Abstract

A highly sensitive photonic sensor based on a porous silicon ring resonator was developed and experimentally characterized. The photonic sensing structure was fabricated by exploiting a porous silicon double layer, where the top layer of a low porosity was used to form photonic elements by e-beam lithography and the bottom layer of a high porosity was used to confine light in the vertical direction. The sensing performance of the ring resonator sensor based on porous silicon was compared for the different resonances within the analyzed wavelength range both for transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations. We determined that a sensitivity up to 439 nm/RIU for low refractive index changes can be achieved depending on the optical field distribution given by each resonance/polarization.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

H. Zhang, Z. Jia, X. Lv, J. Zhou, L. Chen, R. Liu, and J. Ma, “Porous silicon optical microcavity biosensor on silicon-on-insulator wafer for sensitive DNA detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 44, 89–94 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Kim and T. E. Murphy, “Porous silicon integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer waveguide for biological and chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19488–19497 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Dhanekar and S. Jain, “Porous silicon biosensor: Current status,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(1), 54–64 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 793–821 (2012).
[PubMed]

R. B. Balili, “Transfer matrix method in nanophotonics,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. Conf. Ser. 17, 159–168 (2012).

2010 (1)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).

2009 (2)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1, 197–204 (2009).

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

2001 (1)

C. Baratto, G. Faglia, E. Comini, G. Sberveglieri, A. Taroni, V. La Ferrara, L. Quercia, and G. Di Francia, “A novel porous silicon sensor for detection of sub-ppm NO2 concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 77(1–2), 62–66 (2001).

2000 (1)

O. Bisi, S. Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: A quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38(1), 1–126 (2000).

1999 (2)

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. S. J. Russell, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).

V. Yakovtseva, V. Bondarenko, M. Balucani, N. Kazuchits, and A. Ferrari, “Integrated optical waveguides based on porous silicon: state-of-the-art and outlook for progress,” Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures 99, 375–377 (1999).

1997 (1)

L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 20(10), 1–76 (1997).

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Dielectric constant and conductivity of mixtures of isotropic materials,” Ann. Phys. 24, 636–679 (1935).

Alvarez, M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).

Arcari, P.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1, 197–204 (2009).

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bailey, R. C.

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 793–821 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[PubMed]

Balili, R. B.

R. B. Balili, “Transfer matrix method in nanophotonics,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. Conf. Ser. 17, 159–168 (2012).

Balucani, M.

V. Yakovtseva, V. Bondarenko, M. Balucani, N. Kazuchits, and A. Ferrari, “Integrated optical waveguides based on porous silicon: state-of-the-art and outlook for progress,” Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures 99, 375–377 (1999).

Baratto, C.

C. Baratto, G. Faglia, E. Comini, G. Sberveglieri, A. Taroni, V. La Ferrara, L. Quercia, and G. Di Francia, “A novel porous silicon sensor for detection of sub-ppm NO2 concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 77(1–2), 62–66 (2001).

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1, 197–204 (2009).

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bisi, O.

O. Bisi, S. Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: A quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38(1), 1–126 (2000).

Bojko, R. J.

Bondarenko, V.

V. Yakovtseva, V. Bondarenko, M. Balucani, N. Kazuchits, and A. Ferrari, “Integrated optical waveguides based on porous silicon: state-of-the-art and outlook for progress,” Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures 99, 375–377 (1999).

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Dielectric constant and conductivity of mixtures of isotropic materials,” Ann. Phys. 24, 636–679 (1935).

Canham, L. T.

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. S. J. Russell, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

H. Zhang, Z. Jia, X. Lv, J. Zhou, L. Chen, R. Liu, and J. Ma, “Porous silicon optical microcavity biosensor on silicon-on-insulator wafer for sensitive DNA detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 44, 89–94 (2013).
[PubMed]

Cheung, K. C.

Chrostowski, L.

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1, 197–204 (2009).

Comini, E.

C. Baratto, G. Faglia, E. Comini, G. Sberveglieri, A. Taroni, V. La Ferrara, L. Quercia, and G. Di Francia, “A novel porous silicon sensor for detection of sub-ppm NO2 concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 77(1–2), 62–66 (2001).

De Stefano, L.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1, 197–204 (2009).

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[PubMed]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dhanekar, S.

S. Dhanekar and S. Jain, “Porous silicon biosensor: Current status,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(1), 54–64 (2013).
[PubMed]

Di Francia, G.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

C. Baratto, G. Faglia, E. Comini, G. Sberveglieri, A. Taroni, V. La Ferrara, L. Quercia, and G. Di Francia, “A novel porous silicon sensor for detection of sub-ppm NO2 concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 77(1–2), 62–66 (2001).

Donzella, V.

Estevez, M. C.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).

Faglia, G.

C. Baratto, G. Faglia, E. Comini, G. Sberveglieri, A. Taroni, V. La Ferrara, L. Quercia, and G. Di Francia, “A novel porous silicon sensor for detection of sub-ppm NO2 concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 77(1–2), 62–66 (2001).

Fard, S. T.

Ferrari, A.

V. Yakovtseva, V. Bondarenko, M. Balucani, N. Kazuchits, and A. Ferrari, “Integrated optical waveguides based on porous silicon: state-of-the-art and outlook for progress,” Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures 99, 375–377 (1999).

Flueckiger, J.

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).

Grist, S. M.

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).

Harraz, F. A.

F. A. Harraz, “Porous silicon chemical sensors and biosensors: A review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 202, 897–912 (2014).

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).

Hu, S.

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Jain, S.

S. Dhanekar and S. Jain, “Porous silicon biosensor: Current status,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(1), 54–64 (2013).
[PubMed]

Janz, S.

Jia, Z.

H. Zhang, Z. Jia, X. Lv, J. Zhou, L. Chen, R. Liu, and J. Ma, “Porous silicon optical microcavity biosensor on silicon-on-insulator wafer for sensitive DNA detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 44, 89–94 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kazuchits, N.

V. Yakovtseva, V. Bondarenko, M. Balucani, N. Kazuchits, and A. Ferrari, “Integrated optical waveguides based on porous silicon: state-of-the-art and outlook for progress,” Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures 99, 375–377 (1999).

Kim, K.

Kwok, E.

La Ferrara, V.

C. Baratto, G. Faglia, E. Comini, G. Sberveglieri, A. Taroni, V. La Ferrara, L. Quercia, and G. Di Francia, “A novel porous silicon sensor for detection of sub-ppm NO2 concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 77(1–2), 62–66 (2001).

Lamberti, A.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

Lapointe, J.

Lechuga, L. M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).

Liu, R.

H. Zhang, Z. Jia, X. Lv, J. Zhou, L. Chen, R. Liu, and J. Ma, “Porous silicon optical microcavity biosensor on silicon-on-insulator wafer for sensitive DNA detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 44, 89–94 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lopinski, G.

Luchansky, M. S.

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 793–821 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lv, X.

H. Zhang, Z. Jia, X. Lv, J. Zhou, L. Chen, R. Liu, and J. Ma, “Porous silicon optical microcavity biosensor on silicon-on-insulator wafer for sensitive DNA detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 44, 89–94 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ma, J.

H. Zhang, Z. Jia, X. Lv, J. Zhou, L. Chen, R. Liu, and J. Ma, “Porous silicon optical microcavity biosensor on silicon-on-insulator wafer for sensitive DNA detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 44, 89–94 (2013).
[PubMed]

Massera, E.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

McKinnon, R.

Mischki, T.

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1, 197–204 (2009).

Moretti, L.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

Murphy, T. E.

Ossicini, S.

O. Bisi, S. Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: A quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38(1), 1–126 (2000).

Pavesi, L.

O. Bisi, S. Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: A quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38(1), 1–126 (2000).

L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 20(10), 1–76 (1997).

Post, E.

Quercia, L.

C. Baratto, G. Faglia, E. Comini, G. Sberveglieri, A. Taroni, V. La Ferrara, L. Quercia, and G. Di Francia, “A novel porous silicon sensor for detection of sub-ppm NO2 concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 77(1–2), 62–66 (2001).

Ratner, D. M.

Rea, I.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

Rendina, I.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

Rodriguez, G. A.

Rotiroti, L.

L. De Stefano, L. Rotiroti, I. Rea, L. Moretti, G. Di Francia, E. Massera, A. Lamberti, P. Arcari, C. Sanges, and I. Rendina, “Porous silicon-based optical biochips,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S540–S544 (2006).

Russell, P. S. J.

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. S. J. Russell, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).

Sanges, C.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FE-SEM images of (a) cross section and (b) top-view of the PS structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FE-SEM images of the fabricated PSRR chip. (a) 60°-sectional image of the 10µm-wide access waveguide. Thanks to the vertical cut of this sample edge, the vertical orientation of the pores can be observed. (b) Cross-sectional image of the 10µm-wide access waveguide. Thanks to the non-vertical cut of this sample edge, the sponge-like morphology of the PS and the boundary between the two PS layers can be clearly observed. (c) Top-view image of the top and bottom PS layers in the access waveguide region, where the porosity difference between them can be clearly observed. (d) Top-view image of the RR and the coupling waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pictures of the fiber-to-camera horizontal interrogation setup. The PDMS microfluidic flow cell on top of the photonic chip can be also observed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of the PSRR for (a) TE and (b) TM polarization. The amplitude is represented in terms of the analog-to-digital units (ADU) measured by the camera (in logarithmic scale). The inset in each graph shows the measured optical profile at the output waveguide for each polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulations of the optical modes propagating in the selected PS waveguide configuration (height = 800 nm and width = 1000 nm) for (a) TE and (b) TM polarization. The modes are ordered from left to right.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time evolution of the resonance shift for (a) TE polarization and (b) TM polarization when flowing three cycles of EtOH in DIW with concentrations 10%, 5% and 1% (meaning RI changes of 6.6·10−3, 3.3·10−3 and 6.6·10−4 RIU respect DIW, respectively) with cycles of DIW flow between them. The different colors indicate the different resonances within the measured wavelength range being tracked.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength shift of each resonance for each RI variation for (a) TE and (b) TM polarizations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sensitivity curve of each resonance for (a) TE and (b) TM polarizations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top PS layer RI variation as a function of the EtOH solution RI.