Abstract

An all-fiber scheme for stable orbital angular momentum (OAM) beam generation and propagation is proposed and demonstrated. This scheme is based on a self-designed and manufactured graded-index few mode fiber (GI-FMF) and compatible mode selection coupler (MSC). The MSC, which consists of a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) and the GI-FMF, can effectively couple the fundamental mode in the SMF to the desired OAM mode in the GI-FMF based on phase matching condition. Meanwhile, the GI-FMF breaks the degeneracy between the desired eigenmodes and neighboring vector modes, thereby allowing the preservation and propagation of the selectively excited OAM modes. As a proof-of-principle, we have implemented an all-fiber device operating in stable OAM modes with |l| = 1. The experimental results show stable propagation of OAM beams with the mode purity of ∼95% and bandwidth of 100 nm. This all fiber device could be useful for further development of wide bandwidth OAM mode division multiplexed application.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

S. Li, Q. Mo, X. Hu, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Controllable all-fiber orbital angular momentum mode converter,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4376–4379 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ando, T.

Anzolin, G.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bianchini, A.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, K. M.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

Brunet, C.

Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Chen, L.

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

Chen, S.

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

Erkmen, B. I.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fukuchi, N.

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, J.

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golowich, S.

Gregg, P.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hara, T.

Heng, X.

Hill, K. O.

Hnatovsky, C.

Hu, X.

Huang, H.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

Huang, W.

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

Inoue, T.

Ismaeel, R.

Jung, Y.

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

Krolikowski, W.

Lamont, R. G.

LaRochelle, S.

Lavery, M. P.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.

Li, L.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Li, S.

Liu, Y.

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, J. Wen, and T. Wang, “Mode converter based on the long-period fiber gratings written in the two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6186–6195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, N.

Messaddeq, Y.

Ming, H.

Mo, Q.

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oduro, B.

Ohtake, Y.

Pachava, S.

Padgett, M. J.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, F.

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pidishety, S.

Qian, Q.

Ramachandran, S.

S. Pidishety, S. Pachava, P. Gregg, S. Ramachandran, G. Brambilla, and B. Srinivasan, “Orbital angular momentum beam excitation using an all-fiber weakly fused mode selective coupler,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4347–4350 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, P. Kristensen, and M. F. Yan, “Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2525–2527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rode, A. V.

Rusch, L. A.

Shi, F.

Shvedov, V. G.

Srinivasan, B.

Tamburini, F.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Umbriaco, G.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ung, B.

Vaity, P.

van der Veen, H.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Wang, F.

Wang, J.

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, Q. Mo, X. Hu, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Controllable all-fiber orbital angular momentum mode converter,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4376–4379 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, J.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xie, G.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, M. F.

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. Y.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, X.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H.

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, J. Wen, and T. Wang, “Mode converter based on the long-period fiber gratings written in the two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6186–6195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Z.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, L.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum(OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nanophotonics (1)

Y. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, L. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. Yang, “Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 287–293 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Refractive index profile of our specially fabricated GI-FMF. (b) Effective index of different modes in GI-FMF as a function of wavelength.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the MSC. (b) Effective refractive index of   HE 11 mode in SMF and  HE 21 mode in GI-FMF as a function of taper diameters. The phase matching points are indicated with the blue dashed lines. (c) The effective refractive index differences ∆neff of neighboring modes in GI-FMF as a function of fiber diameter. The ∆neff of phase matching points are also indicated with the blue dashed lines.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experiment setup for characterization of the generated OAM beams. PC: polarization controller, GI-FMF: graded-index few mode fiber, NPBS: non-polarization beam splitter, QWP: quarter-wave plate, PBDP: polarizing beam displacing prism.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Intensity profiles of the generated OAM beam and fork interference patterns of the OAM beam with a reference Gaussian beam. (b) Purity measurement of the generated beam. Inset: intensity patterns of left circular (LC) and right circular (RC) polarization of generated beam.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Mode purity of the generated OAM beams as a function of wavelength. (b) Mode purity of the generated OAM beams as a function of polarization angle.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Far-field intensity profiles of the generated OAM beams from SMF GI-FMF MSC (top row) and SMF-FMF MSC (bottom row) at different fiber length.

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