Abstract

We propose and demonstrate four-channel all-optical switches based on silicon photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities, with an area of only 31 μm2 per channel. For these switches, signal extraction and rejection functions have been successfully demonstrated while the signal speed is limited to 2.5 Gb/s due to the slow switching recovery process in silicon. In order to improve the signal speed, first, a blue-detuned filtering method is employed to suppress the slow switching recovery tails of the output signal light based on passive resonant devices. The suppressing mechanism relies on the extraction of the large blue-chirped component in the fast rising edge, while suppressing the red-chirped component in the slow switching recovery tail. A detailed theoretical model is established to analyze the improvement mechanism of the switching dynamic characteristics in the silicon PhC nanobeam cavity. Moreover, the simulated and experimental results have both shown that the switching recovery time of the output signal light is greatly reduced from 500 ps to 50 ps. Thus, the processing of 10-Gb/s optical signals has been experimentally demonstrated with the help of the blue-detuned filtering method.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (2)

G. Moille, S. Combrié, L. Morgenroth, G. Lehoucq, F. Neuilly, B. Hu, D. Decoster, and A. de Rossi, “Integrated all-optical switch with 10 ps time resolution enabled by ALD,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(3), 409–419 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, M. Li, R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, M. Lu, L. A. Coldren, and J. Yao, “A fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 190–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

M. Belotti, M. Galli, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, G. Guizzetti, A. R. Md Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “All-optical switching in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire nano-cavities,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1450–1461 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hua, M. Galili, H. Hao, P. Minhao, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28-Tb/s Demultiplexing of an OTDM DPSK Data Signal Using a Silicon Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1762–1764 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021111 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031115 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Coupled-mode theory for stimulated Raman scattering in high-Q/V(m) silicon photonic band gap defect cavity lasers,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4763–4780 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

Asano, T.

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bayle, F.

Bazin, A.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Belotti, M.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bolten, J.

Bose, R.

Boucaud, P.

Bramerie, L.

Cabot, S.

Cazier, N.

Checoury, X.

Chen, B.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitgarha, M. R.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

W. Liu, M. Li, R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, M. Lu, L. A. Coldren, and J. Yao, “A fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 190–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Combrié, S.

Corredera, P.

Dalton, L.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De La Rue, R. M.

de Rossi, A.

Decoster, D.

G. Moille, S. Combrié, L. Morgenroth, G. Lehoucq, F. Neuilly, B. Hu, D. Decoster, and A. de Rossi, “Integrated all-optical switch with 10 ps time resolution enabled by ALD,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(3), 409–419 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deotare, P. B.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

J. Dong, S. Fu, X. Zhang, P. Shum, L. Zhang, and D. Huang, “Analytical Solution for SOA-Based All-Optical Wavelength Conversion Using Transient Cross-Phase Modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2554–2556 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, J. Dong, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Zhang, and D. Huang, “Experimental demonstration of both inverted and non-inverted wavelength conversion based on transient cross phase modulation of SOA,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7587–7593 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorren, H. J. S.

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ek, S.

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Först, M.

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

J. Dong, S. Fu, X. Zhang, P. Shum, L. Zhang, and D. Huang, “Analytical Solution for SOA-Based All-Optical Wavelength Conversion Using Transient Cross-Phase Modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2554–2556 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, J. Dong, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Zhang, and D. Huang, “Experimental demonstration of both inverted and non-inverted wavelength conversion based on transient cross phase modulation of SOA,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7587–7593 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuchs, K.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Galili, M.

J. Hua, M. Galili, H. Hao, P. Minhao, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28-Tb/s Demultiplexing of an OTDM DPSK Data Signal Using a Silicon Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1762–1764 (2010).
[Crossref]

Galli, M.

Gay, M.

Gerace, D.

Giles, C. R.

González-Herráez, M.

Gottheil, M.

Guizzetti, G.

Guzzon, R. S.

W. Liu, M. Li, R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, M. Lu, L. A. Coldren, and J. Yao, “A fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 190–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hao, H.

J. Hua, M. Galili, H. Hao, P. Minhao, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28-Tb/s Demultiplexing of an OTDM DPSK Data Signal Using a Silicon Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1762–1764 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haret, L. D.

Harvard, K.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

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Opt. Lett. (5)

Photon. Res. (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the four-channel all-optical switches.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM image of the fabricated device. (b) Resonant wavelengths for integrated PhC nanobeam cavities.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Operation principle for (a) signal extraction and (b) signal rejection.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for the four-channel all-optical switches. DUT: device under test.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Switching dynamics for each channel. Input waveforms for pump light and 2.5-Gb/s signal clock light, and output signal waveforms for (a) signal extraction and (b) signal rejection.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated switching dynamics of a PhC nanocavity with a peak power of 30-mW pump light and a 0.23-mW CW signal light. The carrier lifetime is 0.5 ns. (a)-(d) are the input pump and signal light, and output pump and signal light, respectively. (e) Carrier concentration and (f) refractive index in the cavity. (g) Nonlinear phase shift and (h) chirp of the output signal light. The inset figure in (h) shows the small red-chirped component of the output signal light.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a)-(c) Performing blue-detuned filtering on output signal light. (a) The spectrum before filtering and OBF with different blue-detuned value. (b) The spectra and (c) waveforms of signal light after filtering with different blue-detuned value. (d)-(f) Performing red-detuned filtering on output signal light. (d) The spectrum before filtering and OBF with different red-detuned value. (e) The spectra and (f) waveforms of signal light after filtering with different red-detuned value.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Output temporal waveforms and spectra. (a) Waveforms and (b) spectra of output signal light with 0, 0.06-nm and 0.12-nm blue-detuned value.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Switching dynamics for each channel. Output waveforms for signal extraction (a) without blue-detuned filtering and (b) with blue-detuned filtering.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a)-(c) Switching dynamics of a PhC nanocavity with a 1-Gb/s pump light and a CW signal light. (d)-(f) Switching dynamics of a PhC nanocavity with a 10-Gb/s pump light and a CW signal light. The carrier lifetime is 0.5 ns. (a) and (d) are both output signal light with and without blue-detuned filtering. (b) and (e) are the carrier concentration in the cavity. (c) and (f) are the chirp of the output signal light.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Switching dynamics of a PhC nanocavity with a 10-Gb/s pump light and a CW signal light. The carrier lifetime is 50 ps. (a) Output signal light with and without blue-detuned filtering. (b) Carrier concentration in the cavity. (c) Chirp of the output signal light.

Equations (14)

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d a p (t) dt =(j( ω 0 ' ω p ) 1 2 τ total ) a p (t)+ 1 τ 1 S +1 p (t)
d a s (t) dt =(j( ω 0 ' ω s ) 1 2 τ total ) a s (t)+ 1 τ 1 S +1 s (t)
dN(t) dt = β c 2 2 ω p n 2 V FCA 2 | a p | 4 N(t) τ recom
ω 0 ' =2πc/( λ 0 +Δ λ free +Δ λ thermal +Δ λ kerr )
1/ τ total =1/ τ v +1/ τ in +1/ τ TPA +1/ τ FCA
A p,s (t)= 1 τ 2 a p,s (t)
a= 1/ τ 1 S +1 j(ω ω 0 ' )+ 1 2 τ total
| a | 2 = ( 1/ τ 1 ) P sw (ω ω 0 ' ) 2 + ( 1 2 τ total ) 2
| a | 2 = 4 Q total 2 P sw (4 κ 2 +1) ω 0 Q 1
Δn= e 2 N 2 ε 0 m n 0 ω 0 2
N= β c 2 τ recom 2 ω 0 n 0 2 V FCA 2 | a | 4
1 Q total = β e 2 c 2 τ recom 4κ ε 0 m ω 0 3 n 0 4 × | a | 4 V FCA 2
P sw = κ (4 κ 2 +1) 2 ε 0 m ω 0 5 n 0 4 4β e 2 c 2 τ recom × V FCA Q 1 Q total 5 2
P sw =A V FCA Q total 3 2

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