Abstract

We explore the long wavelength limit of soliton self-frequency shift in silica-based fibers experimentally and using numerical simulation. We found that the longest wavelength soliton generated by soliton self-frequency shift is approximately 2500 nm because the soliton loses its energy rapidly at wavelength beyond 2400 nm due to material absorption by silica and water. We demonstrate 1580-2520 nm wavelength-tunable, high-pulse energy soliton generation using soliton self-frequency shift in a large-mode-area silica fiber pumped by a compact fiber source. Soliton pulses with pulse width of ~100 fs and pulse energy up to 73 nJ were obtained. Second harmonic generation of the solitons enables a wavelength-tunable femtosecond source from 950 nm to 1260 nm, with pulse energy up to 21 nJ. Using such energetic pulses, we demonstrate in vivo two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of vasculature and neurons in a mouse brain at wavelength beyond the tuning range of a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

2017 (3)

W. Liu, S.-H. Chia, H.-Y. Chung, R. Greinert, F. X. Kärtner, and G. Chang, “Energetic ultrafast fiber laser sources tunable in 1030-1215 nm for deep tissue multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6822–6831 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y. T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Huang, L.-Z. Guo, J.-Z. Wang, T.-C. Li, H.-J. Lee, P.-K. Chiu, L.-H. Peng, and T.-M. Liu, “Fiber-based 1150-nm femtosecond laser source for the minimally invasive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 36008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tang, L. G. Wright, K. Charan, T. Wang, C. Xu, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of intense 100 fs solitons tunable from 2 to 4.3μm in fluoride fiber,” Optica 3(9), 948–951 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

E. A. Anashkina, A. V. Andrianov, M. Yu Koptev, S. V. Muravyev, and A. V. Kim, “Generating femtosecond optical pulses tunable from 2 to 3 μm with a silica-based all-fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2963–2966 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cheng, Y. Kanou, K. Asano, D. Deng, M. Liao, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Soliton self-frequency shift and dispersive wave in a hybrid four-hole AsSe2-As2S5 microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121911 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, N. G. Horton, K. Charan, and C. Xu, “Advanced fiber soliton sources for nonlinear deep tissue imaging in biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 50–60 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

D. A. Dombeck, C. D. Harvey, L. Tian, L. L. Looger, and D. W. Tank, “Functional imaging of hippocampal place cells at cellular resolution during virtual navigation,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(11), 1433–1440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science 329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, A. Flesken-Nikitin, L. H. Ellenson, D. C. Connolly, T. C. Hamilton, A. Y. Nikitin, and W. R. Zipfel, “Strategies for high-resolution imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer by laparoscopic nonlinear microscopy,” Transl. Oncol. 3(3), 181–194 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

J. N. D. Kerr and W. Denk, “Imaging in vivo: watching the brain in action,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9(3), 195–205 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Chan, S. H. Chia, T. M. Liu, T. H. Tsai, M. C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J. Y. Liu, H. L. Liu, and C. K. Sun, “1.2- to 2.2-μm tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite laser and a photonic-crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2003 (1)

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Compact system of wavelength-tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(3), 325–327 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

B. Zysset, P. Beaud, and W. Hodel, “Generation of optical solitons in the wavelength region 1.37–1.49 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1027–1029 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

Ahrens, M. B.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anashkina, E. A.

Andrianov, A. V.

Asano, K.

T. Cheng, Y. Kanou, K. Asano, D. Deng, M. Liao, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Soliton self-frequency shift and dispersive wave in a hybrid four-hole AsSe2-As2S5 microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121911 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Bargmann, C. I.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaud, P.

B. Zysset, P. Beaud, and W. Hodel, “Generation of optical solitons in the wavelength region 1.37–1.49 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1027–1029 (1987).
[Crossref]

Beaurepaire, E.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science 329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bifano, T. G.

Boppart, S. A.

S. You, H. Tu, E. J. Chaney, Y. Sun, Y. Zhao, A. J. Bower, Y.-Z. Liu, M. Marjanovic, S. Sinha, Y. Pu, and S. A. Boppart, “Intravital imaging by simultaneous label-free autofluorescence-multiharmonic microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2125 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourgine, P.

N. Olivier, M. A. Luengo-Oroz, L. Duloquin, E. Faure, T. Savy, I. Veilleux, X. Solinas, D. Débarre, P. Bourgine, A. Santos, N. Peyriéras, and E. Beaurepaire, “Cell lineage reconstruction of early zebrafish embryos using label-free nonlinear microscopy,” Science 329(5994), 967–971 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bower, A. J.

S. You, H. Tu, E. J. Chaney, Y. Sun, Y. Zhao, A. J. Bower, Y.-Z. Liu, M. Marjanovic, S. Sinha, Y. Pu, and S. A. Boppart, “Intravital imaging by simultaneous label-free autofluorescence-multiharmonic microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2125 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Q.

Chan, M. C.

M. C. Chan, S. H. Chia, T. M. Liu, T. H. Tsai, M. C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J. Y. Liu, H. L. Liu, and C. K. Sun, “1.2- to 2.2-μm tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite laser and a photonic-crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chandalia, J. K.

Chaney, E. J.

S. You, H. Tu, E. J. Chaney, Y. Sun, Y. Zhao, A. J. Bower, Y.-Z. Liu, M. Marjanovic, S. Sinha, Y. Pu, and S. A. Boppart, “Intravital imaging by simultaneous label-free autofluorescence-multiharmonic microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2125 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, G.

Charan, K.

Cheng, J.

Cheng, T.

T. Cheng, Y. Kanou, K. Asano, D. Deng, M. Liao, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Soliton self-frequency shift and dispersive wave in a hybrid four-hole AsSe2-As2S5 microstructured optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121911 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y. T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chia, S. H.

M. C. Chan, S. H. Chia, T. M. Liu, T. H. Tsai, M. C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J. Y. Liu, H. L. Liu, and C. K. Sun, “1.2- to 2.2-μm tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite laser and a photonic-crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chia, S.-H.

Chiu, P.-K.

J.-Y. Huang, L.-Z. Guo, J.-Z. Wang, T.-C. Li, H.-J. Lee, P.-K. Chiu, L.-H. Peng, and T.-M. Liu, “Fiber-based 1150-nm femtosecond laser source for the minimally invasive harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 36008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H.-Y.

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connolly, D. C.

R. M. Williams, A. Flesken-Nikitin, L. H. Ellenson, D. C. Connolly, T. C. Hamilton, A. Y. Nikitin, and W. R. Zipfel, “Strategies for high-resolution imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer by laparoscopic nonlinear microscopy,” Transl. Oncol. 3(3), 181–194 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cruz-Hernández, J. C.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y. T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dana, H.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Débarre, D.

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[Crossref]

B. Tai, L. Rishøj, and S. Ramachandran, “Ultrafast, high energy, wideband wavelength conversion via continuous intra-pulse and discrete intermodal Raman scattering,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2018), SM1K.1.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the soliton generation, SHG, and two-photon excited fluorescence imaging. PBS, polarization beam splitter; LPF, long-pass filter; SPF, short-pass filter; SU, scanning unit; PMT, photomultiplier tube.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulation results for (a) spectral output, (b) spectral evolution, (c) temporal output, and (d) temporal evolution in the LMA fiber.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured (a) and simulated (b) spectra of SSFS in a 2-m-long LMA fiber. The input pulse energies given in (a) are already scaled by the coupling efficiency (64%). A 1720-nm LP filter is used to remove the residue 1550 nm light at the input pulse energy of 997.2 nJ. (c) Measured second-order interferometric autocorrelation of the input pulse (bottom) and the most red-shifted solitons. The pulse widths (FWHMs) are indicated in the plots using the deconvolution factor of 1.54 for sech2 intensity profile. For display purpose, the traces are offset along the vertical axis.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Center wavelengths of the most red-shifted solitons as a function of the input pulse energy into the LMA fiber. Numerical simulations: red dashed line with stars; experimental results: blue solid line with squares. (b) Measured pulse energies of the most red-shifted solitons at various soliton wavelengths. (c) Bandwidths of the most red-shifted solitons at various soliton wavelengths. Numerical simulations: red dashed line with stars; experimental results: blue solid line with squares. (d) Pulse widths of the most red-shifted solitons at various soliton wavelengths. Numerical simulations: red stars; calculated pulse widths assuming TL sech2 pulse using the bandwidths in (c): blue circles; experimental results: black solid line with squares.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured spectra of SSFS in a 2-m-long LMA fiber. The input pulse energies coupled into the LMA fiber are given, with a coupling efficiency of 61%. For display purpose, the traces are offset along the vertical axis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Center wavelengths of the most red-shifted solitons as a function of the input pulse energy into the LMA fiber. (b) Bandwidths of the most red-shifted solitons at various soliton wavelengths. (c) Loss curves used in numerical simulations. (d) Pulse widths of the most red-shifted solitons at various soliton wavelengths.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured spectra of SSFS in the low-OH single mode fiber, with the input pulse energies before fiber coupling. For display purpose, the traces are offset along the vertical axis. (b) Center wavelengths of the most red-shifted solitons as a function of the input pulse energy before fiber coupling. (c) Bandwidths of the most red-shifted solitons at various soliton wavelengths.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Measured spectra of the SHG pulses. (b) Measured second-order interferometric autocorrelation of the corresponding SHG pulses. For display purpose, the traces are offset along the vertical axis.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 In vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of a mouse brain using the 1150 nm pulsed excitation. (a-d) Images of vasculature at different depths, no average. (e-h) Images of neurons, 4 frame averaged. The images were acquired at 4 s/frame and 512x512 pixels/frame. Scale bar: 50 μm.

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