Abstract

Electrically tunable metasurfaces have gained special interest as they can realize ultrathin surface-normal modulators in planar geometries. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel metasurface modulator based on electro-optic (EO) polymer that utilizes bimodal resonance inside a metallic subwavelength grating to increase the modulation efficiency. When two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) resonant modes are excited simultaneously inside the grating, they couple strongly to generate a sharp dip in the reflected spectrum. As a result, efficient intensity modulation with 15-dB extinction ratio can be obtained at the resonant wavelength under a small refractive index change of 8.5 × 10−3, corresponding to modulation voltage of less than 10 V. Due to the low parasitic capacitance of EO polymer and high conductivity of metallic gratings which is also used as the electrodes, the RC bandwidth of the device should easily exceed 100 GHz, potentially applicable to high-speed surface-normal modulators.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  25. R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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    [PubMed]
  29. S. Inoue and A. Otomo, “Electro-optic polymer/silicon hybrid slow light modulator based on one-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171101 (2013).
  30. T. Yamada and A. Otomo, “Usefulness of transmission ellipsometric method for evaluation of electro-optic materials,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 98(2), 143–146 (2015).
  31. D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 31–75 (1994).
  32. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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    [PubMed]
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  35. Y. Kosugi, T. Yamada, A. Otomo, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Surface-normal electro-optic-polymer modulator with silicon subwavelength grating,” IEICE Electron. Express 13(17), 1–9 (2016).
  36. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical modulation using anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase resonators,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17264–17272 (2007).
    [PubMed]

2017 (2)

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Park, J. H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (3)

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. Kosugi, T. Yamada, A. Otomo, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Surface-normal electro-optic-polymer modulator with silicon subwavelength grating,” IEICE Electron. Express 13(17), 1–9 (2016).

P. C. Wu, N. Papasimakis, and D. P. Tsai, “Self-affine graphene metasurfaces for tunable broadband absorption,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044019 (2016).

2015 (6)

J. Park, J. H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metafilm absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15754 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Wei, G. Song, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. F. O’Hara, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active metasurface terahertz deflector with phase discontinuities,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27152–27158 (2015).
[PubMed]

F. Ren, M. Li, Q. Gao, W. Cowell, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. X. Wang, “Surface-normal plasmonic modulator using sub-wavelength metal grating on electro-optic polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 352(1), 116–120 (2015).

M. Li, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Zang, J. Wu, Z. Cui, J. Luoa, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Poling efficiency enhancement of tethered binary nonlinear optical chromophores for achieving an ultrahigh n3r33 figure-of-merit of 2601 pm V−1,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6737–6744 (2015).

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. Yamada and A. Otomo, “Usefulness of transmission ellipsometric method for evaluation of electro-optic materials,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 98(2), 143–146 (2015).

2014 (4)

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

M. Yoo and S. Lim, “Active metasurface for controlling reflection and absorption properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112204 (2014).

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (4)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[PubMed]

F. Yi, E. Shim, A. Y. Zhu, H. Zhu, J. C. Reed, and E. Cubukcu, “Voltage tuning of plasmonic absorbers by indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221102 (2013).

R. Himmelhuber, O. D. Herrera, R. Voorakaranam, L. Li, A. M. Jones, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A Silicon-polymer hybrid modulator - design, simulation and proof of principle,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4067–4072 (2013).

S. Inoue and A. Otomo, “Electro-optic polymer/silicon hybrid slow light modulator based on one-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171101 (2013).

2012 (4)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (4)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-contrast gratings as a new platform for integrated optoelectronics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26 (2011), 014043 (2011).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhao and A. Alu, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys.Rev. B 84 (20), 205428 (2011).

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(517), 517 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optical modulation using anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase resonators,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17264–17272 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Wiersig, “Formation of long-lived, scarlike modes near avoided resonance crossings in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253901 (2006).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

1994 (1)

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 31–75 (1994).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).

Adamiecki, A.

G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. R. F. Oliveira, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, and F. Jorge, “180-Gb/s (90-GBd QPSK) single carrier transmitter using a polymer I/Q modulator,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016), pp. 31–33.

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Alu, A.

Y. Zhao and A. Alu, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys.Rev. B 84 (20), 205428 (2011).

Aoki, I.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
[PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(517), 517 (2011).
[PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(517), 517 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bale, D. H.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Biener, G.

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[PubMed]

Brar, V. W.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(517), 517 (2011).
[PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. Park, J. H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Park, J. H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metafilm absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15754 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Burland, D. M.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 31–75 (1994).

Cao, W.

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Carvalho, L. H. H.

G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. R. F. Oliveira, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, and F. Jorge, “180-Gb/s (90-GBd QPSK) single carrier transmitter using a polymer I/Q modulator,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016), pp. 31–33.

Catrysse, P. B.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-contrast gratings as a new platform for integrated optoelectronics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26 (2011), 014043 (2011).

Cho, J.

G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. R. F. Oliveira, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, and F. Jorge, “180-Gb/s (90-GBd QPSK) single carrier transmitter using a polymer I/Q modulator,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016), pp. 31–33.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).

Cowell, W.

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G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. R. F. Oliveira, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, and F. Jorge, “180-Gb/s (90-GBd QPSK) single carrier transmitter using a polymer I/Q modulator,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016), pp. 31–33.

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J. Park, J. H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
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Konczykowska, A.

G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. R. F. Oliveira, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, and F. Jorge, “180-Gb/s (90-GBd QPSK) single carrier transmitter using a polymer I/Q modulator,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016), pp. 31–33.

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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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F. Ren, M. Li, Q. Gao, W. Cowell, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. X. Wang, “Surface-normal plasmonic modulator using sub-wavelength metal grating on electro-optic polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 352(1), 116–120 (2015).

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E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

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R. Himmelhuber, O. D. Herrera, R. Voorakaranam, L. Li, A. M. Jones, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A Silicon-polymer hybrid modulator - design, simulation and proof of principle,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4067–4072 (2013).

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Odoi, K.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
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G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. R. F. Oliveira, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, and F. Jorge, “180-Gb/s (90-GBd QPSK) single carrier transmitter using a polymer I/Q modulator,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016), pp. 31–33.

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Y. Kosugi, T. Yamada, A. Otomo, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Surface-normal electro-optic-polymer modulator with silicon subwavelength grating,” IEICE Electron. Express 13(17), 1–9 (2016).

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F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
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F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
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J. Park, J. H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Park, J. H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metafilm absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15754 (2015).
[PubMed]

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R. Himmelhuber, O. D. Herrera, R. Voorakaranam, L. Li, A. M. Jones, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A Silicon-polymer hybrid modulator - design, simulation and proof of principle,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4067–4072 (2013).

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).

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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
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F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
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F. Ren, M. Li, Q. Gao, W. Cowell, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. X. Wang, “Surface-normal plasmonic modulator using sub-wavelength metal grating on electro-optic polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 352(1), 116–120 (2015).

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Sekaric, L.

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A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
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Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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Song, Y.

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[PubMed]

Tanemura, T.

Y. Kosugi, T. Yamada, A. Otomo, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Surface-normal electro-optic-polymer modulator with silicon subwavelength grating,” IEICE Electron. Express 13(17), 1–9 (2016).

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Thyagarajan, K.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).

Tian, Z.

Tsai, D. P.

P. C. Wu, N. Papasimakis, and D. P. Tsai, “Self-affine graphene metasurfaces for tunable broadband absorption,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044019 (2016).

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
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Wang, A. X.

F. Ren, M. Li, Q. Gao, W. Cowell, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. X. Wang, “Surface-normal plasmonic modulator using sub-wavelength metal grating on electro-optic polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 352(1), 116–120 (2015).

Wei, X.

White, J. S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
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J. Wiersig, “Formation of long-lived, scarlike modes near avoided resonance crossings in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253901 (2006).
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G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. R. F. Oliveira, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, and F. Jorge, “180-Gb/s (90-GBd QPSK) single carrier transmitter using a polymer I/Q modulator,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016), pp. 31–33.

Woessner, M.

Wu, J.

M. Li, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Zang, J. Wu, Z. Cui, J. Luoa, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Poling efficiency enhancement of tethered binary nonlinear optical chromophores for achieving an ultrahigh n3r33 figure-of-merit of 2601 pm V−1,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6737–6744 (2015).

Wu, P. C.

P. C. Wu, N. Papasimakis, and D. P. Tsai, “Self-affine graphene metasurfaces for tunable broadband absorption,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044019 (2016).

Xu, N.

Yamada, T.

Y. Kosugi, T. Yamada, A. Otomo, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Surface-normal electro-optic-polymer modulator with silicon subwavelength grating,” IEICE Electron. Express 13(17), 1–9 (2016).

T. Yamada and A. Otomo, “Usefulness of transmission ellipsometric method for evaluation of electro-optic materials,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 98(2), 143–146 (2015).

Yang, W.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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F. Yi, E. Shim, A. Y. Zhu, H. Zhu, J. C. Reed, and E. Cubukcu, “Voltage tuning of plasmonic absorbers by indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221102 (2013).

Yokoyama, S.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
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Yoo, M.

M. Yoo and S. Lim, “Active metasurface for controlling reflection and absorption properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112204 (2014).

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yu, Z.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Zang, Y.

M. Li, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Zang, J. Wu, Z. Cui, J. Luoa, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Poling efficiency enhancement of tethered binary nonlinear optical chromophores for achieving an ultrahigh n3r33 figure-of-merit of 2601 pm V−1,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6737–6744 (2015).

Zhang, W.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and A. Alu, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys.Rev. B 84 (20), 205428 (2011).

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhou, X.-H.

M. Li, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Zang, J. Wu, Z. Cui, J. Luoa, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Poling efficiency enhancement of tethered binary nonlinear optical chromophores for achieving an ultrahigh n3r33 figure-of-merit of 2601 pm V−1,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6737–6744 (2015).

Zhu, A. Y.

F. Yi, E. Shim, A. Y. Zhu, H. Zhu, J. C. Reed, and E. Cubukcu, “Voltage tuning of plasmonic absorbers by indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221102 (2013).

Zhu, H.

F. Yi, E. Shim, A. Y. Zhu, H. Zhu, J. C. Reed, and E. Cubukcu, “Voltage tuning of plasmonic absorbers by indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221102 (2013).

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Yoo and S. Lim, “Active metasurface for controlling reflection and absorption properties,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112204 (2014).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Yi, E. Shim, A. Y. Zhu, H. Zhu, J. C. Reed, and E. Cubukcu, “Voltage tuning of plasmonic absorbers by indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221102 (2013).

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam–Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

S. Inoue and A. Otomo, “Electro-optic polymer/silicon hybrid slow light modulator based on one-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 171101 (2013).

Chem. Rev. (2)

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 31–75 (1994).

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
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IEICE Electron. Express (1)

Y. Kosugi, T. Yamada, A. Otomo, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Surface-normal electro-optic-polymer modulator with silicon subwavelength grating,” IEICE Electron. Express 13(17), 1–9 (2016).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

T. Yamada and A. Otomo, “Usefulness of transmission ellipsometric method for evaluation of electro-optic materials,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 98(2), 143–146 (2015).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

M. Li, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Zang, J. Wu, Z. Cui, J. Luoa, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Poling efficiency enhancement of tethered binary nonlinear optical chromophores for achieving an ultrahigh n3r33 figure-of-merit of 2601 pm V−1,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3, 6737–6744 (2015).

Nano Lett. (6)

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Park, J. H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
[PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(517), 517 (2011).
[PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (3)

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Ren, M. Li, Q. Gao, W. Cowell, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. X. Wang, “Surface-normal plasmonic modulator using sub-wavelength metal grating on electro-optic polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 352(1), 116–120 (2015).

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

P. C. Wu, N. Papasimakis, and D. P. Tsai, “Self-affine graphene metasurfaces for tunable broadband absorption,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(4), 044019 (2016).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Wiersig, “Formation of long-lived, scarlike modes near avoided resonance crossings in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253901 (2006).
[PubMed]

Phys.Rev. B (1)

Y. Zhao and A. Alu, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys.Rev. B 84 (20), 205428 (2011).

Sci. Rep. (2)

J. Park, J. H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metafilm absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15754 (2015).
[PubMed]

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, A. Otomo, I. Aoki, and S. Yokoyama, “A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8561 (2015).
[PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-contrast gratings as a new platform for integrated optoelectronics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26 (2011), 014043 (2011).

Other (1)

G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. R. F. Oliveira, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, and F. Jorge, “180-Gb/s (90-GBd QPSK) single carrier transmitter using a polymer I/Q modulator,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016), pp. 31–33.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic (a), cross-section (b), and (c) modulation principle of the proposed surface-normal metasurface modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance as a function of grating period Λ and wavelength. Inset shows Re(Ey) distribution at two curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dispersion relationship of Au/EO-polymer/Au MIM waveguide (b) Calculated Fabry-Perot resonance of MIM modes overlaid on the reflectance plot. d = 500 nm in two plots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated Q factor and figure of merit (Q/d) with different EO polymer thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Reflectance spectrum with ∆nz varied from −8 × 10−3 to 8 × 10−3, (b) Modulation characteristic of reflected light at wavelength of 1541 nm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( Δ n x Δ n y Δ n z ) = 1 2 ( n x 3 r 13 n y 3 r 23 n z 3 r 33 ) E mod .
β a + φ = m π .