Abstract

Recently, solution-processed hybrid halide perovskite has emerged as promising materials for advanced optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaics, photodetectors, light emitting diodes and lasers. In the mean time, all-dielectric metasurfaces with high-index materials have attracted attention due to their low-loss and high-efficient optical resonances. Because of its tunable by composition band gap in the visible frequencies, organolead halide perovskite could serve as a powerful platform for realizing high-index, low-loss metasurfaces. However, direct patterning of perovskite by lithography-based technique is not feasible due to material instability under moisture. Here we report novel organolead halide perovskite metasurfaces created by the cost-effective thermal nanoimprint technology. The nanoimprinted perovskite metasurface showed improved surface morphology and enhanced optical absorption properties. Significantly enhanced optical emission with an eight-fold enhancement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity was observed under room temperature. Temperature-dependent PL of perovskite nanograting metasurface was also investigated. Based on our results, we believe that thermal nanoimprint is a simple and cost-effective technique to fabricate perovskite-based metasurfaces, which could have broad impact on optoelectronic and photonic applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (4)

Z.-J. Yang, R. Jiang, X. Zhuo, Y.-M. Xie, J. Wang, and H.-Q. Lin, “Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation,” Phys. Rep. 701, 1–50 (2017).

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

B. Gholipour, G. Adamo, D. Cortecchia, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, M. D. Birowosuto, N. I. Zheludev, and C. Soci, “Organometallic perovskite metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 29(9), 1604268 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. V. Makarov, V. Milichko, E. V. Ushakova, M. Omelyanovich, A. Cerdan Pasaran, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, H. Wang, W. Hu, Y. S. Kivshar, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multifold emission enhancement in nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4, 728–735 (2017).

2016 (8)

D. Zhao, S. Liu, H. Yang, Z. Ma, C. Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, M. Hammar, and W. Zhou, “Printed large-area single-mode photonic crystal bandedge surface-emitting lasers on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18860 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Wang, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, A. Zakhidov, S. Sohal, J. Y. Chan, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Nanoimprinted perovskite nanograting photodetector with improved efficiency,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10921–10928 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Bekenstein, Y. Yu, N. A. Gibson, A. B. Wong, S. W. Eaton, N. Kornienko, Q. Kong, M. Lai, A. P. Alivisatos, S. R. Leone, and P. Yang, “Synthesis of composition tunable and highly luminescent cesium lead halide nanowires through anion-exchange reactions,” ‎,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(23), 7236–7239 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 23–36 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), aag2472 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (7)

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Applied optics. Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9, 378–382 (2015).

I. Staude, V. V. Khardikov, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Shaping photoluminescence spectra with magnetoelectric resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 2, 172–177 (2015).

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, N. K. Noel, S. N. Habisreutinger, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Stability of metal halide perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1500963 (2015).

R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, H. J. Snaith, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Temperature-dependent charge-carrier dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6218–6227 (2015).

2014 (10)

K. Wu, A. Bera, C. Ma, Y. Du, Y. Yang, L. Li, and T. Wu, “Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence of hybrid organometal halide perovskite films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(41), 22476–22481 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Dualeh, N. Tétreault, T. Moehl, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Effect of annealing temperature on film morphology of organic–inorganic hybrid pervoskite solid-state solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 3250–3258 (2014).

E. Horváth, M. Spina, Z. Szekrényes, K. Kamarás, R. Gaal, D. Gachet, and L. Forró, “Nanowires of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) prepared by low temperature solution-mediated crystallization,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6761–6766 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The emergence of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 506–514 (2014).

C. Wehrenfennig, G. E. Eperon, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and L. M. Herz, “High charge carrier mobilities and lifetimes in organolead trihalide perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1584–1589 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

X. Hu, X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Bao, S. Li, W. Yang, and Y. Xie, “High-performance flexible broadband photodetector based on organolead halide perovskite,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7373–7380 (2014).

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6, 615–620 (2012).

2011 (1)

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 376, 481–486 (2003).

1968 (1)

J. Tauc, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous Ge and Si,” Mater. Res. Bull. 3, 37–46 (1968).

Adamo, G.

B. Gholipour, G. Adamo, D. Cortecchia, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, M. D. Birowosuto, N. I. Zheludev, and C. Soci, “Organometallic perovskite metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 29(9), 1604268 (2017).
[PubMed]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Applied optics. Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[PubMed]

Alcocer, M. J. P.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

D. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Bekenstein, Y. Yu, N. A. Gibson, A. B. Wong, S. W. Eaton, N. Kornienko, Q. Kong, M. Lai, A. P. Alivisatos, S. R. Leone, and P. Yang, “Synthesis of composition tunable and highly luminescent cesium lead halide nanowires through anion-exchange reactions,” ‎,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(23), 7236–7239 (2016).
[PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bailie, C. D.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

Balachandran, B.

S. V. Makarov, V. Milichko, E. V. Ushakova, M. Omelyanovich, A. Cerdan Pasaran, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, H. Wang, W. Hu, Y. S. Kivshar, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multifold emission enhancement in nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4, 728–735 (2017).

H. Wang, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, A. Zakhidov, S. Sohal, J. Y. Chan, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Nanoimprinted perovskite nanograting photodetector with improved efficiency,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10921–10928 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bao, J.

X. Hu, X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Bao, S. Li, W. Yang, and Y. Xie, “High-performance flexible broadband photodetector based on organolead halide perovskite,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7373–7380 (2014).

Beauregard, E. M.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bekenstein, Y.

D. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Bekenstein, Y. Yu, N. A. Gibson, A. B. Wong, S. W. Eaton, N. Kornienko, Q. Kong, M. Lai, A. P. Alivisatos, S. R. Leone, and P. Yang, “Synthesis of composition tunable and highly luminescent cesium lead halide nanowires through anion-exchange reactions,” ‎,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(23), 7236–7239 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bent, S. F.

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H. Wang, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, A. Zakhidov, S. Sohal, J. Y. Chan, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Nanoimprinted perovskite nanograting photodetector with improved efficiency,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10921–10928 (2016).
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K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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E. Horváth, M. Spina, Z. Szekrényes, K. Kamarás, R. Gaal, D. Gachet, and L. Forró, “Nanowires of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) prepared by low temperature solution-mediated crystallization,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6761–6766 (2014).
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Gao, S.

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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D. Zhao, S. Liu, H. Yang, Z. Ma, C. Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, M. Hammar, and W. Zhou, “Printed large-area single-mode photonic crystal bandedge surface-emitting lasers on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18860 (2016).
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Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 376, 481–486 (2003).

Haroldson, R.

S. V. Makarov, V. Milichko, E. V. Ushakova, M. Omelyanovich, A. Cerdan Pasaran, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, H. Wang, W. Hu, Y. S. Kivshar, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multifold emission enhancement in nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4, 728–735 (2017).

H. Wang, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, A. Zakhidov, S. Sohal, J. Y. Chan, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Nanoimprinted perovskite nanograting photodetector with improved efficiency,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10921–10928 (2016).
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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
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R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, H. J. Snaith, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Temperature-dependent charge-carrier dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6218–6227 (2015).

C. Wehrenfennig, G. E. Eperon, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and L. M. Herz, “High charge carrier mobilities and lifetimes in organolead trihalide perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1584–1589 (2014).
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M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The emergence of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 506–514 (2014).

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K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

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L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
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E. Horváth, M. Spina, Z. Szekrényes, K. Kamarás, R. Gaal, D. Gachet, and L. Forró, “Nanowires of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) prepared by low temperature solution-mediated crystallization,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6761–6766 (2014).
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S. V. Makarov, V. Milichko, E. V. Ushakova, M. Omelyanovich, A. Cerdan Pasaran, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, H. Wang, W. Hu, Y. S. Kivshar, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multifold emission enhancement in nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4, 728–735 (2017).

H. Wang, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, A. Zakhidov, S. Sohal, J. Y. Chan, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Nanoimprinted perovskite nanograting photodetector with improved efficiency,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10921–10928 (2016).
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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, H. J. Snaith, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Temperature-dependent charge-carrier dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6218–6227 (2015).

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Kim, D. H.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
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S. V. Makarov, V. Milichko, E. V. Ushakova, M. Omelyanovich, A. Cerdan Pasaran, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, H. Wang, W. Hu, Y. S. Kivshar, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multifold emission enhancement in nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4, 728–735 (2017).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), aag2472 (2016).
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A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).

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A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
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D. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Bekenstein, Y. Yu, N. A. Gibson, A. B. Wong, S. W. Eaton, N. Kornienko, Q. Kong, M. Lai, A. P. Alivisatos, S. R. Leone, and P. Yang, “Synthesis of composition tunable and highly luminescent cesium lead halide nanowires through anion-exchange reactions,” ‎,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(23), 7236–7239 (2016).
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D. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Bekenstein, Y. Yu, N. A. Gibson, A. B. Wong, S. W. Eaton, N. Kornienko, Q. Kong, M. Lai, A. P. Alivisatos, S. R. Leone, and P. Yang, “Synthesis of composition tunable and highly luminescent cesium lead halide nanowires through anion-exchange reactions,” ‎,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(23), 7236–7239 (2016).
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D. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Bekenstein, Y. Yu, N. A. Gibson, A. B. Wong, S. W. Eaton, N. Kornienko, Q. Kong, M. Lai, A. P. Alivisatos, S. R. Leone, and P. Yang, “Synthesis of composition tunable and highly luminescent cesium lead halide nanowires through anion-exchange reactions,” ‎,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(23), 7236–7239 (2016).
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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
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Lee, J.

S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
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K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, N. K. Noel, S. N. Habisreutinger, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Stability of metal halide perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1500963 (2015).

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
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D. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Bekenstein, Y. Yu, N. A. Gibson, A. B. Wong, S. W. Eaton, N. Kornienko, Q. Kong, M. Lai, A. P. Alivisatos, S. R. Leone, and P. Yang, “Synthesis of composition tunable and highly luminescent cesium lead halide nanowires through anion-exchange reactions,” ‎,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(23), 7236–7239 (2016).
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L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
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Li, L.

K. Wu, A. Bera, C. Ma, Y. Du, Y. Yang, L. Li, and T. Wu, “Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence of hybrid organometal halide perovskite films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(41), 22476–22481 (2014).
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X. Hu, X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Bao, S. Li, W. Yang, and Y. Xie, “High-performance flexible broadband photodetector based on organolead halide perovskite,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7373–7380 (2014).

Liang, L.

X. Hu, X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Bao, S. Li, W. Yang, and Y. Xie, “High-performance flexible broadband photodetector based on organolead halide perovskite,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7373–7380 (2014).

Lim, S. S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Z.-J. Yang, R. Jiang, X. Zhuo, Y.-M. Xie, J. Wang, and H.-Q. Lin, “Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation,” Phys. Rep. 701, 1–50 (2017).

Lin, J.

Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 376, 481–486 (2003).

Liu, S.

D. Zhao, S. Liu, H. Yang, Z. Ma, C. Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, M. Hammar, and W. Zhou, “Printed large-area single-mode photonic crystal bandedge surface-emitting lasers on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18860 (2016).
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Liu, X.

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Liu, Z.

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
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Lu, Y.

S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
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Lu, Z.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
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Luk, T. S.

I. Staude, V. V. Khardikov, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Shaping photoluminescence spectra with magnetoelectric resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 2, 172–177 (2015).

Luk’yanchuk, B.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), aag2472 (2016).
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Ma, C.

K. Wu, A. Bera, C. Ma, Y. Du, Y. Yang, L. Li, and T. Wu, “Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence of hybrid organometal halide perovskite films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(41), 22476–22481 (2014).
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K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

Ma, Z.

D. Zhao, S. Liu, H. Yang, Z. Ma, C. Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, M. Hammar, and W. Zhou, “Printed large-area single-mode photonic crystal bandedge surface-emitting lasers on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18860 (2016).
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Mailoa, J. P.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

Makarov, S. V.

S. V. Makarov, V. Milichko, E. V. Ushakova, M. Omelyanovich, A. Cerdan Pasaran, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, H. Wang, W. Hu, Y. S. Kivshar, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multifold emission enhancement in nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4, 728–735 (2017).

Mathews, N.

S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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McGehee, M. D.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

McMeekin, D. P.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

Menelaou, C.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Meng, F.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[PubMed]

Meng, K.

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
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B. Shen, P. Wang, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9, 378–382 (2015).

Mhaisalkar, S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Milichko, V.

S. V. Makarov, V. Milichko, E. V. Ushakova, M. Omelyanovich, A. Cerdan Pasaran, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, H. Wang, W. Hu, Y. S. Kivshar, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multifold emission enhancement in nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4, 728–735 (2017).

Milot, R. L.

R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, H. J. Snaith, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Temperature-dependent charge-carrier dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6218–6227 (2015).

Minichetti, M. C.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), aag2472 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).

Miyasaka, T.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
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Moehl, T.

A. Dualeh, N. Tétreault, T. Moehl, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Effect of annealing temperature on film morphology of organic–inorganic hybrid pervoskite solid-state solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 3250–3258 (2014).

Moghadam, F.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

Myoung, N.

H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nazeeruddin, M. K.

A. Dualeh, N. Tétreault, T. Moehl, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Effect of annealing temperature on film morphology of organic–inorganic hybrid pervoskite solid-state solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 3250–3258 (2014).

Neshev, D. N.

I. Staude, V. V. Khardikov, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Shaping photoluminescence spectra with magnetoelectric resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 2, 172–177 (2015).

Noel, N. K.

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, N. K. Noel, S. N. Habisreutinger, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Stability of metal halide perovskite solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1500963 (2015).

Noh, J. H.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[PubMed]

Nurmikko, A.

S. Chen, K. Roh, J. Lee, W. K. Chong, Y. Lu, N. Mathews, T. C. Sum, and A. Nurmikko, “A photonic crystal laser from solution based organo-lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3959–3967 (2016).
[PubMed]

Omelyanovich, M.

S. V. Makarov, V. Milichko, E. V. Ushakova, M. Omelyanovich, A. Cerdan Pasaran, R. Haroldson, B. Balachandran, H. Wang, W. Hu, Y. S. Kivshar, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multifold emission enhancement in nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4, 728–735 (2017).

Palmstrom, A. F.

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Park, M.-H.

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K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2, 17009 (2017).

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D. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Bekenstein, Y. Yu, N. A. Gibson, A. B. Wong, S. W. Eaton, N. Kornienko, Q. Kong, M. Lai, A. P. Alivisatos, S. R. Leone, and P. Yang, “Synthesis of composition tunable and highly luminescent cesium lead halide nanowires through anion-exchange reactions,” ‎,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(23), 7236–7239 (2016).
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M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic nanoimprinting process flow to form perovskite nanograting metasurface: (a) spincoating perovskite thin films on the Si substrates with a thermal oxide layer, (b) thermal nanoimprint of perovskite with Si nanograting molds to form negative structure replications, and (c) after demolding, perovskite nanograting metasurfaces are formed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface morphology and optical absorption properties of MAPbI3 thin film and NIL metasurface. SEM images of surface morphology of (a) perovskite thin film prepared with modified solvent engineering method, and (b) NIL perovskite nanograting metasurface. (c) Transmittance, (d) reflectance and (e) calculated absorption spectra of perovskite reference thin film (thickness 265 nm), and NIL nanograting metasurface (period of 600 nm, structure width of 270 nm, and structure depth of 300 nm with 130 nm residue thickness). The inset of (e) is plot of (αhν)2 versus hν for direct transitions in MAPbI3 thin film and metasurface, where α is absorption coefficient and hν is photon energy. The perovskite optical bandgap Eg is obtained by extrapolation to (αhν)2 = 0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic and numerical simulations of MAPbI3 nanograting metasurface. (a) Schematic structure cross-section with an optimal geometry. The corresponding simulated results of (b) optical transmission spectrum and (c) electrical field distribution for the highest-Q mode Bs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface morphology and optical emission properties of MAPbI3 thin film and NIL nanograting metasurface. (a) SEM of perovskite nanograting metasurface fabricated according to numerical simulation results – periodicity of 350 nm, trench width and depth of 105 nm and 100 nm respectively, with a residue thickness of 200 nm, inset shows the corresponding Si nanograting mold. (b) Steady-state PL spectra of perovskite thin film (thickness 265 nm) and NIL nanograting metasurface with a trench width of 105 nm (red) and 125 nm (blue), a periodicity of 350 nm and a depth around 100 nm with a residue thickness of 200 nm, pumped with a laser power of 0.3 mW at room temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature-dependent PL characteristics of MAPbI3 reference thin film and NIL nanograting metasurface with a trench width of 125 nm. PL spectra of (a) thin film and (b) NIL nanograting metasurface with a temperature ranging from 300 K to 100 K, pumped with a power of 0.2 mW. Plots of (c) PL intensity versus temperature and (d) PL peak wavelength versus temperature for both reference thin film and NIL nanograting metasurface. (e) Power-dependent PL spectra of NIL nanograting metasurface at a temperature of 100 K.