Abstract

The whiteness specification is critically important in surface color industry, especially when fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are added to objects. The CIE whiteness formula, the most widely used whiteness formula, only characterizes the whiteness under CIE standard D65, which ignores the change of whiteness under different light sources due to the spectral content of the light sources. Though the adoption of a Chromatic Adaptation Transform (CAT02) in the CIE whiteness formula was found effective in recent studies, it failed to allow a comparison across different correlated color temperatures (CCTs). In this study, a haploscopic viewing condition was employed, with a D65 simulator in the left booth, for evaluating the whiteness of eight samples under different light sources in the right booth. The whiteness of the four samples under the D65 simulator was employed as a whiteness scale to aid the evaluation. Based on the experiment results, the characterization of whiteness for a surface under an arbitrary light source is proposed to use the CIE whiteness formula with the sample chromaticities being transformed using CAT02 and an adjusted degree of chromatic adaptation factor D.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. CIE, Colorimetry, 3rd edition,” in CIE 15:2004 (CIE, Vienna, Austria, 2004).
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    [Crossref]
  4. M. Wei, S. Ma, Y. Wang, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness formulas for FWA and non-FWA whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(4), 640–647 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Wei, K. Houser, A. David, and M. Krames, “Blue-pumped white LEDs fail to render whiteness,” in Proceedings of CIE 2014 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency, (Hangzhou, China, 2014), 150–159.
  6. M. Wei and S. Chen, “Impact of spectral power distribution of daylight simulators on whiteness specification for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 43(1), 27–33 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  8. S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (3)

M. Wei and S. Chen, “Impact of spectral power distribution of daylight simulators on whiteness specification for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 43(1), 27–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhai and M. R. Luo, “Study of chromatic adaptation via neutral white matches on different viewing media,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7724–7739 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

2014 (1)

K. W. Houser, M. Wei, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Whiteness perception under LED illumination,” Leukos 10(3), 165–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

2008 (1)

R. Jafari and S. Amirshahi, “Variation in the decisions of observers regarding the ordering of white samples,” Color. Technol. 124(2), 127–131 (2008).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. R. Luo, “A review of chromatic adaptation transforms,” Color. Technol. 30(1), 77–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Uchida, “A new whiteness formula,” Color Res. Appl. 23(4), 202–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. D. Fairchild, E. Pirrotta, and T. Kim, “Successive‐ganzfeld haploscopic viewing technique for color‐appearance research,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 214–221 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

H. Uchida and T. Fukuda, “Estimation of whiteness of fluorescent whitened objects,” J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 11, 113–120 (1987).

Amirshahi, S.

R. Jafari and S. Amirshahi, “Variation in the decisions of observers regarding the ordering of white samples,” Color. Technol. 124(2), 127–131 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

M. Wei and S. Chen, “Impact of spectral power distribution of daylight simulators on whiteness specification for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 43(1), 27–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cui, G.

David, A.

K. W. Houser, M. Wei, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Whiteness perception under LED illumination,” Leukos 10(3), 165–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. R. Krames, and K. W. Houser, “Whiteness metric for light sources of arbitrary color temperatures: proposal and application to light-emitting-diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16702–16715 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, K. Houser, A. David, and M. Krames, “Blue-pumped white LEDs fail to render whiteness,” in Proceedings of CIE 2014 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency, (Hangzhou, China, 2014), 150–159.

Dekker, N.

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, E. Pirrotta, and T. Kim, “Successive‐ganzfeld haploscopic viewing technique for color‐appearance research,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 214–221 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, T.

H. Uchida and T. Fukuda, “Estimation of whiteness of fluorescent whitened objects,” J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 11, 113–120 (1987).

García, P. A.

Gómez-Robledo, L.

Hinks, D.

Houser, K.

M. Wei, K. Houser, A. David, and M. Krames, “Blue-pumped white LEDs fail to render whiteness,” in Proceedings of CIE 2014 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency, (Hangzhou, China, 2014), 150–159.

Houser, K. W.

Jafari, R.

R. Jafari and S. Amirshahi, “Variation in the decisions of observers regarding the ordering of white samples,” Color. Technol. 124(2), 127–131 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

M. D. Fairchild, E. Pirrotta, and T. Kim, “Successive‐ganzfeld haploscopic viewing technique for color‐appearance research,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 214–221 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kirchner, E.

Krames, M.

M. Wei, K. Houser, A. David, and M. Krames, “Blue-pumped white LEDs fail to render whiteness,” in Proceedings of CIE 2014 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency, (Hangzhou, China, 2014), 150–159.

Krames, M. R.

Liang, J.

S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, M.

S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, M. R.

Ma, S.

Melgosa, M.

Pirrotta, E.

M. D. Fairchild, E. Pirrotta, and T. Kim, “Successive‐ganzfeld haploscopic viewing technique for color‐appearance research,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 214–221 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M.

S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shamey, R.

Uchida, H.

H. Uchida, “A new whiteness formula,” Color Res. Appl. 23(4), 202–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Uchida and T. Fukuda, “Estimation of whiteness of fluorescent whitened objects,” J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 11, 113–120 (1987).

Wang, B.

S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wei, M.

M. Wei and S. Chen, “Impact of spectral power distribution of daylight simulators on whiteness specification for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 43(1), 27–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, S. Ma, Y. Wang, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness formulas for FWA and non-FWA whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(4), 640–647 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Ma, and M. R. Luo, “Chromaticity and characterization of whiteness for surface colors,” Opt. Express 25(23), 27981–27994 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. W. Houser, M. Wei, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Whiteness perception under LED illumination,” Leukos 10(3), 165–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, K. Houser, A. David, and M. Krames, “Blue-pumped white LEDs fail to render whiteness,” in Proceedings of CIE 2014 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency, (Hangzhou, China, 2014), 150–159.

Zhai, Q.

Color Res. Appl. (3)

M. Wei and S. Chen, “Impact of spectral power distribution of daylight simulators on whiteness specification for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 43(1), 27–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Uchida, “A new whiteness formula,” Color Res. Appl. 23(4), 202–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. D. Fairchild, E. Pirrotta, and T. Kim, “Successive‐ganzfeld haploscopic viewing technique for color‐appearance research,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 214–221 (1994).
[Crossref]

Color. Technol. (2)

R. Jafari and S. Amirshahi, “Variation in the decisions of observers regarding the ordering of white samples,” Color. Technol. 124(2), 127–131 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, “A review of chromatic adaptation transforms,” Color. Technol. 30(1), 77–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. (1)

H. Uchida and T. Fukuda, “Estimation of whiteness of fluorescent whitened objects,” J. Color Sci. Assoc. Jpn. 11, 113–120 (1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Leukos (1)

K. W. Houser, M. Wei, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Whiteness perception under LED illumination,” Leukos 10(3), 165–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light. Res. Technol. (1)

S. Ma, M. Wei, J. Liang, B. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Pointer, and M. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 50(3), 429–445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (4)

M. Wei and Y. Wang, “Judgment of white appearance for surface colors under individual and simultaneous observations,” LEUKOS, published online (2018).
[Crossref]

CIE, Colorimetry, 3rd edition,” in CIE 15:2004 (CIE, Vienna, Austria, 2004).

M. Vik, M. Vikova, and M. Pechova, “Evaluation of whiteness in case of highly tinted white materials,” in Proceedings of Asia and Africa Science Platform Program Seminar Series 10 (Kyoto, Japan, 2017).

M. Wei, K. Houser, A. David, and M. Krames, “Blue-pumped white LEDs fail to render whiteness,” in Proceedings of CIE 2014 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency, (Hangzhou, China, 2014), 150–159.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the relationship between chromaticity shifts and change of WCIE and T10,CIE.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A photograph taken from the observer’s eyes position.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The SPDs of the illuminants measured using a calibrated JETI specbos 1811UV spectroradiometer with a reflectance standard.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The chromaticity coordinates of the samples and the light settings, calculated using the CIE 1964 10° CMFs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scatter plots of whiteness rating given by the observers versus the whiteness value of each sample under each light setting. The whiteness values were calculated using various whiteness formulas.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The perceived whiteness judged by the observers versus the magnitude of the chromaticity shifts of the samples under each light setting in CIE 1976UCS.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The chromaticity coordinates of the samples under different light settings after being transformed to CIE standard D65 using CAT02. (a) CAT02 with a complete chromatic adaptation (D = 1); (b) CAT02 with the optimized degree of chromatic adaptation for each CCT, as listed in Table 4 (note: the iso-whiteness lines are calculated based on a Y of 90).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Scatter plot of the whiteness rating given by the observers versus the calculated whiteness value. (a) the whiteness values were calculated using WCIE,CAT02, with D = 1; (b) the whiteness values were calculated using WCIE,CAT02,D with the optimized D factor listed in Table 4.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The colorimetric characteristics of the light settings

Tables Icon

Table 2 The Pearson correlation coefficients

Tables Icon

Table 3 The root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the whiteness ratings and the calculated whiteness values using different whiteness formulas.

Tables Icon

Table 4 The optimized degree of chromatic adaptation factor D in calculating WCIE,CAT02,D and the corresponding RMSE and the Pearson correlation coefficients between the perceived whiteness and WCIE,CAT02,D.

Equations (10)

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W CIE =Y+800( x n x )+1700( y n y )
Y 10,CIE =900( x n x )650( y n y )
W Uchida = W CIE 2 ( T CIE ) 2 .
W Uchida = P W 2 ( T CIE ) 2
P W =( 5Y275 )800 [ 0.2742+0.00127( 100Y )x ] 0.82 1700 [ 0.2762+0.00176( 100Y )y ] 0.82 .
W CIE,Adapted =Yωcos( η+φ )/cosφ( x x 0 )ωsin( η+φ )/cosφ( y y 0 )
W CIE,Optimized =Y+a( x 0 x )+b( y 0 y )
a=0.1891×CCT+2267.2
b=0.3202×CCT493.36.
W CIE,CAT02 =Y+800( x 0 x CAT02,D )+1700( y 0 y CAT02,D )

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