Abstract

A hybrid group IV ridge waveguide platform is demonstrated, with potential application across the optical spectrum from ultraviolet to the far infrared wavelengths. The waveguides are fabricated by partial etching of sub-micron ridges in a nanocrystalline diamond thin film grown on top of a silicon wafer. To create vertical confinement, the diamond film is locally undercut by exposing the chip to an isotropic fluorine plasma etch via etch holes surrounding the waveguides, resulting in a mechanically stable suspended air-clad waveguide platform. Optical characterization of the waveguides at 1550 nm yields an average optical loss of 4.67 ± 0.47 dB/mm. Further improvement to the fabrication process is expected to significantly reduce this waveguide loss.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

16 May 2018: A typographical correction was made to the abstract.


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References

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  1. Z. G. Hu, P. Prunici, P. Hess, and K. H. Chen, “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films from mid-infrared to ultraviolet using reflectometry and ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 37–41 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Hirose and Y. Terasawa, “Synthesis of Diamond Thin Films by Thermal CVD Using Organic Compounds,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(2), L519–L521 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Liou, A. Inspektor, R. Weimer, and R. Messier, “Low‐temperature diamond deposition by microwave plasma‐enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(7), 631–633 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  7. O. A. Williams, “Nanocrystalline diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 20(5-6), 621–640 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Prajzler, M. Varga, P. Nekvindova, Z. Remes, and A. Kromka, “Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8417–8425 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Rath, N. Gruhler, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waferscale nanophotonic circuits made from diamond-on-insulator substrates,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11031–11036 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared Suspended Membrane Waveguide and Ring Resonator on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. M. Shyroki, “Exact Equivalent Straight Waveguide Model for Bent and Twisted Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(2), 414–419 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. L. H. Thomas, G. W. Nelson, S. Mandal, J. S. Foord, and O. A. Williams, “Chemical mechanical polishing of thin film diamond,” Carbon 68, 473–479 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Malmström, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, Y. Cai, F. Nikolajeff, and F. Laurell, “Waveguides in polycrystalline diamond for mid-IR sensing,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(4), 1286–1295 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Malmström, M. Karlsson, P. Forsberg, Y. Cai, F. Nikolajeff, and F. Laurell, “Waveguides in polycrystalline diamond for mid-IR sensing,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(4), 1286–1295 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

E. L. H. Thomas, G. W. Nelson, S. Mandal, J. S. Foord, and O. A. Williams, “Chemical mechanical polishing of thin film diamond,” Carbon 68, 473–479 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared Suspended Membrane Waveguide and Ring Resonator on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

O. A. Williams, “Nanocrystalline diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 20(5-6), 621–640 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. M. Shyroki, “Exact Equivalent Straight Waveguide Model for Bent and Twisted Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(2), 414–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Z. G. Hu, P. Prunici, P. Hess, and K. H. Chen, “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films from mid-infrared to ultraviolet using reflectometry and ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 37–41 (2007).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Y. Liou, A. Inspektor, R. Weimer, and R. Messier, “Low‐temperature diamond deposition by microwave plasma‐enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(7), 631–633 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

Y. Hirose and Y. Terasawa, “Synthesis of Diamond Thin Films by Thermal CVD Using Organic Compounds,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(2), L519–L521 (1986).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Babinec, T. M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bergonzo, P.

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brandon, J. R.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Cheben, P.

Checoury, X.

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. H.

Z. G. Hu, P. Prunici, P. Hess, and K. H. Chen, “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films from mid-infrared to ultraviolet using reflectometry and ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 37–41 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared Suspended Membrane Waveguide and Ring Resonator on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared Suspended Membrane Waveguide and Ring Resonator on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choy, J. T.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Wit, H.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, H. K.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Dodson, J. M.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Erps, J. V.

F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Foord, J. S.

E. L. H. Thomas, G. W. Nelson, S. Mandal, J. S. Foord, and O. A. Williams, “Chemical mechanical polishing of thin film diamond,” Carbon 68, 473–479 (2014).
[Crossref]

Forsberg, P.

Friel, I.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Ganesan, K.

A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Geoghegan, S. L.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Gesset, C.

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Girard, H.

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gruhler, N.

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Rath, N. Gruhler, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waferscale nanophotonic circuits made from diamond-on-insulator substrates,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11031–11036 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halir, R.

Hausmann, B. J. M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, P.

Z. G. Hu, P. Prunici, P. Hess, and K. H. Chen, “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films from mid-infrared to ultraviolet using reflectometry and ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 37–41 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hirose, Y.

Y. Hirose and Y. Terasawa, “Synthesis of Diamond Thin Films by Thermal CVD Using Organic Compounds,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(2), L519–L521 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z. G.

Z. G. Hu, P. Prunici, P. Hess, and K. H. Chen, “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films from mid-infrared to ultraviolet using reflectometry and ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 37–41 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Inspektor, A.

Y. Liou, A. Inspektor, R. Weimer, and R. Messier, “Low‐temperature diamond deposition by microwave plasma‐enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(7), 631–633 (1989).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, M.

Khasminskaya, S.

Khokhar, A. Z.

Kromka, A.

Kubanek, A.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kühn, S.

A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

Laurell, F.

Lewes-Malandrakis, G.

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liou, Y.

Y. Liou, A. Inspektor, R. Weimer, and R. Messier, “Low‐temperature diamond deposition by microwave plasma‐enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(7), 631–633 (1989).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maletinsky, P.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malmström, M.

Mandal, S.

E. L. H. Thomas, G. W. Nelson, S. Mandal, J. S. Foord, and O. A. Williams, “Chemical mechanical polishing of thin film diamond,” Carbon 68, 473–479 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

McCutcheon, M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messier, R.

Y. Liou, A. Inspektor, R. Weimer, and R. Messier, “Low‐temperature diamond deposition by microwave plasma‐enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(7), 631–633 (1989).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Mollart, T. P.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Nebel, C.

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Rath, N. Gruhler, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waferscale nanophotonic circuits made from diamond-on-insulator substrates,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11031–11036 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nedeljkovic, M.

Néel, D.

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nekvindova, P.

Nelson, G. W.

E. L. H. Thomas, G. W. Nelson, S. Mandal, J. S. Foord, and O. A. Williams, “Chemical mechanical polishing of thin film diamond,” Carbon 68, 473–479 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nikolajeff, F.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

Penades, J. S.

Pernice, W. H. P.

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rath, N. Gruhler, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waferscale nanophotonic circuits made from diamond-on-insulator substrates,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11031–11036 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piracha, A. H.

A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prajzler, V.

Prawer, S.

A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prunici, P.

Z. G. Hu, P. Prunici, P. Hess, and K. H. Chen, “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films from mid-infrared to ultraviolet using reflectometry and ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 37–41 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qu, Z.

Quan, Q.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rath, P.

A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Rath, N. Gruhler, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waferscale nanophotonic circuits made from diamond-on-insulator substrates,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11031–11036 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remes, Z.

Saada, S.

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Santini, P.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Scarsbrook, G. A.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmidhammer, E.

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shields, B.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shyroki, D. M.

D. M. Shyroki, “Exact Equivalent Straight Waveguide Model for Bent and Twisted Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(2), 414–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

Terasawa, Y.

Y. Hirose and Y. Terasawa, “Synthesis of Diamond Thin Films by Thermal CVD Using Organic Compounds,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(2), L519–L521 (1986).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Thomas, E. L. H.

E. L. H. Thomas, G. W. Nelson, S. Mandal, J. S. Foord, and O. A. Williams, “Chemical mechanical polishing of thin film diamond,” Carbon 68, 473–479 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared Suspended Membrane Waveguide and Ring Resonator on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Twitchen, D. J.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Varga, M.

Vermeulen, N.

F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Weimer, R.

Y. Liou, A. Inspektor, R. Weimer, and R. Messier, “Low‐temperature diamond deposition by microwave plasma‐enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(7), 631–633 (1989).
[Crossref]

Whitehead, A. J.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Wild, C.

Williams, O. A.

E. L. H. Thomas, G. W. Nelson, S. Mandal, J. S. Foord, and O. A. Williams, “Chemical mechanical polishing of thin film diamond,” Carbon 68, 473–479 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. A. Williams, “Nanocrystalline diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 20(5-6), 621–640 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilman, J. J.

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared Suspended Membrane Waveguide and Ring Resonator on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared Suspended Membrane Waveguide and Ring Resonator on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yacoby, A.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, T.

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Liou, A. Inspektor, R. Weimer, and R. Messier, “Low‐temperature diamond deposition by microwave plasma‐enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(7), 631–633 (1989).
[Crossref]

X. Checoury, D. Néel, P. Boucaud, C. Gesset, H. Girard, S. Saada, and P. Bergonzo, “Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

E. L. H. Thomas, G. W. Nelson, S. Mandal, J. S. Foord, and O. A. Williams, “Chemical mechanical polishing of thin film diamond,” Carbon 68, 473–479 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diamond Related Materials (1)

O. A. Williams, “Nanocrystalline diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 20(5-6), 621–640 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Gao, J. V. Erps, Z. Huang, H. Thienpont, R. G. Beausoleil, and N. Vermeulen, “Directional Coupler Based on Single-Crystal Diamond Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared Suspended Membrane Waveguide and Ring Resonator on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

D. M. Shyroki, “Exact Equivalent Straight Waveguide Model for Bent and Twisted Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(2), 414–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE (1)

J. M. Dodson, J. R. Brandon, H. K. Dhillon, I. Friel, S. L. Geoghegan, T. P. Mollart, P. Santini, G. A. Scarsbrook, D. J. Twitchen, A. J. Whitehead, J. J. Wilman, and H. de Wit, “Single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond for demanding optical applications,” in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XII, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160L (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

Z. G. Hu, P. Prunici, P. Hess, and K. H. Chen, “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films from mid-infrared to ultraviolet using reflectometry and ellipsometry,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(S1), 37–41 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Hirose and Y. Terasawa, “Synthesis of Diamond Thin Films by Thermal CVD Using Organic Compounds,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25(2), L519–L521 (1986).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated Diamond Networks for Quantum Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Piracha, P. Rath, K. Ganesan, S. Kühn, W. H. P. Pernice, and S. Prawer, “Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3341–3347 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

N. Gruhler, T. Yoshikawa, P. Rath, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, E. Schmidhammer, C. Nebel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Diamond on aluminum nitride as a platform for integrated photonic circuits,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(8), 2075–2080 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed structure. (b) Loss vs bend radius for various etch depths.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM image of NCD surface after e-beam lithography of HSQ etch mask, (b) SEM image of the undercut waveguide and membrane, (c) SEM image of the input waveguide taper showing membrane sag (d) optical image of an undercut waveguide showing the sagging edges on the chip.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) IR image of the scattered light at 1.55 μm, (b) Example of power decay measurement fitting (R2 = 0.96), (c) AFM image of waveguide ridge with roughness measurements.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Average loss measurements of various waveguides’ segments.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α r s = σ 2 2 k 0 d 4 n 1 g f ( x , γ ) , g = U 2 V 2 1 + W f ( χ , γ ) = χ ( 1 + χ 2 ) 2 + 2 χ 2 γ 2 + 1 χ 2 ( 1 + χ 2 ) 2 + 2 χ 2 γ 2 , χ = W L c d , γ = 2 n 2 2 n e 2 n 2 2 U 2 = k 0 2 d 2 ( n 1 2 n e 2 ) , V 2 = k 0 2 d 2 ( n 1 2 n 2 2 ) , W 2 = k 0 2 d 2 ( n e 2 n 2 2 )