Abstract

As an essential component of mode division multiplexing (MDM) system, a multimode 3dB power splitter with low loss, high power balance, and low mode crosstalk is highly desired. In this paper, we propose an ultra-broadband on-chip multimode 3dB optical power splitter using an adiabatic coupler and an S-bend based Y-branch. As an example, a splitter for the four-lowest modes of a rib waveguide on silicon on insulator (SOI) platform is designed. Simulation results show that the device exhibits < 0.12dB insertion losses, within ± 0.38dB power imbalances, and < −18.5dB mode crosstalks for the four-lowest modes within a large operating wavelength range of 165 nm (from 1400 nm to 1565 nm). The fabrication tolerance of gap size at the output end of the adiabatic coupler is also analyzed.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (6)

P. Dong, “Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 370–378 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Han, S. Liang, J. Xu, L. Qiao, H. Zhu, and W. Wang, “Simultaneous Wavelength- and Mode-Division (De)multiplexing for High-Capacity On-Chip Data Transmission Link,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Wu, H. K. Tsang, and D. Dai, “Monolithically integrated reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for mode-division-multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 41(22), 5298–5301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “On-chip switch for reconfigurable mode-multiplexing optical network,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21722–21728 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, Y. Yu, M. Ye, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Integrated dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on tapered directional coupler,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband dual-mode 3 dB power splitter based on a Y-junction assisted with mode converters,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5047–5050 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode conversion in tapered submicron silicon ridge optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13425–13439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Liu, L. Ling, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, H.-C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 280–282 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[Crossref]

Akedo, J.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Ling, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

Cardenas, J.

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, P.

Chen, S.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Ling, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Da Ros, F.

Dai, D.

Ding, Y.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, “Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 370–378 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fujikata, J.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Furue, K.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomyo, A.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, L.

L. Han, S. Liang, J. Xu, L. Qiao, H. Zhu, and W. Wang, “Simultaneous Wavelength- and Mode-Division (De)multiplexing for High-Capacity On-Chip Data Transmission Link,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Han, S. Liang, H. Zhu, L. Qiao, J. Xu, and W. Wang, “Two-mode de/multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers with a tilted joint as phase shifter,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 518–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

Ishi, T.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, M.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liang, S.

L. Han, S. Liang, J. Xu, L. Qiao, H. Zhu, and W. Wang, “Simultaneous Wavelength- and Mode-Division (De)multiplexing for High-Capacity On-Chip Data Transmission Link,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Han, S. Liang, H. Zhu, L. Qiao, J. Xu, and W. Wang, “Two-mode de/multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers with a tilted joint as phase shifter,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 518–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, L.

A. Liu, L. Ling, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Ling, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.-C.

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, Y. Yu, M. Ye, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Integrated dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on tapered directional coupler,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mizuno, M.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nakada, M.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Ling, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nishi, K.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nose, K.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, K.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, D.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, H.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Ling, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, L.

L. Han, S. Liang, J. Xu, L. Qiao, H. Zhu, and W. Wang, “Simultaneous Wavelength- and Mode-Division (De)multiplexing for High-Capacity On-Chip Data Transmission Link,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Han, S. Liang, H. Zhu, L. Qiao, J. Xu, and W. Wang, “Two-mode de/multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers with a tilted joint as phase shifter,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 518–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Ling, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

Shimizu, T.

K. Ohashi, K. Nishi, T. Shimizu, M. Nakada, J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, S. Torii, K. Nose, M. Mizuno, H. Yukawa, M. Kinoshita, N. Suzuki, A. Gomyo, T. Ishi, D. Okamoto, K. Furue, T. Ueno, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and J. Akedo, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1186–1198 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stern, B.

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[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Luo, Y. Yu, M. Ye, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Integrated dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on tapered directional coupler,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Top view schematic of the proposed multimode 3dB power splitter with section indications; Relationships between normal modes and excited supermodes for using (b) WG1 and (c) WG2 as the input waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated mode effective indices of the four-lowest guided modes in a rib SOI waveguide with different width.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated the effective index evolutions of the eight guided modes along the propagation direction. (a) TE0 mode, (b) TE1 mode, (c) TE2 mode, and (d) TM0 mode are used as input for WG1 and WG2, respectively. Inset: mode profiles at both input and output end of the AC. All simulations are run at a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Calculated mode conversion efficiencies for the TE0, TE1, TE2, and TM0 modes respectively launched into the wide waveguide WG1 as a function of the length of adiabatic coupler (LAC). Here, the Gin and GAC are 50 nm and 500 nm, respectively. (b) The mode conversion efficiencies for the TE0-to-STE0-e as a function of the AC’s coupling length under different Gin and fixed GAC = 50 nm. (c) The mode conversion efficiencies for the TE0-to-STE0-e as a function of the AC’s coupling length under different GAC and fixed Gin = 500 nm. All simulations are run at a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mode propagations in the AC for different modes launched into WG1 at a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Relationships between length of Y-branch (LYb) and mode conversation efficiency for different input modes in terms of (a) STE0-e mode, (b) STE1-e mode, (c) STE2-e mode, and (d) STM0-e mode. Here GAC and Gout are 50 nm and 2.4 µm, respectively. The points with value smaller than −60 dB are not shown here. All simulations are run at a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Mode propagations in the Y-branch for injecting different supermodes at a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Mode propagations in the whole device for different modes launched into WG1 at a wavelength of 1550 nm: (a) TE0 mode, (b) TE1 mode, (c) TE2 mode, and (d) TM0 mode.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Wavelength dependence of the proposed device performance in terms of (a) insertion loss, (b) power imbalance, and (c) mode crosstalk.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Fabrication tolerance analysis to deviation of gap size (GAC) at the output end of AC.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optimized parameters of the proposed multimode 3dB power splitter

Equations (3)

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IL=10log P out1 + P out2 P in
PIMB=10log P out1 P out2
C T i =10log 1, ji  4 P outMode j P outMode i

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