Abstract

Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) photonics promises to combine the excellent nonlinear properties of lithium niobate with the high complexity achievable by high contrast waveguides. However, to date, fabrication challenges have resulted in high-loss and sidewall-angled waveguides, limiting its applicability. We report LNOI single mode waveguides with ultra low propagation loss of 0.4 dB/cm and sidewall angle of 75°. Our results open the route to a highly efficient photonic platform with applications ranging from high-speed telecommunication to quantum technology.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (5)

2016 (6)

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO3 thin-film modulators using silicon nitride surface ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rueter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24, 1386–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25, 6963 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Stepanenko, E. Quillier, H. Tronche, P. Baldi, and M. De Micheli, “Highly confining proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 with preserved nonlinear coefficient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1557–1560 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Takigawa, E. Higurashi, T. Kawanishi, and T. Asano, “Lithium niobate ridged waveguides with smooth vertical sidewalls fabricated by an ultra-precision cutting method,” Opt. Express 22, 27733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I.-C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22, 30924–30933 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-Loss, Silicon Integrated, Aluminum Nitride Photonic Circuits and Their Use for Electro-Optic Signal Processing,” Nano Lett. 12, 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 301–313 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17, 24261–24268 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Hu, A. P. Milenin, R. B. Wehrspohn, H. Hermann, and W. Sohler, “Plasma etching of proton-exchanged lithium niobate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 24, 1012–1015 (2006).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abdulhalim, I.

Z. Zalevsky and I. Abdulhalim, Integrated Nanophotonic Devices, Micro Nano Technol. (William Andrew/Elsevier, 2010).

Agnarsson, B.

Alibart, O.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andrade, N.

Arnfinnsdottir, N. B.

Asano, T.

Atikian, H. A.

Baldi, P.

O. Stepanenko, E. Quillier, H. Tronche, P. Baldi, and M. De Micheli, “Highly confining proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 with preserved nonlinear coefficient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1557–1560 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barton, J. S.

Bauters, J. F.

Belmonte, M.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 301–313 (2009).
[Crossref]

Billat, A.

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brés, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun.  8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bowers, J. E.

Brés, C.-S.

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brés, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun.  8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Breunig, I.

Burek, M. J.

Buse, K.

Chang, L.

Chiles, J.

D’Auria, V.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

DasMahapatra, P.

R. Stabile, P. DasMahapatra, and K. Williams, “First 4×4 InP switch matrix based on third-order micro-ring-resonators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), p. Th1C.3.
[Crossref]

De Micheli, M.

O. Stepanenko, E. Quillier, H. Tronche, P. Baldi, and M. De Micheli, “Highly confining proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 with preserved nonlinear coefficient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1557–1560 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dietrich, C. P.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Diziain, S.

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doutre, F.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fathpour, S.

Fejer, M. M.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fiore, A.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

García-Granda, M.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 301–313 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geiss, R.

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grange, R.

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grassani, D.

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brés, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun.  8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Günter, P.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. textbf6, 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.-C.

Halldorsson, J.

He, Y.

Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R. G.

Hermann, H.

H. Hu, A. P. Milenin, R. B. Wehrspohn, H. Hermann, and W. Sohler, “Plasma etching of proton-exchanged lithium niobate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 24, 1012–1015 (2006).
[Crossref]

Higurashi, E.

Hiraki, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höfling, S.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17, 24261–24268 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, A. P. Milenin, R. B. Wehrspohn, H. Hermann, and W. Sohler, “Plasma etching of proton-exchanged lithium niobate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 24, 1012–1015 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguides Fabricated by Wet Etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. textbf19, 417–419 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. textbf6, 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, I.-C.

Ishikawa, Y.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janner, D.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 301–313 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jin, S.

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO3 thin-film modulators using silicon nitride surface ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

John, D.

Johnson, A. R.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jonsdottir, A. B.

Kaiser, F.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawanishi, T.

Keller, U.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khan, S.

Kharitonov, S.

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brés, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun.  8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kip, D.

Kippenberg, T. J.

L. Chang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, N. Volet, M. Zervas, J. D. Peters, C. L. Manganelli, E. J. Stanton, Y. Li, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous integration of lithium niobate and silicon nitride waveguides for wafer-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 42, 803–806 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brés, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun.  8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Klenner, A.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kley, E.-B.

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kou, R.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Labonté, L.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laing, A.

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Langrock, C.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leinse, A.

Leosson, K.

Li, Y.

Liang, H.

Lin, Q.

Lin, Z.

Lipson, M.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lobino, M.

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

Luke, K.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lunghi, T.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, R.

Ma, J.

Manganelli, C. L.

Matthews, J. C. F.

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mayer, A. S.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Micheli, M. De

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Milenin, A. P.

H. Hu, A. P. Milenin, R. B. Wehrspohn, H. Hermann, and W. Sohler, “Plasma etching of proton-exchanged lithium niobate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 24, 1012–1015 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nishi, H.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, J. L.

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

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C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-Loss, Silicon Integrated, Aluminum Nitride Photonic Circuits and Their Use for Electro-Optic Signal Processing,” Nano Lett. 12, 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peruzzo, A.

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

L. Chang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, N. Volet, M. Zervas, J. D. Peters, C. L. Manganelli, E. J. Stanton, Y. Li, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous integration of lithium niobate and silicon nitride waveguides for wafer-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 42, 803–806 (2017).
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A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brés, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun.  8, 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phillips, C. R.

A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Picholle, É.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. textbf6, 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Politi, A.

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pruneri, V.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 301–313 (2009).
[Crossref]

Quillier, E.

O. Stepanenko, E. Quillier, H. Tronche, P. Baldi, and M. De Micheli, “Highly confining proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 with preserved nonlinear coefficient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1557–1560 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ren, X.-F.

Ricken, R.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17, 24261–24268 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguides Fabricated by Wet Etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. textbf19, 417–419 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Rueter, C. E.

Saravi, S.

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
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R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeyev, A.

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
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Setzpfandt, F.

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
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Shadbolt, P. G.

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
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H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17, 24261–24268 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, A. P. Milenin, R. B. Wehrspohn, H. Hermann, and W. Sohler, “Plasma etching of proton-exchanged lithium niobate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 24, 1012–1015 (2006).
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R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguides Fabricated by Wet Etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. textbf19, 417–419 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. textbf6, 488–503 (2012).
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R. Stabile, P. DasMahapatra, and K. Williams, “First 4×4 InP switch matrix based on third-order micro-ring-resonators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), p. Th1C.3.
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Stanton, E. J.

Stark, P.

Stepanenko, O.

O. Stepanenko, E. Quillier, H. Tronche, P. Baldi, and M. De Micheli, “Highly confining proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 with preserved nonlinear coefficient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1557–1560 (2014).
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Suntsov, S.

Takeda, K.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takigawa, R.

Tang, H. X.

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-Loss, Silicon Integrated, Aluminum Nitride Photonic Circuits and Their Use for Electro-Optic Signal Processing,” Nano Lett. 12, 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanzilli, S.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
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Thompson, M. G.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 870–894 (2016).
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P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
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Tien, M.-C.

Tronche, H.

O. Stepanenko, E. Quillier, H. Tronche, P. Baldi, and M. De Micheli, “Highly confining proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 with preserved nonlinear coefficient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1557–1560 (2014).
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K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
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Tulli, D.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 301–313 (2009).
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R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
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Venkataraman, V.

Verde, M. R.

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
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Volk, M. F.

Wada, K.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
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H. Hu, A. P. Milenin, R. B. Wehrspohn, H. Hermann, and W. Sohler, “Plasma etching of proton-exchanged lithium niobate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 24, 1012–1015 (2006).
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R. Stabile, P. DasMahapatra, and K. Williams, “First 4×4 InP switch matrix based on third-order micro-ring-resonators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), p. Th1C.3.
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C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-Loss, Silicon Integrated, Aluminum Nitride Photonic Circuits and Their Use for Electro-Optic Signal Processing,” Nano Lett. 12, 3562–3568 (2012).
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K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater 15, 024603 (2014).
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S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO3 thin-film modulators using silicon nitride surface ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 736–739 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO3 thin-film modulators using silicon nitride surface ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Stepanenko, E. Quillier, H. Tronche, P. Baldi, and M. De Micheli, “Highly confining proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 with preserved nonlinear coefficient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1557–1560 (2014).
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J. Opt (1)

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. De Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, É. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films (1)

H. Hu, A. P. Milenin, R. B. Wehrspohn, H. Hermann, and W. Sohler, “Plasma etching of proton-exchanged lithium niobate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A: Vac. Surf. Films 24, 1012–1015 (2006).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. García-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 301–313 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-Loss, Silicon Integrated, Aluminum Nitride Photonic Circuits and Their Use for Electro-Optic Signal Processing,” Nano Lett. 12, 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun (1)

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brés, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun.  8, 1016 (2017).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

P. G. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2012).
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Opt. Express (10)

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C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25, 6963 (2016).
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J. Halldorsson, N. B. Arnfinnsdottir, A. B. Jonsdottir, B. Agnarsson, and K. Leosson, “High index contrast polymer waveguide platform for integrated biophotonics,” Opt. Express 18, 16217–16226 (2010).
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R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. Rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and broadband parametric down-conversion in a lithium niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25, 24531–24539 (2017).
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P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 25573–25581 (2013).
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R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25, 29927–29933 (2017).
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H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17, 24261–24268 (2009).
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C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I.-C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22, 30924–30933 (2014).
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M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rueter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24, 1386–1391 (2016).
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R. Takigawa, E. Higurashi, T. Kawanishi, and T. Asano, “Lithium niobate ridged waveguides with smooth vertical sidewalls fabricated by an ultra-precision cutting method,” Opt. Express 22, 27733 (2014).
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Opt. Lett (1)

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett 40, 2715 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Design of a 1550 nm LNOI waveguides; the top width is 810 nm, bottom width is 1 µm and the height is 270 nm. The dimensions are extracted from SEM measurements: (a) schematic cross-section of Z-cut LNOI waveguide; (b) electromagnetic field distribution for TE mode; (c) electromagnetic field distribution for TM mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabrication process of LNOI waveguides: (a) a cross-section of the initial LNOI substrate used for waveguide fabrication; (b) a positive resist is patterned by electron-beam lithography followed by a metal film layer deposition using an electron beam evaporator; (c) hard metal mask is formed via lift off technique; (d) RIE to transfer the pattern into the lithium niobate followed by the metal mask removal via wet etching; (e) etched rib waveguide without metal mask; (f) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) deposition of SiO2 protective layer over fabricated structure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scanning electron microscope images: (a) typical sidewall roughness achieved with optimized fabrication process; (b) cross-section of an optical component discussed in this article.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectrum of fabricated devices: (a) SEM image of a LNOI s-bend waveguide; (b) transmission spectrum of s-bend LNOI used for calculating the propagation loss of the TE mode; (c) optical ring resonator with 15 µm radius and 300 nm gap between ring and bus waveguide used in this experiment; (d) transmission spectrum of the ring resonator used to determine the effective index of the TE mode. The vertical dashed gray lines highlight four neighbouring resonances of the ring; their separation gives a FSR of 10 nm.

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