Abstract

Mobile devices have become an inseparable part of our everyday life. They are used to transmit an ever-increasing amount of sensitive health, financial and personal information. This exposes us to the growing scale and sophistication of cyber-attacks. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) can provide unconditional and future-proof data security but implementing it for handheld mobile devices comes with specific challenges. To establish security, secret keys of sufficient length need to be transmitted during the time of a handheld transaction (~1s) despite device misalignment, ambient light and user’s inevitable hand movements. Transmitters and receivers should ideally be compact and low-cost, while avoiding security loopholes. Here we demonstrate the first QKD transmission from a handheld transmitter with a key-rate large enough to overcome finite key effects. Using dynamic beam-steering, reference-frame-independent encoding and fast indistinguishable pulse generation, we obtain a secret key rate above 30kb/s over a distance of 0.5m.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 97620A (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bourgoin, B. L. Higgins, N. Gigov, C. Holloway, C. J. Pugh, S. Kaiser, M. Cranmer, and T. Jennewein, “Free-space quantum key distribution to a moving receiver,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33437–33447 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

W.-Y. Liang, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, Y. Yao, J.-Z. Huang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

J. Wabnig, D. Bitauld, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. L. O’brien, and A. O. Niskanen, “Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073001 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

L. Sheridan, T. P. Le, and V. Scarani, “Finite-key security against coherent attacks in quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 12(12), 123019 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Laing, V. Scarani, J. G. Rarity, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 012304 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. F. Dynes, H. Takesue, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, K. Harada, T. Honjo, H. Kamada, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and A. J. Shields, “Efficient entanglement distribution over 200 kilometers,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11440–11449 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nauerth, M. Fürst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11(6), 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. Scarani and R. Renner, “Quantum cryptography with finite resources: unconditional security bound for discrete-variable protocols with one-way postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

T. Meyer, H. Kampermann, M. Kleinmann, and D. Bruß, “Finite key analysis for symmetric attacks in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 042340 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. L. Duligall, M. S. Godfrey, K. A. Harrison, W. J. Munro, and J. G. Rarity, “Low cost and compact quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 8(10), 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3762–3764 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Alléaume, F. Treussart, G. Messin, Y. Dumeige, J. F. Roch, A. Beveratos, R. Brouri-Tualle, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source,” New J. Phys. 6, 92 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(6), 661–663 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

R. Alléaume, F. Treussart, G. Messin, Y. Dumeige, J. F. Roch, A. Beveratos, R. Brouri-Tualle, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source,” New J. Phys. 6, 92 (2004).
[Crossref]

Asai, T.

Asobe, M.

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution,” in International Conference on Computer System and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Beveratos, A.

R. Alléaume, F. Treussart, G. Messin, Y. Dumeige, J. F. Roch, A. Beveratos, R. Brouri-Tualle, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source,” New J. Phys. 6, 92 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bitauld, D.

J. Wabnig, D. Bitauld, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. L. O’brien, and A. O. Niskanen, “Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bourgoin, J.-P.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution,” in International Conference on Computer System and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Brouri-Tualle, R.

R. Alléaume, F. Treussart, G. Messin, Y. Dumeige, J. F. Roch, A. Beveratos, R. Brouri-Tualle, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source,” New J. Phys. 6, 92 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bruß, D.

T. Meyer, H. Kampermann, M. Kleinmann, and D. Bruß, “Finite key analysis for symmetric attacks in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 042340 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buntschu, F.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

W.-Y. Liang, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, Y. Yao, J.-Z. Huang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-A.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, I.

Clausen, B.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Corrielli, G.

G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 97620A (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cranmer, M.

Crespi, A.

G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 97620A (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Derkacs, D.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[Crossref]

Diamanti, E.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dixon, A. R.

Domeki, T.

Duligall, J. L.

J. L. Duligall, M. S. Godfrey, K. A. Harrison, W. J. Munro, and J. G. Rarity, “Low cost and compact quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 8(10), 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dumeige, Y.

R. Alléaume, F. Treussart, G. Messin, Y. Dumeige, J. F. Roch, A. Beveratos, R. Brouri-Tualle, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source,” New J. Phys. 6, 92 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dynes, J. F.

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(6), 661–663 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felber, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frick, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, L.

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R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Kleinmann, M.

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Kunz-Jacques, S.

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J. Wabnig, D. Bitauld, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. L. O’brien, and A. O. Niskanen, “Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073001 (2013).
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W.-Y. Liang, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, Y. Yao, J.-Z. Huang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3617 (2014).
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T. Meyer, H. Kampermann, M. Kleinmann, and D. Bruß, “Finite key analysis for symmetric attacks in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 042340 (2006).
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J. L. Duligall, M. S. Godfrey, K. A. Harrison, W. J. Munro, and J. G. Rarity, “Low cost and compact quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 8(10), 249 (2006).
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Nauerth, S.

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
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S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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Niskanen, A. O.

J. Wabnig, D. Bitauld, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. L. O’brien, and A. O. Niskanen, “Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073001 (2013).
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R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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J. Wabnig, D. Bitauld, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. L. O’brien, and A. O. Niskanen, “Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073001 (2013).
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A. Laing, V. Scarani, J. G. Rarity, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 012304 (2010).
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R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
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G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
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Page, J.-B.

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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Pan, J.-W.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Peng, C.-Z.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
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Perroud, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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R. Alléaume, F. Treussart, G. Messin, Y. Dumeige, J. F. Roch, A. Beveratos, R. Brouri-Tualle, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source,” New J. Phys. 6, 92 (2004).
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Poppe, A.

Pugh, C. J.

Qi, B.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rarity, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rarity, J. G.

A. Laing, V. Scarani, J. G. Rarity, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 012304 (2010).
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J. L. Duligall, M. S. Godfrey, K. A. Harrison, W. J. Munro, and J. G. Rarity, “Low cost and compact quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 8(10), 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rau, M.

G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 97620A (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.-G.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Renner, R.

V. Scarani and R. Renner, “Quantum cryptography with finite resources: unconditional security bound for discrete-variable protocols with one-way postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200501 (2008).
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Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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Robyr, S.

Roch, J. F.

R. Alléaume, F. Treussart, G. Messin, Y. Dumeige, J. F. Roch, A. Beveratos, R. Brouri-Tualle, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source,” New J. Phys. 6, 92 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rochas, A.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakai, Y.

Sasaki, M.

Scarani, V.

A. Laing, V. Scarani, J. G. Rarity, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 012304 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Sheridan, T. P. Le, and V. Scarani, “Finite-key security against coherent attacks in quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 12(12), 123019 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani and R. Renner, “Quantum cryptography with finite resources: unconditional security bound for discrete-variable protocols with one-way postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheidl, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

S. Nauerth, M. Fürst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11(6), 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, A. W.

Shen, Q.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sheridan, L.

L. Sheridan, T. P. Le, and V. Scarani, “Finite-key security against coherent attacks in quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 12(12), 123019 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shields, A. J.

Shimizu, K.

Sodnik, Z.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tadanaga, O.

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

Tanaka, A.

Tang, Y.-L.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tavares, J.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ten, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thew, R.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thew, R. T.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tiefenbacher, F.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tokura, T.

Tokura, Y.

Tomita, A.

Towery, C. R.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Treussart, F.

R. Alléaume, F. Treussart, G. Messin, Y. Dumeige, J. F. Roch, A. Beveratos, R. Brouri-Tualle, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source,” New J. Phys. 6, 92 (2004).
[Crossref]

Trinkler, P.

Trojek, P.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsurumaru, T.

Uchikoga, S.

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vannel, F.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ventura, S.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vest, G.

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vogl, T.

G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 97620A (2016).
[Crossref]

Voirol, R.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wabnig, J.

J. Wabnig, D. Bitauld, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. L. O’brien, and A. O. Niskanen, “Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wakui, K.

Walenta, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

W.-Y. Liang, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, Y. Yao, J.-Z. Huang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Weier, H.

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, M. Fürst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11(6), 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

G. Mélen, T. Vogl, M. Rau, G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations,” Proc. SPIE 9762, 97620A (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Vest, M. Rau, L. Fuchs, G. Corrielli, H. Weier, S. Nauerth, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and H. Weinfurter, “Design and evaluation of a handheld quantum key distribution sender module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 131–137 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, M. Fürst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11(6), 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.-C.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Yang, B.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.-J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

W.-Y. Liang, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, Y. Yao, J.-Z. Huang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, Z.-Q.

W.-Y. Liang, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, Y. Yao, J.-Z. Huang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

Yuan, Z. L.

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

Zhang, L.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hand-held QKD device and terminal. (a), (b) RFI protocol based QKD transmitter and receiver module. (c), (d) A schematic representation of beam-steering modules with50cm optical link. (e) Assembled transmitter showing the QKD and steering module. (f) Experimenter holding the hand-held transmitter, also showing the receiver module in use.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RC LED characteristics. (a) Optical spectrum of the light generated by each RC-LED after going through the spectral filter. (b) Arrival time statistics for photons generated by each RC-LED. The x-axis is the delay with respect to the synchronization signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hand-movement statistics and beam-steering coverage. (a) Complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the maximum angle deviation created by hand-movement in different time durations of 42ms, 100ms, and 300ms, where θref is reference angle used for the CCDF (b) Normalized transmission loss by beam-steering with respect to the rotation of transmitter angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Robustness of RFI protocol against axial rotation. The secure key fraction (ratio between the raw key length and the error corrected, privacy amplified key length) is plotted as a function of the relative axial angle between the transmitter and the receiver. The values were calculated from a 0.5s data transmission for each point, for a fixed position of the terminals. The relative axial angle between the transmitter and the receiver was simulated by rotating a half-wave plate between the terminals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Hand-held QKD performance. These measurements were performed while the experimenter holding the QKD transmitter displaces it in the directions shown. The motion compensation system was switched on after 4s. (a)Vertical and horizontal angles of the two MEMS mirrors as well as the axial angle between the two terminals. The mirror angles were retrieved from the applied voltage, while the axial angle was calculated from the QKD data. This angle was divided by four to allow a common axis. (b) Photon transmission and error rate. The transmission is defined as the number of detected photons divided by the number of emitted photons (i.e. 0.07 x 250MHz). The error rate is calculated for photons that were both transmitted and detected in the Z basis. (c) Estimation of the asymptotic key rate as a function of time. Each point was calculated from a 4ms transmission sample.

Equations (5)

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r= S min h( 1 C ZZ +σδ C ZZ 2 ).
S min = min α, λ 1 , λ 2 S U ( λ 1 , λ 2 ).
f i ( m )σδ f i ( m ) f i [ q( α, λ 1 , λ 2 ) ] f i ( m )σδ f i ( m )
C AB = m ++ AB + m AB m + AB m +  AB m ++ AB + m AB + m + AB + m +  AB ,   A,B=X,Y,Z,
W=median( atan2( C XY , C XX )+45,atan2( C YX , C XX )+45, atan2( C YX , C YY ) 135,  atan2( C XY , C YY )135)