Abstract

Reconfigurable optical mode multiplexers/demultiplexers have attracted increasing attention in the academic community, because they enable convenient construction of flexible and complex on-chip optical networks. Here, we propose and demonstrate a scheme of reconfigurable and scalable optical mode multiplexer/demultiplexer with large operation bandwidth, based on three-waveguide-coupling structures. As proof of concept, a reconfigurable device that can multiplex input signals to the fundamental and first-order quasi-transverse electric mode is fully fabricated and demonstrated successfully. Static response spectra show that the optical crosstalk at the output ports of the device are less than −14.3 dB and −13.7 dB over the entire C band (> 40 nm), respectively. The dynamic performance with data transmission speeds of 40 Gbps for each multiplexing channel are also demonstrated successfully. The presented device is believed to be a potential candidate for future on-chip optical network with large-scale integration, flexible functionality, and low cost.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

2017 (3)

2016 (7)

F. Guo, D. Lu, R. K. Zhang, H. T. Wang, and C. Ji, “A two-mode (de) multiplexer based on multimode interferometer coupler and y-junction on inp substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, P. Wang, T. Yang, G. Wang, T. Dai, Y. Zhang, L. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Silicon three-mode (de)multiplexer based on cascaded asymmetric Y junctions,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2851–2854 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Melati, A. Alippi, and A. Melloni, “Reconfigurable photonic integrated mode (de)multiplexer for SDM fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12625–12634 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Integrated switchable mode exchange for reconfigurable mode-multiplexing optical networks,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3257–3260 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Wu, H. K. Tsang, and D. Dai, “Monolithically integrated reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for mode-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 41(22), 5298–5301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3(7), 785–786 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Li, Y. Z. Huang, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon nitride three-mode division multiplexing and wavelength-division multiplexing using asymmetrical directional couplers and microring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22172–22183 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Chan and H. P. Chan, “Reconfigurable two-mode mux/demux device,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9282–9290 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2010 (2)

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, “Numerical Techniques for Modeling Guided-Wave Photonic Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 150–162 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Agrell, E.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alippi, A.

Baets, R. G.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Bergmen, K.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3(7), 785–786 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brandt-Pearce, M.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

Chan, H. P.

Chan, W. Y.

Chen, C. P.

B. Stern, X. L. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, K. X.

Chen, W.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Correa, R. A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Da Ros, F.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

Dai, D. X.

D. X. Dai, C. L. Li, S. P. Wang, H. Wu, Y. C. Shi, Z. H. Wu, S. M. Gao, T. G. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dai, T.

Dai, T. G.

D. X. Dai, C. L. Li, S. P. Wang, H. Wu, Y. C. Shi, Z. H. Wu, S. M. Gao, T. G. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

de Waardt, H.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

H. F. Xiao, L. Deng, G. L. Zhao, Z. L. Liu, Y. H. Meng, X. N. Guo, G. P. Liu, S. Liu, J. F. Ding, and Y. H. Tian, “Optical mode switch based on multimode interference couplers,” J. Opt. 19(2), 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Diamantopoulos, N. P.

Ding, J.

Ding, J. F.

L. Yang, T. Zhou, H. Jia, S. L. Yang, J. F. Ding, X. Fu, and L. Zhang, “General architectures for on-chip optical space and mode switching,” Optica 5(2), 180–187 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. F. Xiao, L. Deng, G. L. Zhao, Z. L. Liu, Y. H. Meng, X. N. Guo, G. P. Liu, S. Liu, J. F. Ding, and Y. H. Tian, “Optical mode switch based on multimode interference couplers,” J. Opt. 19(2), 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Driscoll, J. B.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambre and R. W. Tkach, “Capacity trends and limits of optical communication networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
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Fischer, J. K.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the proposed reconfigurable mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MMI: multimode interference coupler, TWCR: three-waveguide-coupling region). (a) schematic of the device, (b)-(c) schematic of the 2 × 2 MMI when only X input and Y input respectively, (d)-(e) schematic of TWCRs when two light beams propagate in the two arms with same phases and π phase difference respectively, Φ1 and Φ2 are the phases of light beam in Arm1 and Arm2 respectively, (f)-(k) schematic of the proposed device at different working states, ΔΦA and ΔΦB are the tuned phases in phase shifter A and B respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated performance of the mode multiplexers based on three-waveguide-coupling structure. ΔΦA and ΔΦB are the phases that phase shifters A and B are tuned respectively. (a)-(f) the mode distributions of the device which can multiplex fundamental and first-order quasi transverse electric mode. (g)-(l) the mode distributions of the device which can multiplex second-order mode and third-order mode. (a)(d)(g)(j) are the mode distributions when light only input from X port, (b)(e)(h)(k) are the mode distributions when light only input from Y port, (c)(f)(i)(l) are the mode distributions when light is input from both X and Y ports, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Micrograph of the fabricated device. (a) micrograph of the device which consists of a reconfigurable mode multiplexer/demultiplexer and a normal mode multiplexer, (b)-(d) partial enlarged graphs of the multimode interference coupler, the first three-waveguide-coupling region, and the second three-waveguide-coupling region, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup utilized to characterize the fabricated device (ASE: amplified spontaneous emission; TVS: tunable voltage source; DUT: device under test; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; TL: tunable laser; OM: optical modulator; PC: polarization controller; BPG: bit pattern generator; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OTF: optical tunable filter; DCA: digital communication analyzer).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured static response spectra of the device, (a)-(b) the transmission spectra from input ports X and Y to output port P when different voltages are applied to the corresponding phase shifters, (c)-(d) the transmission spectra from input ports X and Y to output port Q when different voltages are applied to the corresponding phase shifters. (CT: crosstalk).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured eye diagrams for data transmission speed of 40 Gbps.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Two kinds of advanced reconfigurable mode multiplexer/demultiplexer scaled by the proposed basic reconfigurable mode multiplexer/demultiplexer, (a) reconfigurable two arbitrary modes multiplexer, (b) reconfigurable multimode multiplexer.

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