Abstract

Waveguide crossing is an important integrated photonic component that will be routinely used for high-density and large-scale photonic integrated circuits, such as optical switches and routers. Several techniques have been reported in achieving high performance waveguide crossings on a silicon-on-insulator photonic platform, i.e., low-loss and low-crosstalk waveguide crossings based on multimode interference, bi-layer tapering, optical transformation, metamaterials, and subwavelength gratings. Until recently, not much attention has been given to the reduction of the footprint of waveguide crossings. Here we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-compact waveguide crossing on silicon photonic platform with a footprint only ~1 × 1 μm2. Our simulations show that it has a low insertion loss (< 0.175 dB) and low crosstalk (< −37dB) across the whole C-band, while the fabricated one has an insertion loss < 0.28 dB and crosstalk around −30 dB for the C-band.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (1)

2015 (6)

J. Wang, C. Lee, B. Niu, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, F. Gan, and M. Qi, “A silicon-on-insulator polarization diversity scheme in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 23(11), 15029–15037 (2015).
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[Crossref]

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, C. Xu, C. Zeng, W. Wang, J. Yang, H. Yu, and X. Jiang, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide crossing based on the multimode interference effect,” Opt. Commun. 335, 86–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S.-H. Kim, G. Cong, H. Kawashima, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Tilted MMI crossings based on silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2545–2552 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wahl, T. Tanemura, N. Vermeulen, J. Van Erps, D. A. B. Miller, and H. Thienpont, “Design of large scale plasmonic nanoslit arrays for arbitrary mode conversion and demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 646–660 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801–2803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sanchis, J. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. Piqueras, and J. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(2), 397–407 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babinec, T. M.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, E. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible, low-loss, and low-crosstalk silicon waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 422–425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29374–29382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bernier, E.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Low-loss waveguide crossings for photonic integrated circuits on SOI technology”, Proc. Group IV Photon. Conf., 189–190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

Brimont, A.

Celo, D.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Low-loss waveguide crossings for photonic integrated circuits on SOI technology”, Proc. Group IV Photon. Conf., 189–190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. K.

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

Cong, G.

Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuesta, F.

Dai, D.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

DeRose, C. T.

Ding, R.

Duan, N.

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dumais, P.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Low-loss waveguide crossings for photonic integrated circuits on SOI technology”, Proc. Group IV Photon. Conf., 189–190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

Galan, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. Piqueras, and J. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[Crossref]

Galán, J. V.

Galland, C.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, E. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible, low-loss, and low-crosstalk silicon waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 422–425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gan, F.

Georgas, M. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodwill, D. J.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Low-loss waveguide crossings for photonic integrated circuits on SOI technology”, Proc. Group IV Photon. Conf., 189–190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Griol, A.

P. Sanchis, P. Villalba, F. Cuesta, A. Håkansson, A. Griol, J. V. Galán, A. Brimont, and J. Martí, “Highly efficient crossing structure for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2760–2762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sanchis, J. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. Piqueras, and J. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guan, X.

Håkansson, A.

Hall, T. J.

Hasama, T.

Hochberg, M.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29374–29382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, E. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible, low-loss, and low-crosstalk silicon waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 422–425 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, A.

Huang, H.

Ishikawa, H.

Janz, S.

Jiang, J.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, P. Dumais, J. Jiang, and E. Bernier, “Low-loss waveguide crossings for photonic integrated circuits on SOI technology”, Proc. Group IV Photon. Conf., 189–190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Y. Li, C. Xu, C. Zeng, W. Wang, J. Yang, H. Yu, and X. Jiang, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide crossing based on the multimode interference effect,” Opt. Commun. 335, 86–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jones, A. M.

Kawashima, H.

Kim, S.-H.

Kumar, R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.

Lagoudakis, K. G.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

Lee, C.

Lee, Y.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lentine, A. L.

Leu, J. C.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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Lim, E.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, E. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible, low-loss, and low-crosstalk silicon waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 422–425 (2013).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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Lo, G.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, E. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible, low-loss, and low-crosstalk silicon waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 422–425 (2013).
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Lo, G.-Q.

Lu, J.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
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J. Lu and J. Vučković, “Nanophotonic computational design,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13351–13367 (2013).
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Lu, L.

Ma, Y.

Marti, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. Piqueras, and J. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
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Martí, J.

Menon, R.

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 378–382 (2015).
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Miller, D. A. B.

Moss, B. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Norwood, R. A.

Novack, A.

Orcutt, J. S.

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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Pavanello, F.

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Petykiewicz, J.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
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Piggott, A. Y.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
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Piqueras, M.

P. Sanchis, J. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. Piqueras, and J. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
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Polson, R.

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 378–382 (2015).
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H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
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Qing, F.

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B. Shen, P. Wang, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 378–382 (2015).
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A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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J. Lu and J. Vučković, “Nanophotonic computational design,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13351–13367 (2013).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Wang, P.

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 378–382 (2015).
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Y. Li, C. Xu, C. Zeng, W. Wang, J. Yang, H. Yu, and X. Jiang, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide crossing based on the multimode interference effect,” Opt. Commun. 335, 86–89 (2015).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

P. Sanchis, J. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. Piqueras, and J. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
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H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
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Y. Zhang, S. Yang, E. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible, low-loss, and low-crosstalk silicon waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 422–425 (2013).
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Nature (1)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Li, C. Xu, C. Zeng, W. Wang, J. Yang, H. Yu, and X. Jiang, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide crossing based on the multimode interference effect,” Opt. Commun. 335, 86–89 (2015).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of our waveguide-crossing structure, (b) zoom-in view of one tapered section, and (c) zoom-in view of the etched holes. Yellow box denotes the design region, and the blue triangle denotes the basic repeating unit of the design region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematics for the optimized waveguide crossing design with 3, 4 and 5 etch holes in the basic repeating unit, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of our waveguide-crossing structure with etched lens-like structures, (b) zoom-in view of one tapered section, and (c) zoom-in view of the etched lens-like structures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Insertion loss and crosstalk for our optimized waveguide crossing with lens-like structures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Steady state power flow for our waveguide-crossing structure, (a) with all four lens-like structures, (b) with only two lens-like structures in horizontal direction, and (c) with only two lens-like structures in vertical direction. Solid lines denote the outline of the waveguide-crossing structure.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Impact of geometric parameter variations on the insertion loss and crosstalk at 1550 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 SEM images of a typical fabricated waveguide crossing device. The inset shows the details of the center crossing region.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Insertion loss for devices with a different number of waveguide crossings. (b) Insertion loss and crosstalk for a single typical waveguide-crossing structure over the range from 1528 nm to 1567 nm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Waveguide-crossing structure parameters (μm)

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Table 2 Waveguide-crossing structure parameters (μm)

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