Abstract

Multi-distance phase retrieval (MDPR) based lensfree imaging is promising for an aberration free and compact biological imaging system. In the MDPR processing, the measurement uncertainty of the sample-to-sensor distance undermines its imaging quality and imposes a heavy workload to achieve a perfect reconstruction. The optimal distance can be searched by using an image sharpness quantification function with a refocused data set, however, the scanning is sensitive to noise and aliasing artifact for MDPR. In this work, we propose an adaptive imaging scheme with the help of a diffuser inserted in the lensfree system. The optimal sample-to-sensor distance is searched by combing speckle imaging with sharpness quantification function. With this speckle-based auxiliary, intensity patterns under a coherent illumination are directly used to achieve an in-focusing image reconstruction. Experiments are given to demonstrate the stability, imaging resolution and optical sectioning for our scheme. This method provides a simple, stable and robust tool for the auto-focusing imaging.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

C. Guo, Q. Li, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “A method of solving tilt illumination for multiple distance phase retrieval,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 106, 17–23 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Guo, Q. Li, X. Zhang, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing imaging contrast via weighted feedback for iterative multi-image phase retrieval,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, J. Liao, Z. Bian, K. Guo, Y. Zhang, and G. Zheng, “Transform- and multi-domain deep learning for single-frame rapid autofocusing in whole slide imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1601–1612 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ren, Z. Xu, and E. Y. Lam, “Learning-based nonparametric autofocusing for digital holography,” Optica 5(4), 337–344 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

G. Li, W. Yang, D. Li, and G. Situ, “Cyphertext-only attack on the double random-phase encryption: Experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8690–8697 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ren, N. Chen, and E. Y. Lam, “Automatic focusing for multisectional objects in digital holography using the structure tensor,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1720–1723 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, “Ghost identification based on single-pixel imaging in big data environment,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16509–16516 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Tamamitsu, and A. Ozcan, “Edge sparsity criterion for robust holographic autofocusing,” Opt. Lett. 42(19), 3824–3827 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shan, L. Liu, Z. Zhong, B. Liu, G. Luan, and Y. Zhang, “Single-shot dual-wavelength off-axis quasi-common-path digital holography using polarization-multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25(21), 26253–26261 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, C. Zuo, L. Zhang, and Q. Chen, “Resolution-enhanced Fourier ptychographic microscopy based on high-numerical-aperture illuminations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, S. Feng, and J. Wu, “Multilayer pixel super-resolution lensless in-line holographic microscope with random sample movement,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12791 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Guo, Q. Li, C. Wei, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Axial multi-image phase retrieval under tilt illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7562 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

2015 (5)

L. Tian and L. Waller, “3D intensity and phase imaging from light field measurements in an LED array microscope,” Optica 2(2), 104–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, M. R. Marte, and R. Piestun, “Three-dimensional information from two-dimensional scans: a scanning microscope with postacquisition refocusing capability,” Optica 2(3), 210–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Bertolotti, “Multiple scattering: unravelling the tangle,” Nat. Phys. 11(8), 622–623 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Huang, H. Liu, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, M. Hong, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. Teng, and C. W. Qiu, “Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (2)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Latychevskaia and H. W. Fink, “Resolution enhancement in digital holography by self-extrapolation of holograms,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7726–7733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gao, B. Yao, R. Rupp, J. Min, R. Guo, B. Ma, J. Zheng, M. Lei, S. Yan, D. Dan, and T. Ye, “Autofocusing based on wavelength dependence of diffraction in two-wavelength digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1172–1174 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Krotkov, “Focusing,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1(3), 223–237 (1987).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Adelung, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allain, M.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Almoro, P. F.

Belkebir, K.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berndt, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

Bertolotti, J.

J. Bertolotti, “Multiple scattering: unravelling the tangle,” Nat. Phys. 11(8), 622–623 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bian, Z.

Bishara, W.

Bunk, O.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, N.

Chen, Q.

J. Sun, C. Zuo, L. Zhang, and Q. Chen, “Resolution-enhanced Fourier ptychographic microscopy based on high-numerical-aperture illuminations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zuo, J. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Adaptive step-size strategy for noise-robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20724–20744 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Choi, Y. S.

Chung, J.

Chung, P. L.

A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, P. L. Chung, W. Luo, S. R. Kandukuri, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field computational imaging of pathology slides using lens-free on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 6(267), 267ra175 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coskun, A. F.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dan, D.

David, C.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, S.

Eigenthaler, U.

Faridian, A.

Feizi, A.

A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, P. L. Chung, W. Luo, S. R. Kandukuri, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field computational imaging of pathology slides using lens-free on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 6(267), 267ra175 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

M. Wang, S. Feng, and J. Wu, “Multilayer pixel super-resolution lensless in-line holographic microscope with random sample movement,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12791 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Fink, H. W.

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furlan, W. D.

Gao, P.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

K. Huang, H. Liu, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, M. Hong, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. Teng, and C. W. Qiu, “Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Girard, J.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Göröcs, Z.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenbaum, A.

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, “Synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(4), e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, P. L. Chung, W. Luo, S. R. Kandukuri, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field computational imaging of pathology slides using lens-free on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 6(267), 267ra175 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Gundu, P. N.

Guo, C.

C. Guo, Q. Li, X. Zhang, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing imaging contrast via weighted feedback for iterative multi-image phase retrieval,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Guo, Q. Li, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “A method of solving tilt illumination for multiple distance phase retrieval,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 106, 17–23 (2018).
[Crossref]

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K. Huang, H. Liu, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, M. Hong, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. Teng, and C. W. Qiu, “Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7059 (2015).
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C. Guo, Q. Li, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “A method of solving tilt illumination for multiple distance phase retrieval,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 106, 17–23 (2018).
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C. Guo, Q. Li, X. Zhang, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing imaging contrast via weighted feedback for iterative multi-image phase retrieval,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(1), 1–10 (2018).
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C. Guo, Q. Li, X. Zhang, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing imaging contrast via weighted feedback for iterative multi-image phase retrieval,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(1), 1–10 (2018).
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C. Guo, Q. Li, C. Wei, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Axial multi-image phase retrieval under tilt illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7562 (2017).
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K. Huang, H. Liu, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, M. Hong, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. Teng, and C. W. Qiu, “Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7059 (2015).
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Ma, B.

Marte, M. R.

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J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
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Monsoriu, J. A.

Mudanyali, O.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
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E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
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Murnane, M. M.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
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Nanda, P.

Nicoletti, C.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
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W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, “Synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(4), e16060 (2016).
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A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, P. L. Chung, W. Luo, S. R. Kandukuri, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field computational imaging of pathology slides using lens-free on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 6(267), 267ra175 (2014).
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A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
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W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
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W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27499–27510 (2010).
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Pfeiffer, F.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
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K. Huang, H. Liu, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, M. Hong, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. Teng, and C. W. Qiu, “Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7059 (2015).
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J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
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S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
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L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
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E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
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L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
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A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
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W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
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Sun, J.

J. Sun, C. Zuo, L. Zhang, and Q. Chen, “Resolution-enhanced Fourier ptychographic microscopy based on high-numerical-aperture illuminations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1187 (2017).
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C. Zuo, J. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Adaptive step-size strategy for noise-robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20724–20744 (2016).
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Tamamitsu, M.

Tan, J.

C. Guo, Q. Li, X. Zhang, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing imaging contrast via weighted feedback for iterative multi-image phase retrieval,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(1), 1–10 (2018).
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C. Guo, Q. Li, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “A method of solving tilt illumination for multiple distance phase retrieval,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 106, 17–23 (2018).
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C. Guo, Q. Li, C. Wei, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Axial multi-image phase retrieval under tilt illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7562 (2017).
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Teng, J.

K. Huang, H. Liu, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, M. Hong, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. Teng, and C. W. Qiu, “Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7059 (2015).
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S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
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M. Wang, S. Feng, and J. Wu, “Multilayer pixel super-resolution lensless in-line holographic microscope with random sample movement,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12791 (2017).
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Wu, Y.

Xu, H.

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Xu, Z.

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A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
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Yan, S.

Yang, C.

Yang, W.

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Zhang, L.

J. Sun, C. Zuo, L. Zhang, and Q. Chen, “Resolution-enhanced Fourier ptychographic microscopy based on high-numerical-aperture illuminations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1187 (2017).
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Zhang, X.

C. Guo, Q. Li, X. Zhang, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing imaging contrast via weighted feedback for iterative multi-image phase retrieval,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(1), 1–10 (2018).
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Zhu, H.

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J. Sun, C. Zuo, L. Zhang, and Q. Chen, “Resolution-enhanced Fourier ptychographic microscopy based on high-numerical-aperture illuminations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1187 (2017).
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C. Zuo, J. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Adaptive step-size strategy for noise-robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20724–20744 (2016).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

E. Krotkov, “Focusing,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1(3), 223–237 (1987).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. Guo, Q. Li, X. Zhang, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing imaging contrast via weighted feedback for iterative multi-image phase retrieval,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, “Synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(4), e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Huang, H. Liu, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, M. Hong, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. Teng, and C. W. Qiu, “Ultrahigh-capacity non-periodic photon sieves operating in visible light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7059 (2015).
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Nat. Methods (1)

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
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E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Bertolotti, “Multiple scattering: unravelling the tangle,” Nat. Phys. 11(8), 622–623 (2015).
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Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (12)

T. Latychevskaia and H. W. Fink, “Resolution enhancement in digital holography by self-extrapolation of holograms,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7726–7733 (2013).
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A. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, G. Pedrini, M. Takeda, and W. Osten, “Looking through a diffuser and around an opaque surface: a holographic approach,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7694–7701 (2014).
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S. Dong, P. Nanda, R. Shiradkar, K. Guo, and G. Zheng, “High-resolution fluorescence imaging via pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20856–20870 (2014).
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W. Harm, C. Roider, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Lensless imaging through thin diffusive media,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22146–22156 (2014).
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W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
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A. Faridian, D. Hopp, G. Pedrini, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, and W. Osten, “Nanoscale imaging using deep ultraviolet digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14159–14164 (2010).
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W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27499–27510 (2010).
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M. Shan, L. Liu, Z. Zhong, B. Liu, G. Luan, and Y. Zhang, “Single-shot dual-wavelength off-axis quasi-common-path digital holography using polarization-multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25(21), 26253–26261 (2017).
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W. Chen, “Ghost identification based on single-pixel imaging in big data environment,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16509–16516 (2017).
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C. Zuo, J. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Adaptive step-size strategy for noise-robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20724–20744 (2016).
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W. Xu, H. Xu, Y. Luo, T. Li, and Y. Shi, “Optical watermarking based on single-shot-ptychography encoding,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27922–27936 (2016).
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G. Li, W. Yang, D. Li, and G. Situ, “Cyphertext-only attack on the double random-phase encryption: Experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8690–8697 (2017).
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Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

C. Guo, Q. Li, J. Tan, S. Liu, and Z. Liu, “A method of solving tilt illumination for multiple distance phase retrieval,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 106, 17–23 (2018).
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Opt. Lett. (8)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic of the adaptive multi-distance lensfree imaging system. A diffuser is inserted before the object to switch the type of illuminations.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The flowchart of adaptive multi-distance phase retrievals: (a) Serial mode, (b) Parallel mode, (c) The adaptive mode of our proposal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The comparison of convergence speed for the P mode and the S mode. (a) The ground truth image, (d) the speckle pattern illuminated on the sample; (b) and (e) are NCC curves under coherent and speckle illumination for S mode; (c) and (f) are the results for P mode.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The comparison of noise robustness for the P mode and the S mode. (a) NCC convergence curve, (b) and (c) the retrieved images with the variance of 0.001 and 0.005 for S mode, (d) and (e) the retrieved images for P mode with similar noise levels.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The normalized SQF curves of coherent and speckle illuminations. The first two columns on the left illustrate the case of the coherent illumination in the S and P modes, respectively. The third column indicate the case of the speckle illumination in the S mode. (a), (d), (g) and (j) are retrieved with the addition of noise-free, Gaussian noise (variance = 0.01), aliasing artifact (tilt error = 0.2°) and compound noise for the S mode, respectively. (b), (e), (h) and (k) for P mode under coherent illumination. (c), (f), (i) and (l) correspond to (a), (d), (g) and (j) but with the speckle illumination.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The retrieved results of a calibration object. (a) and (b) are the normalized metric functions plotted in the S and P modes with the coherent data set, (c) the normalized metric functions plotted in the S mode with the speckle data set, (d) and (e) are the coherent and speckle intensity patterns, (f) and (g) are the retrieved amplitudes under the speckle and coherent illuminations. The white bar corresponds to 150 μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The retrieved results of the negative 1951 USAF resolution chart. (a), (e) and (i) are retrieved by SBMIR, APR and our method after 1000 iterations. (b), (f) and (j) are the zoomed-in parts inside red dash rectangle. (c), (g) and (k) are the zoomed-in parts inside blue dash rectangle. (d), (h) and (l) are plotted along red, green and blue lines in (c), (g) and (k). The white bar corresponds to 500μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The experimental schematic of a multi-section object.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The retrieved results of a two-section sample. (a) and (b) are the SQF curves for different segmented regions, (c)-(d) and (e)-(f) are the retrieved images using the coherent and speckle data sets, (g) and (h) are plotlines of stripe and ’3′ along red and blue lines in (e) and (f). The white bar at the left-top corner corresponds to 300μm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The retrieved results of ant specimen. (a) SQF curves, (b) the retrieved image, and (c) the multi-section retrieval by pixel refocusing. The white bar corresponds to 300 μm.

Equations (11)

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I n = | u n | 2 + ε n = | A n u 0 | 2 + ε n ,
u ^ n+1 k = A d [ I n u ^ n k | u ^ n k | ],
u ^ 1 k+1 = A N1 [ I N u ^ N k | u ^ N k | ],
Δ= xy | | u ^ 1 k | I 1 | ,
u ^ n k = A 1n [ I 1 u ^ 1 k | u ^ 1 k | ],n[2,N],
u ^ 1 k+1 = 1 N1 n=2 N A n1 [ I n u ^ n k | u ^ n k | ] .
GRA( z )= | I( x,y;z ) | dxdy,
SPEC( z )= ln{ 1+| F[ I( x,y,z ) I ¯ (z) ] | } dxdy,
LAP( z )= { 2 I( x,y;z ) } 2 dxdy,
SG( z )= { I( x,y;z ) } 2 dxdy,
Tenengrad( z )= [ i x I( x,y;z ) ] 2 + [ i y I( x,y;z ) ] 2 dxdy,

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