Abstract

The possibility of a III-nitride LED with 100% or greater wall-plug efficiency is examined considering recent observations of the phenomenon for smaller bandgap mid-IR LEDs under extremely low-bias operation [Phys. Rev. Lett . 108, 1 (2012)]. Thermoelectric pumping of carriers by lattice heat enables ≥ 100% WPE, but this effect is relatively weaker for the wider band gap III-nitrides. This work assesses the electrical and optical performance of several state-of-the-art nitride devices and summarizes the requirements and prospects for approaching ≥ 100% WPE for III-nitride LEDs operating at technologically relevant current densities (> 1 A/cm2).

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High wall-plug efficiency blue III-nitride LEDs designed for low current density operation

Leah Y. Kuritzky, Andrew C. Espenlaub, Benjamin P. Yonkee, Christopher D. Pynn, Steven P. DenBaars, Shuji Nakamura, Claude Weisbuch, and James S. Speck
Opt. Express 25(24) 30696-30707 (2017)

λ~7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature

Richard Maulini, Arkadiy Lyakh, Alexei Tsekoun, and C. Kumar N. Patel
Opt. Express 19(18) 17203-17211 (2011)

Development of high performance green c-plane III-nitride light-emitting diodes

Abdullah. I. Alhassan, Nathan. G. Young, Robert. M. Farrell, Christopher. Pynn, Feng. Wu, Ahmed. Y. Alyamani, Shuji Nakamura, Steven. P. DenBaars, and James. S. Speck
Opt. Express 26(5) 5591-5601 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Lehovec, C. A. Accardo, and E. Jamgochian, “Light Emission Produced by Current Injected into a Green Silicon-Carbide Crystal,” Phys. Rev. 89(1), 20–25 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. J. Keyes and T. M. Quist, “Recombination Radiation Emitted by Gallium Arsenide,” Proc. IRE 50, 1822 (1962).
  3. G. C. Dousmanis, C. W. Mueller, H. Nelson, and K. G. Petzinger, “Evidence of Refrigerating Action by Means of Photon Emission in Semiconductor Diodes,” Phys. Rev. 133(1A), A316–A318 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Tauc, “The share of thermal energy taken from the surroundings in the electro-luminescent energy radiated from a p-n junction,” Czech. J. Phys. 7(3), 275–276 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. A. Weinstein, “Thermodynamic Limitation on the Conversion of Heat into Light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50(6), 597 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Santhanam, D. J. Gray, and R. J. Ram, “Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097403 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, and M. Sano, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D. 43, 354002 (2010).
  8. A. David, C. A. Hurni, N. G. Young, and M. D. Craven, “Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs : Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(8), 083501 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Piprek and Z. Li, “Electroluminescent cooling mechanism in InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 1–7 (2016).
  10. Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Huang, P. Santhanam, and R. J. Ram, “Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1650–A1658 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. Santhanam, D. Huang, R. J. Ram, M. A. Remennyi, and B. A. Matveev, “Room temperature thermo-electric pumping in mid-infrared light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183513 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Y. Kuritzky, A. C. Espenlaub, B. P. Yonkee, C. D. Pynn, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “High wall-plug efficiency blue III-nitride LEDs designed for low current density operation,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30696–30707 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. U.S. Department of Energy, 2016 Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan (2016).
  18. J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Xue, Z. Li, and R. J. Ram, “Irreversible Thermodynamic Bound for the Efficiency of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014017 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. Ding, S. R. Johnson, J.-B. Wang, S.-Q. Yu, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Intrinsic irreversibility in semiconductor light emission,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(5), 1698–1701 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. C. H. Kyle, S. W. Kaun, E. C. Young, and J. S. Speck, “Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg- doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 222103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, “Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2163–2165 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. L. Keraly, L. Y. Kuritzky, M. Cochet, and C. Weisbuch, “Ray Tracing for Light Extraction Efficiency (LEE) Modeling in Nitride LEDs,” in III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications, T. -Y. Seong, J. Han, H. Amano, and H. Morkoc, eds., Topics in Applied Physics (Springer Netherlands, 2013), Vol. 126, pp. 213–269.

2017 (2)

2016 (3)

A. David, C. A. Hurni, N. G. Young, and M. D. Craven, “Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs : Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(8), 083501 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek and Z. Li, “Electroluminescent cooling mechanism in InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 1–7 (2016).

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

E. C. H. Kyle, S. W. Kaun, E. C. Young, and J. S. Speck, “Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg- doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 222103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, P. Santhanam, and R. J. Ram, “Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1650–A1658 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

P. Santhanam, D. Huang, R. J. Ram, M. A. Remennyi, and B. A. Matveev, “Room temperature thermo-electric pumping in mid-infrared light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183513 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Santhanam, D. J. Gray, and R. J. Ram, “Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, and M. Sano, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D. 43, 354002 (2010).

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. Ding, S. R. Johnson, J.-B. Wang, S.-Q. Yu, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Intrinsic irreversibility in semiconductor light emission,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(5), 1698–1701 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, “Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2163–2165 (2004).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

G. C. Dousmanis, C. W. Mueller, H. Nelson, and K. G. Petzinger, “Evidence of Refrigerating Action by Means of Photon Emission in Semiconductor Diodes,” Phys. Rev. 133(1A), A316–A318 (1964).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

1957 (1)

J. Tauc, “The share of thermal energy taken from the surroundings in the electro-luminescent energy radiated from a p-n junction,” Czech. J. Phys. 7(3), 275–276 (1957).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

K. Lehovec, C. A. Accardo, and E. Jamgochian, “Light Emission Produced by Current Injected into a Green Silicon-Carbide Crystal,” Phys. Rev. 89(1), 20–25 (1953).
[Crossref]

Accardo, C. A.

K. Lehovec, C. A. Accardo, and E. Jamgochian, “Light Emission Produced by Current Injected into a Green Silicon-Carbide Crystal,” Phys. Rev. 89(1), 20–25 (1953).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

A. David, C. A. Hurni, N. G. Young, and M. D. Craven, “Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs : Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(8), 083501 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David, C. A. Hurni, N. G. Young, and M. D. Craven, “Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs : Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(8), 083501 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Delille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

L. Y. Kuritzky, A. C. Espenlaub, B. P. Yonkee, C. D. Pynn, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “High wall-plug efficiency blue III-nitride LEDs designed for low current density operation,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30696–30707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ding, D.

D. Ding, S. R. Johnson, J.-B. Wang, S.-Q. Yu, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Intrinsic irreversibility in semiconductor light emission,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(5), 1698–1701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dousmanis, G. C.

G. C. Dousmanis, C. W. Mueller, H. Nelson, and K. G. Petzinger, “Evidence of Refrigerating Action by Means of Photon Emission in Semiconductor Diodes,” Phys. Rev. 133(1A), A316–A318 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Espenlaub, A. C.

Frank, M.

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Galler, B.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gray, D. J.

P. Santhanam, D. J. Gray, and R. J. Ram, “Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M. J.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herrington, W. F.

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, P. Santhanam, and R. J. Ram, “Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1650–A1658 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Santhanam, D. Huang, R. J. Ram, M. A. Remennyi, and B. A. Matveev, “Room temperature thermo-electric pumping in mid-infrared light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

A. David, C. A. Hurni, N. G. Young, and M. D. Craven, “Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs : Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(8), 083501 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, and M. Sano, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D. 43, 354002 (2010).

Jamgochian, E.

K. Lehovec, C. A. Accardo, and E. Jamgochian, “Light Emission Produced by Current Injected into a Green Silicon-Carbide Crystal,” Phys. Rev. 89(1), 20–25 (1953).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. R.

D. Ding, S. R. Johnson, J.-B. Wang, S.-Q. Yu, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Intrinsic irreversibility in semiconductor light emission,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(5), 1698–1701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karpov, S. Y.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaun, S. W.

E. C. H. Kyle, S. W. Kaun, E. C. Young, and J. S. Speck, “Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg- doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 222103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuritzky, L. Y.

Kyle, E. C. H.

E. C. H. Kyle, S. W. Kaun, E. C. Young, and J. S. Speck, “Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg- doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 222103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lehovec, K.

K. Lehovec, C. A. Accardo, and E. Jamgochian, “Light Emission Produced by Current Injected into a Green Silicon-Carbide Crystal,” Phys. Rev. 89(1), 20–25 (1953).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

J. Xue, Z. Li, and R. J. Ram, “Irreversible Thermodynamic Bound for the Efficiency of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014017 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek and Z. Li, “Electroluminescent cooling mechanism in InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 1–7 (2016).

Lugauer, H.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matveev, B. A.

P. Santhanam, D. Huang, R. J. Ram, M. A. Remennyi, and B. A. Matveev, “Room temperature thermo-electric pumping in mid-infrared light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mueller, C. W.

G. C. Dousmanis, C. W. Mueller, H. Nelson, and K. G. Petzinger, “Evidence of Refrigerating Action by Means of Photon Emission in Semiconductor Diodes,” Phys. Rev. 133(1A), A316–A318 (1964).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

L. Y. Kuritzky, A. C. Espenlaub, B. P. Yonkee, C. D. Pynn, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “High wall-plug efficiency blue III-nitride LEDs designed for low current density operation,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30696–30707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, and M. Sano, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D. 43, 354002 (2010).

Nelson, H.

G. C. Dousmanis, C. W. Mueller, H. Nelson, and K. G. Petzinger, “Evidence of Refrigerating Action by Means of Photon Emission in Semiconductor Diodes,” Phys. Rev. 133(1A), A316–A318 (1964).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.-H.

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petzinger, K. G.

G. C. Dousmanis, C. W. Mueller, H. Nelson, and K. G. Petzinger, “Evidence of Refrigerating Action by Means of Photon Emission in Semiconductor Diodes,” Phys. Rev. 133(1A), A316–A318 (1964).
[Crossref]

Pietzonka, I.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek and Z. Li, “Electroluminescent cooling mechanism in InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 1–7 (2016).

Pynn, C. D.

Rafailov, E. U.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ram, R. J.

J. Xue, Z. Li, and R. J. Ram, “Irreversible Thermodynamic Bound for the Efficiency of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014017 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, P. Santhanam, and R. J. Ram, “Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1650–A1658 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Santhanam, D. Huang, R. J. Ram, M. A. Remennyi, and B. A. Matveev, “Room temperature thermo-electric pumping in mid-infrared light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183513 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Santhanam, D. J. Gray, and R. J. Ram, “Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remennyi, M. A.

P. Santhanam, D. Huang, R. J. Ram, M. A. Remennyi, and B. A. Matveev, “Room temperature thermo-electric pumping in mid-infrared light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, and M. Sano, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D. 43, 354002 (2010).

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, and M. Sano, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D. 43, 354002 (2010).

Santhanam, P.

D. Huang, P. Santhanam, and R. J. Ram, “Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1650–A1658 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Santhanam, D. Huang, R. J. Ram, M. A. Remennyi, and B. A. Matveev, “Room temperature thermo-electric pumping in mid-infrared light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183513 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Santhanam, D. J. Gray, and R. J. Ram, “Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, “Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2163–2165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

L. Y. Kuritzky, A. C. Espenlaub, B. P. Yonkee, C. D. Pynn, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “High wall-plug efficiency blue III-nitride LEDs designed for low current density operation,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30696–30707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. C. H. Kyle, S. W. Kaun, E. C. Young, and J. S. Speck, “Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg- doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 222103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Strassburg, M.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, “The share of thermal energy taken from the surroundings in the electro-luminescent energy radiated from a p-n junction,” Czech. J. Phys. 7(3), 275–276 (1957).
[Crossref]

Titkov, I. E.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.-B.

D. Ding, S. R. Johnson, J.-B. Wang, S.-Q. Yu, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Intrinsic irreversibility in semiconductor light emission,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(5), 1698–1701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weinstein, M. A.

Weisbuch, C.

Xi, Y.

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, “Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2163–2165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

J. Xue, Z. Li, and R. J. Ram, “Irreversible Thermodynamic Bound for the Efficiency of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014017 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yadav, A.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B. P.

L. Y. Kuritzky, A. C. Espenlaub, B. P. Yonkee, C. D. Pynn, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “High wall-plug efficiency blue III-nitride LEDs designed for low current density operation,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30696–30707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. C. H. Kyle, S. W. Kaun, E. C. Young, and J. S. Speck, “Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg- doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 222103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Young, N. G.

A. David, C. A. Hurni, N. G. Young, and M. D. Craven, “Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs : Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(8), 083501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.-Q.

D. Ding, S. R. Johnson, J.-B. Wang, S.-Q. Yu, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Intrinsic irreversibility in semiconductor light emission,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(5), 1698–1701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zerova, V. L.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.-H.

D. Ding, S. R. Johnson, J.-B. Wang, S.-Q. Yu, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Intrinsic irreversibility in semiconductor light emission,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(5), 1698–1701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zulonas, M.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

A. David, C. A. Hurni, N. G. Young, and M. D. Craven, “Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs : Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(8), 083501 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, M. Frank, M. R. Krames, A. David, C. A. Hurni, R. I. Aldaz, M. J. Cich, B. Ellis, K. Huang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231111 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-H. Oh, W. F. Herrington, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and R. J. Ram, “Thermally enhanced blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 121109 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. C. H. Kyle, S. W. Kaun, E. C. Young, and J. S. Speck, “Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg- doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 222103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, “Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2163–2165 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Santhanam, D. Huang, R. J. Ram, M. A. Remennyi, and B. A. Matveev, “Room temperature thermo-electric pumping in mid-infrared light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Czech. J. Phys. (1)

J. Tauc, “The share of thermal energy taken from the surroundings in the electro-luminescent energy radiated from a p-n junction,” Czech. J. Phys. 7(3), 275–276 (1957).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, V. L. Zerova, M. Zulonas, B. Galler, M. Strassburg, I. Pietzonka, H. Lugauer, and E. U. Rafailov, “Temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency of blue high-brightness light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(11), 911–920 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, and M. Sano, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D. 43, 354002 (2010).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Piprek and Z. Li, “Electroluminescent cooling mechanism in InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 1–7 (2016).

Phys. Rev. (2)

G. C. Dousmanis, C. W. Mueller, H. Nelson, and K. G. Petzinger, “Evidence of Refrigerating Action by Means of Photon Emission in Semiconductor Diodes,” Phys. Rev. 133(1A), A316–A318 (1964).
[Crossref]

K. Lehovec, C. A. Accardo, and E. Jamgochian, “Light Emission Produced by Current Injected into a Green Silicon-Carbide Crystal,” Phys. Rev. 89(1), 20–25 (1953).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

J. Xue, Z. Li, and R. J. Ram, “Irreversible Thermodynamic Bound for the Efficiency of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014017 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Santhanam, D. J. Gray, and R. J. Ram, “Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

D. Ding, S. R. Johnson, J.-B. Wang, S.-Q. Yu, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Intrinsic irreversibility in semiconductor light emission,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(5), 1698–1701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. J. Keyes and T. M. Quist, “Recombination Radiation Emitted by Gallium Arsenide,” Proc. IRE 50, 1822 (1962).

U.S. Department of Energy, 2016 Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan (2016).

C. L. Keraly, L. Y. Kuritzky, M. Cochet, and C. Weisbuch, “Ray Tracing for Light Extraction Efficiency (LEE) Modeling in Nitride LEDs,” in III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications, T. -Y. Seong, J. Han, H. Amano, and H. Morkoc, eds., Topics in Applied Physics (Springer Netherlands, 2013), Vol. 126, pp. 213–269.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Dependence of the room temperature Vp/V on current density for several InGaN-based devices. UCSB + Vendor A and UCSB + Vendor B devices are commercial blue material emitting at 448 nm and 449 nm respectively, processed and packaged at UCSB and tested at 22 °C. Vendor C is a fully packaged commercial device emitting at 460 nm tested at UCSB at 20 °C. David et al. 2016 is a 435 nm emitting device measured at 27 °C [8], and Narukawa et al. 2010 is a 444 nm emitting device measured at an unspecified room temperature [10].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Relationship among EQE, WPE, Vp/V, and emitted optical power for the 135 °C mid-IR LED measurement data reported in [6] compared with the room temperature blue LED measurement reported in [16]. The mid-IR WPE curve has two peaks, the conventional peak near the EQE peak at moderate power, and the other at extremely low power where the EQE saturates as Vp/V continues to rise.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Dependence of EQE on V/Vp for several state-of-the-art devices. The dashed black line indicates the threshold for > 100% WPE operation. (b) Temperature-dependent behavior for the Vendor C device between 22 °C and 80 °C stage temperature. Increasing stage temperature results in a decrease in the LED operating voltage as well as a decrease in peak EQE.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison among typical commercial device, record device, and target performance for LEDs emitting at 450 nm (corresponding to Vp = 2.75 V). The voltage boost in Vp/V, that is required to make up for the LED EQE losses for WPE = 100% is approximately 205 mV.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

WPE=IQE×LEE × V p V
V V p EQE
I = I 0 ( T ) ( e q V / k T 1 )
IQE = B n 2 A n + B n 2 + C n 3

Metrics