P. White, K. Weber, and K. Catchpole, “Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite‐silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(14), 1700228 (2017).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Data File 1       Optical constants of wide-bandgap perovskite absorbers determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotomety

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Optical model used in fitting ellipsometry spectra of perovskite films on glass or quartz. (b) Schematic of single-junction semi-transparent perovskite cells used to validate optical modeling. AFM (c, e, and g) and SEM (d, f, and h) images of perovskite films for which ellipsometry, transmittance, and reflectance spectra were collected to determine optical constants.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photoluminescence (a) and transmittance (b) of MAPI, Cs17/Br17, Cs25/Br20 perovskite films on glass.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) (a) multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra and (b) reflectance and transmittance spectra of a MAPI film on glass.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Comparison of determined MAPI optical constants with those available in the literature [22,38,39]. (b) Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) total absorptance (1-R) and EQE of MAPI cell with a detached silver reflector.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) (a) multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra and (b) reflectance and transmittance spectra of a Cs25/Br20 film on quartz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical constants of Cs25/Br20, Cs17/Br17, and MAPI perovskites as determined from fitting ellipsometry and spectrophotometry data. This data is available in Data File 1. For the Cs25/Br20 and Cs17/Br17 perovskites, ellipsometry data was collected only between the wavelength range of 370–1690 nm and thus the optical constants at wavelengths below 370 nm and beyond 1680 nm are purely the result of the TL oscillators placed within the measured spectral range.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) total absorptance (1-R) and EQE of (a) Cs25/Br20 and (b) Cs17/Br17 cells with detached silver reflectors.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Breakdown of optical losses in the (a) Cs25/Br20 and (b) Cs17/Br17 cells.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Optical constants obtained for (a) Cs25/Br20 and (b) Cs17/Br17 perovskites by translating the MAPI complex refractive index according to Eq. (1).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Schematic of the two-terminal perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell used in optical modeling, and (b) corresponding simulated tandem Jsc for variable top-cell bandgap and thickness.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) (a) multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra and (b) reflectance and transmittance spectra of a front ITO film on glass.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) (a) multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra and (b) reflectance and transmittance spectra of a rear ITO film on glass.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Optical constants of the front and rear ITO as determined from fitting ellipsometry and spectrophotometry data.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) (a) multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra and (b)reflectance and transmittance spectra of a SnO2 film on glass.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) (a) multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra and (b) reflectance and transmittance spectra of a C60 film on glass.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) (a) multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra and (b) reflectance and transmittance spectra of a NiOx film on SiO2-coated single-side-polished silicon.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Optical constants of SnO2, C60, and NiOx as determined from fitting ellipsometry and spectrophotometry data.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) (a) multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra and (b) reflectance and transmittance spectra of a Cs17/Br17 film on quartz.
Fig. 19
Fig. 19 Cross-sectional SEM images of (a) MAPI, (b) Cs17/Br17, and (c) Cs25/Br20 single-junction solar cells for thickness estimation of the front ITO, rear ITO, and perovskite layers.
Fig. 20
Fig. 20 (a) Optical constants for MAPI, Cs17/Br17, and Cs25/Br20 perovskites resulting from B-Spline fitting (b) Dielectric function of MAPI, Cs17/Br17, and Cs25/Br20 perovskites resulting from Tauc-Lorentz oscillator fitting.
Fig. 21
Fig. 21 Simulated (line) and measured (symbol) total absorptance (1-R) and EQE of (a) Cs25/Br20 and (b) Cs17/Br17 cells with detached silver reflectors. The simulations were performed with translated refractive indices from Eq. (1).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Values of dielectric function parameters of the best fits to ellipsometric and spectrophotometric data for perovskite films. ds is the surface roughness layer thickness, db is the bulk perovskite thickness, Eg is the bandgap of the perovskite, and Amp is the strength, Br is the breadth, and Eo is the energy position of the oscillator, all given in eV.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Thicknesses (in nm) estimated from the cross-sectional SEM images shown in Fig. 19.

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Table 3 Thicknesses (in nm) used in the SunSolve optical simulations of single-junction perovskite solar cells.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Thicknesses (in nm) used in the SunSolve optical simulations of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells.

Equations (1)

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λ new =λ( Δ λ bandgap +10 )×( λ 1200 )        300 nmλ1200 nm