Abstract

Photonic switches are increasingly considered for insertion in high performance datacenter architectures to meet the growing performance demands of interconnection networks. We provide an overview of photonic switching technologies and develop an evaluation methodology for assessing their potential impact on datacenter performance. We begin with a review of three categories of optical switches, namely, free-space switches, III-V integrated switches and silicon integrated switches. The state-of-the-art of MEMS, LCOS, SOA, MZI and MRR switching technologies are covered, together with insights on their performance limitations and scalability considerations. The performance metrics that are required for optical switches to truly emerge in datacenters are discussed and summarized, with special focus on the switching time, cost, power consumption, scalability and optical power penalty. Furthermore, the Pareto front of the switch metric space is analyzed. Finally, we propose a hybrid integrated switch fabric design using the III-V/Si wafer bonding technique and investigate its potential impact on realizing reduced cost and power penalty.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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M. Bahadori, A. Gazman, N. Janosik, S. Rumley, Z. Zhu, R. Polster, Q. Cheng, and K. Bergman, “Thermal Rectification of Integrated Microheaters for Microring Resonators in Silicon Photonics Platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 773–788 (2017).
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L. Qiao, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “32 × 32 silicon electro-optic switch with built-in monitors and balanced-status units,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42306 (2017).
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W. Miao, J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, H. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2465–2472 (2014).
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Boie, R.

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Bolle, C.

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Bolle, C. A.

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Chien-Shing Pai, V. A. Basavanhally, D. O. Aksyuk, F. Lopez, M. E. Pardo, Y. Simon, P. Low, P. Kolodner, and C. A. Bolle, “Wavelength-selective 1 × K switches using free-space optics and MEMS micromirrors: theory, design, and implementation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(4), 1620–1630 (2005).
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Borchers, A.

N. P. Jouppi, C. Young, N. Patil, D. Patterson, G. Agrawal, R. Bajwa, S. Bates, S. Bhatia, N. Boden, A. Borchers, R. Boyle, P.-l. Cantin, C. Chao, C. Clark, J. Coriell, M. Daley, M. Dau, J. Dean, B. Gelb, T. Vazir Ghaemmaghami, R. Gottipati, W. Gulland, R. Hagmann, C. Richard Ho, D. Hogberg, J. Hu, R. Hundt, D. Hurt, J. Ibarz, A. Jaffey, A. Jaworski, A. Kaplan, H. Khaitan, D. Killebrew, A. Koch, N. Kumar, S. Lacy, J. Laudon, J. Law, D. Le, C. Leary, Z. Liu, K. Lucke, A. Lundin, G. MacKean, A. Maggiore, M. Mahony, K. Miller, R. Nagarajan, R. Narayanaswami, R. Ni, K. Nix, T. Norrie, M. Omernick, N. Penukonda, A. Phelps, J. Ross, M. Ross, A. Salek, E. Samadiani, C. Severn, G. Sizikov, M. Snelham, J. Souter, D. Steinberg, A. Swing, M. Tan, G. Thorson, B. Tian, H. Toma, E. Tuttle, V. Vasudevan, R. Walter, W. Wang, E. Wilcox, and D. H. Yoon, “In-Datacenter Performance Analysis of a Tensor Processing Unit,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (2017), pp. 1–12.
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Calabretta, N.

Calhoun, D. M.

S. Rumley, M. Bahadori, R. Polster, S. D. Hammond, D. M. Calhoun, K. Wen, A. Rodrigues, and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnects for extreme scale computing systems,” Parallel Comput. 64, 65–80 (2017).
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Carr, D.

R. Ryf, J. Kim, J. P. Hickey, A. Gnauck, D. Carr, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, R. Frahm, N. Basavanhally, C. Yoh, D. Ramsey, R. Boie, R. George, J. Kraus, C. Lichtenwalner, R. Papazian, J. Gates, H. R. Shea, A. Gasparyan, V. Muratov, J. E. Griffith, J. A. Prybyla, S. Goyal, C. D. White, M. T. Lin, R. Ruel, C. Mijander, S. Arney, D. T. Neilson, D. J. Bishop, P. Kolodner, S. Pau, C. Nuzman, A. Weis, B. Kumar, D. Lieuwen, V. Aksyuk, D. S. Greywall, T. C. Lee, H. T. Soh, W. M. Mansfield, S. Jin, W. Y. Lai, H. A. Huggins, D. L. Barr, R. A. Cirelli, G. R. Bogart, K. Teffeau, R. Vella, H. Mavoori, A. Ramirez, N. A. Ciampa, F. P. Klemens, M. D. Morris, T. Boone, J. Q. Liu, J. M. Rosamilia, and C. R. Gile, “1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 petabit per second switch capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (2001), paper PD28.

Caulfield, A.

A. Putnam, A. Caulfield, E. Chung, D. Chiou, K. Constantinides, J. Demme, H. Esmaeilzadeh, J. Fowers, J. Gray, M. Haselman, S. Hauck, S. Heil, A. Hormati, J.-Y. Kim, S. Lanka, E. Peterson, A. Smith, J. Thong, P. Y. Xiao, D. Burger, J. Larus, G. P. Gopal, and S. Pope, “A Reconfigurable Fabric for Accelerating Large-Scale Datacenter Services,” IEEE Micro. 35(3), 13–24 (2014).

Celo, D.

Z. Lu, D. Celo, H. Mehrvar, E. Bernier, and L. Chrostowski, “High-performance silicon photonic tri-state switch based on balanced nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12244 (2017).
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Chan, H. B.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 x 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1537–1539 (2003).
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Chao, C.

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Chen, C. P.

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Chen, R.

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Cheng, Q.

M. Ding, A. Wonfor, Q. Cheng, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Hybrid MZI-SOA InGaAs/InP Photonic Integrated Switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–8 (2018).
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M. Bahadori, A. Gazman, N. Janosik, S. Rumley, Z. Zhu, R. Polster, Q. Cheng, and K. Bergman, “Thermal Rectification of Integrated Microheaters for Microring Resonators in Silicon Photonics Platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 773–788 (2017).
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Chiou, D.

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Chiu, T. H.

J. E. Zucker, K. L. Jones, T. H. Chiu, B. Tell, and K. Brown-Goebeler, “Strained quantum wells for polarization-independent electrooptic waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1926–1930 (1992).
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Chrostowski, L.

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Ciampa, N. A.

R. Ryf, J. Kim, J. P. Hickey, A. Gnauck, D. Carr, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, R. Frahm, N. Basavanhally, C. Yoh, D. Ramsey, R. Boie, R. George, J. Kraus, C. Lichtenwalner, R. Papazian, J. Gates, H. R. Shea, A. Gasparyan, V. Muratov, J. E. Griffith, J. A. Prybyla, S. Goyal, C. D. White, M. T. Lin, R. Ruel, C. Mijander, S. Arney, D. T. Neilson, D. J. Bishop, P. Kolodner, S. Pau, C. Nuzman, A. Weis, B. Kumar, D. Lieuwen, V. Aksyuk, D. S. Greywall, T. C. Lee, H. T. Soh, W. M. Mansfield, S. Jin, W. Y. Lai, H. A. Huggins, D. L. Barr, R. A. Cirelli, G. R. Bogart, K. Teffeau, R. Vella, H. Mavoori, A. Ramirez, N. A. Ciampa, F. P. Klemens, M. D. Morris, T. Boone, J. Q. Liu, J. M. Rosamilia, and C. R. Gile, “1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 petabit per second switch capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (2001), paper PD28.

Cirelli, R. A.

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Gates, J.

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Gnauck, A.

R. Ryf, J. Kim, J. P. Hickey, A. Gnauck, D. Carr, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, R. Frahm, N. Basavanhally, C. Yoh, D. Ramsey, R. Boie, R. George, J. Kraus, C. Lichtenwalner, R. Papazian, J. Gates, H. R. Shea, A. Gasparyan, V. Muratov, J. E. Griffith, J. A. Prybyla, S. Goyal, C. D. White, M. T. Lin, R. Ruel, C. Mijander, S. Arney, D. T. Neilson, D. J. Bishop, P. Kolodner, S. Pau, C. Nuzman, A. Weis, B. Kumar, D. Lieuwen, V. Aksyuk, D. S. Greywall, T. C. Lee, H. T. Soh, W. M. Mansfield, S. Jin, W. Y. Lai, H. A. Huggins, D. L. Barr, R. A. Cirelli, G. R. Bogart, K. Teffeau, R. Vella, H. Mavoori, A. Ramirez, N. A. Ciampa, F. P. Klemens, M. D. Morris, T. Boone, J. Q. Liu, J. M. Rosamilia, and C. R. Gile, “1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 petabit per second switch capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (2001), paper PD28.

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Gopal, G. P.

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Goyal, S.

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Green, W. M.

Green, W. M. J.

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Griffith, J. E.

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Gritters, J.

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Grosse, P.

Gulland, W.

N. P. Jouppi, C. Young, N. Patil, D. Patterson, G. Agrawal, R. Bajwa, S. Bates, S. Bhatia, N. Boden, A. Borchers, R. Boyle, P.-l. Cantin, C. Chao, C. Clark, J. Coriell, M. Daley, M. Dau, J. Dean, B. Gelb, T. Vazir Ghaemmaghami, R. Gottipati, W. Gulland, R. Hagmann, C. Richard Ho, D. Hogberg, J. Hu, R. Hundt, D. Hurt, J. Ibarz, A. Jaffey, A. Jaworski, A. Kaplan, H. Khaitan, D. Killebrew, A. Koch, N. Kumar, S. Lacy, J. Laudon, J. Law, D. Le, C. Leary, Z. Liu, K. Lucke, A. Lundin, G. MacKean, A. Maggiore, M. Mahony, K. Miller, R. Nagarajan, R. Narayanaswami, R. Ni, K. Nix, T. Norrie, M. Omernick, N. Penukonda, A. Phelps, J. Ross, M. Ross, A. Salek, E. Samadiani, C. Severn, G. Sizikov, M. Snelham, J. Souter, D. Steinberg, A. Swing, M. Tan, G. Thorson, B. Tian, H. Toma, E. Tuttle, V. Vasudevan, R. Walter, W. Wang, E. Wilcox, and D. H. Yoon, “In-Datacenter Performance Analysis of a Tensor Processing Unit,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (2017), pp. 1–12.
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Gutierrez, S.

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Hagmann, R.

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Hattink, M. H. N.

Hauck, S.

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Koch, A.

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K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, J. Hasegawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Low Insertion Loss and Power Efficient 32 × 32 Silicon Photonics Switch with Extremely-High-Δ PLC Connector,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers (2018).

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Kozuch, M.

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J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 x 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1537–1539 (2003).
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Kumar, B.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 x 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1537–1539 (2003).
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Kumar, N.

N. P. Jouppi, C. Young, N. Patil, D. Patterson, G. Agrawal, R. Bajwa, S. Bates, S. Bhatia, N. Boden, A. Borchers, R. Boyle, P.-l. Cantin, C. Chao, C. Clark, J. Coriell, M. Daley, M. Dau, J. Dean, B. Gelb, T. Vazir Ghaemmaghami, R. Gottipati, W. Gulland, R. Hagmann, C. Richard Ho, D. Hogberg, J. Hu, R. Hundt, D. Hurt, J. Ibarz, A. Jaffey, A. Jaworski, A. Kaplan, H. Khaitan, D. Killebrew, A. Koch, N. Kumar, S. Lacy, J. Laudon, J. Law, D. Le, C. Leary, Z. Liu, K. Lucke, A. Lundin, G. MacKean, A. Maggiore, M. Mahony, K. Miller, R. Nagarajan, R. Narayanaswami, R. Ni, K. Nix, T. Norrie, M. Omernick, N. Penukonda, A. Phelps, J. Ross, M. Ross, A. Salek, E. Samadiani, C. Severn, G. Sizikov, M. Snelham, J. Souter, D. Steinberg, A. Swing, M. Tan, G. Thorson, B. Tian, H. Toma, E. Tuttle, V. Vasudevan, R. Walter, W. Wang, E. Wilcox, and D. H. Yoon, “In-Datacenter Performance Analysis of a Tensor Processing Unit,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (2017), pp. 1–12.
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Kurahashi, T.

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Kurczveil, G.

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Netherton, A. M.

Ng, T. S. E.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 327–338 (2010).
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Papagiannaki, K.

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R. Ryf, J. Kim, J. P. Hickey, A. Gnauck, D. Carr, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, R. Frahm, N. Basavanhally, C. Yoh, D. Ramsey, R. Boie, R. George, J. Kraus, C. Lichtenwalner, R. Papazian, J. Gates, H. R. Shea, A. Gasparyan, V. Muratov, J. E. Griffith, J. A. Prybyla, S. Goyal, C. D. White, M. T. Lin, R. Ruel, C. Mijander, S. Arney, D. T. Neilson, D. J. Bishop, P. Kolodner, S. Pau, C. Nuzman, A. Weis, B. Kumar, D. Lieuwen, V. Aksyuk, D. S. Greywall, T. C. Lee, H. T. Soh, W. M. Mansfield, S. Jin, W. Y. Lai, H. A. Huggins, D. L. Barr, R. A. Cirelli, G. R. Bogart, K. Teffeau, R. Vella, H. Mavoori, A. Ramirez, N. A. Ciampa, F. P. Klemens, M. D. Morris, T. Boone, J. Q. Liu, J. M. Rosamilia, and C. R. Gile, “1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 petabit per second switch capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (2001), paper PD28.

Papen, G.

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Pardo, F.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 x 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1537–1539 (2003).
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Pardo, M. E.

Park, H.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs–Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
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Patterson, D.

N. P. Jouppi, C. Young, N. Patil, D. Patterson, G. Agrawal, R. Bajwa, S. Bates, S. Bhatia, N. Boden, A. Borchers, R. Boyle, P.-l. Cantin, C. Chao, C. Clark, J. Coriell, M. Daley, M. Dau, J. Dean, B. Gelb, T. Vazir Ghaemmaghami, R. Gottipati, W. Gulland, R. Hagmann, C. Richard Ho, D. Hogberg, J. Hu, R. Hundt, D. Hurt, J. Ibarz, A. Jaffey, A. Jaworski, A. Kaplan, H. Khaitan, D. Killebrew, A. Koch, N. Kumar, S. Lacy, J. Laudon, J. Law, D. Le, C. Leary, Z. Liu, K. Lucke, A. Lundin, G. MacKean, A. Maggiore, M. Mahony, K. Miller, R. Nagarajan, R. Narayanaswami, R. Ni, K. Nix, T. Norrie, M. Omernick, N. Penukonda, A. Phelps, J. Ross, M. Ross, A. Salek, E. Samadiani, C. Severn, G. Sizikov, M. Snelham, J. Souter, D. Steinberg, A. Swing, M. Tan, G. Thorson, B. Tian, H. Toma, E. Tuttle, V. Vasudevan, R. Walter, W. Wang, E. Wilcox, and D. H. Yoon, “In-Datacenter Performance Analysis of a Tensor Processing Unit,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (2017), pp. 1–12.
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Pau, S.

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Penty, R.

Penty, R. V.

M. Ding, A. Wonfor, Q. Cheng, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Hybrid MZI-SOA InGaAs/InP Photonic Integrated Switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–8 (2018).
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Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “The Feasibility of Building a 64x64 Port Count SOA-Based Optical Switch,” in 2015 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2015), pp. 199–201.
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Wei, Y.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, "32×32 silicon photonic switch," in 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Weis, A.

R. Ryf, J. Kim, J. P. Hickey, A. Gnauck, D. Carr, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, R. Frahm, N. Basavanhally, C. Yoh, D. Ramsey, R. Boie, R. George, J. Kraus, C. Lichtenwalner, R. Papazian, J. Gates, H. R. Shea, A. Gasparyan, V. Muratov, J. E. Griffith, J. A. Prybyla, S. Goyal, C. D. White, M. T. Lin, R. Ruel, C. Mijander, S. Arney, D. T. Neilson, D. J. Bishop, P. Kolodner, S. Pau, C. Nuzman, A. Weis, B. Kumar, D. Lieuwen, V. Aksyuk, D. S. Greywall, T. C. Lee, H. T. Soh, W. M. Mansfield, S. Jin, W. Y. Lai, H. A. Huggins, D. L. Barr, R. A. Cirelli, G. R. Bogart, K. Teffeau, R. Vella, H. Mavoori, A. Ramirez, N. A. Ciampa, F. P. Klemens, M. D. Morris, T. Boone, J. Q. Liu, J. M. Rosamilia, and C. R. Gile, “1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 petabit per second switch capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (2001), paper PD28.

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J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 x 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1537–1539 (2003).
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White, I. H.

M. Ding, A. Wonfor, Q. Cheng, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Hybrid MZI-SOA InGaAs/InP Photonic Integrated Switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–8 (2018).
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S. Liu, Q. Cheng, M. R. Madarbux, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and P. M. Watts, “Low Latency Optical Switch for High Performance Computing With Minimized Processor Energy Load,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(3), A498 (2015).
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Q. Cheng, R. Stabile, A. Rohit, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and K. A. Williams, “First Demonstration of Automated Control and Assessment of a Dynamically Reconfigured Monolithic 8 × 8 Wavelength-and-Space Switch,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(3), A388 (2015).
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Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Monolithic MZI-SOA hybrid switch for low-power and low-penalty operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1449–1452 (2014).
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B. Robertson, H. Yang, M. M. Redmond, N. Collings, J. R. Moore, J. Liu, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, M. Pivnenko, S. Lee, A. Wonfor, I. H. White, W. A. Crossland, and D. P. Chu, “Demonstration of Multi-Casting in a 1 × 9 LCOS Wavelength Selective Switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(3), 402–410 (2014).
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Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of the feasibility of large-port-count optical switching using a hybrid Mach-Zehnder interferometer-semiconductor optical amplifier switch module in a recirculating loop,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5244–5247 (2014).
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Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Scalable, Low-Energy Hybrid Photonic Space Switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(18), 3077–3084 (2013).
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A. Wonfor, H. Wang, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Large Port Count High-Speed Optical Switch Fabric for Use Within Datacenters,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3(8), A32 (2011).
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Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “The Feasibility of Building a 64x64 Port Count SOA-Based Optical Switch,” in 2015 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2015), pp. 199–201.
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Williams, K. A.

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Wonfor, A.

M. Ding, A. Wonfor, Q. Cheng, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Hybrid MZI-SOA InGaAs/InP Photonic Integrated Switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, Q. Cheng, M. R. Madarbux, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and P. M. Watts, “Low Latency Optical Switch for High Performance Computing With Minimized Processor Energy Load,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(3), A498 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, R. Stabile, A. Rohit, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and K. A. Williams, “First Demonstration of Automated Control and Assessment of a Dynamically Reconfigured Monolithic 8 × 8 Wavelength-and-Space Switch,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(3), A388 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Robertson, H. Yang, M. M. Redmond, N. Collings, J. R. Moore, J. Liu, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, M. Pivnenko, S. Lee, A. Wonfor, I. H. White, W. A. Crossland, and D. P. Chu, “Demonstration of Multi-Casting in a 1 × 9 LCOS Wavelength Selective Switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(3), 402–410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Scalable, Low-Energy Hybrid Photonic Space Switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(18), 3077–3084 (2013).
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A. Wonfor, H. Wang, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Large Port Count High-Speed Optical Switch Fabric for Use Within Datacenters,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3(8), A32 (2011).
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X. Zhu, K. Padmaraju, L.-W. Luo, S. Yang, M. Glick, R. Dutt, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Fast Wavelength Locking of a Microring Resonator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2365–2368 (2014).
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M. Yano, F. Yamagishi, and T. Tsuda, “Optical MEMS for photonic switching-compact and stable optical crossconnect switches for simple, fast, and flexible wavelength applications in recent photonic networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 383–394 (2005).
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Yoh, C.

R. Ryf, J. Kim, J. P. Hickey, A. Gnauck, D. Carr, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, R. Frahm, N. Basavanhally, C. Yoh, D. Ramsey, R. Boie, R. George, J. Kraus, C. Lichtenwalner, R. Papazian, J. Gates, H. R. Shea, A. Gasparyan, V. Muratov, J. E. Griffith, J. A. Prybyla, S. Goyal, C. D. White, M. T. Lin, R. Ruel, C. Mijander, S. Arney, D. T. Neilson, D. J. Bishop, P. Kolodner, S. Pau, C. Nuzman, A. Weis, B. Kumar, D. Lieuwen, V. Aksyuk, D. S. Greywall, T. C. Lee, H. T. Soh, W. M. Mansfield, S. Jin, W. Y. Lai, H. A. Huggins, D. L. Barr, R. A. Cirelli, G. R. Bogart, K. Teffeau, R. Vella, H. Mavoori, A. Ramirez, N. A. Ciampa, F. P. Klemens, M. D. Morris, T. Boone, J. Q. Liu, J. M. Rosamilia, and C. R. Gile, “1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 petabit per second switch capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (2001), paper PD28.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) 2-D MEMS optical switch. (b) 3-D MEMS optical switch. Reprinted from [19].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 16 × 16 InP-based all-active SOA switch. Reprinted from [12]. (b) 8 × 8 × 8λ InP-based wavelength-and-space SOA switch. Reprinted from [37].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 8 × 8 InP-based MZI switch. Reprinted from [47]. (b) 4 × 4 InP-based hybrid MZI-SOA switch. Reprinted from [45].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) 32 × 32 silicon T-O MZI-based PILOSS switch. Reprinted from [56]. (b) 32 × 32 silicon E-O MZI-based Beneš switch. Reprinted from [57].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Detailed port-to-port power penalty of both selected and worst-case path mapping for all 24 permutations. Note that 11 dB of power penalty contributed from in/out grating couplers. Reprinted from [68]
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) 4 × 4 silicon MRR-based hitless router. Reprinted from [72]. (b) 8 × 7 silicon T-O fifth-order-MRR switch. Reprinted from [75]. (c) Modular silicon switch-and-select MRR-based switch. Reprinted from [76].
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Number of worst-case drop rings per path and (b) total number of rings as a function of switch port number among different architectures.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) 64 × 64 silicon integrated MEMS switch. (b) MEMS switch cell. Reprinted from [83]
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Relationship between switching time and value. (b) Step function estimation of value vs. switching time. (c) Relationship between switch power penalty (worst case) and value. (d) Relationship between switch cost-per-port and value. (e) Relationship between switch radix and value. (f) Proposed approximation for the value of the switch as a function of radix. In cases (a)-(f), all other parameters are considered unchanged.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) 2D plane Pareto analysis of switch quality. (b) Pareto analysis of four switching technologies. The space of each element in the pie indicates the ratios that a switching technology should be privileged as a combining factor of the cost-per-port and power penalty.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Schematic of a hybrid III/V-Si switch in a PILOSS topology. (b) A hybrid switching cell carrying one input signal at once and the attached SOAs switched in tandem.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Potential impact of hybrid integrated switch fabrics for (a) scenario 1, 2, and (b) 3 by inserting the III-V/Si hybrid switch in the Pareto front.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison table of different optical switching technologies

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