Abstract

We demonstrate a mode-locked all-fiber Tm laser using a single mode-step index multimode-graded-index multimode-single mode fiber structure as a saturable absorber based on the nonlinear multimodal interference. Stable fundamentally mode-locking operation was obtained at a pump threshold of 180mW. The output soliton pulses had a center wavelength, spectral width, pulse duration, and repetition rate of 1888 nm, 3.6 nm, 1.4 ps, and19.82 MHz, respectively. This is a simple, low-cost, stable, and convenient laser oscillator with many potential applications in eye-safe ultrafast photonics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (7)

2014 (5)

2013 (5)

2012 (5)

2011 (4)

Q. Wang, J. H. Geng, J. Zhuo, T. Luo, and S. B. Jiang, “Mode-Locked Tm–Ho-Codoped Fiber Laser at 2.06μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).

E. Ding, S. Lefrancois, J. N. Kutz, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling fiber lasers to large mode-area: an investigation of passive mode-locking using multi-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 597–606 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Mafi, P. Hofmann, C. J. Salvin, and A. Schülzgen, “Low-loss coupling between two single-mode optical fibers with different mode-field diameters using a graded-index multimode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3596–3598 (2011).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, A. P. Heberle, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring oscillator operated at solitary and noiselike modes,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3750–3752 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, and N. Peyghambarian, “Generation of controllable nondiffracting beams using multimode optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201102 (2009).

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 μm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, “Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1129–1131 (2003).

1976 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

Aksienionek, M.

Arutyunyan, N. R.

Boguslawski, J.

Byer, R. L.

C. W. Rudy, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Advances in 2-μm Tm-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 642–649 (2014).

Chen, K. P.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, A. P. Heberle, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring oscillator operated at solitary and noiselike modes,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3750–3752 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chen, T.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, A. P. Heberle, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring oscillator operated at solitary and noiselike modes,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3750–3752 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chernov, A. I.

Chernysheva, M. A.

Christodoulides, D. N.

L. G. Wright, W. H. Renninger, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of multimode optical solitons,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3492–3506 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Controllable spatio temporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9, 306–310 (2015).

Dianov, E. M.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

C. W. Rudy, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Advances in 2-μm Tm-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 642–649 (2014).

Ding, E.

E. Ding, S. Lefrancois, J. N. Kutz, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling fiber lasers to large mode-area: an investigation of passive mode-locking using multi-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 597–606 (2011).
[PubMed]

Fan, X. K.

Ferrari, A. C.

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 μm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[PubMed]

Fu, S.

Fuchs, P.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gaida, C.

Gebhardt, M.

Gehlich, N.

Geng, J.

Geng, J. H.

Q. Wang, J. H. Geng, J. Zhuo, T. Luo, and S. B. Jiang, “Mode-Locked Tm–Ho-Codoped Fiber Laser at 2.06μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).

Gerschuetz, F.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gu, X.

Guang, P. W.

Hasan, T.

Heberle, A. P.

Hildebrandt, L.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hofmann, P.

Hu, L. L.

Hudson, D. D.

D. D. Hudson, “Invited paper: short pulse generation in mid-IR fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 631–641 (2014).

Jeon, C.

Jiang, S.

Jiang, S. B.

Q. Wang, J. H. Geng, J. Zhuo, T. Luo, and S. B. Jiang, “Mode-Locked Tm–Ho-Codoped Fiber Laser at 2.06μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).

Jin, X.

Johnson, E. G.

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, “Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1129–1131 (2003).

Kadwani, P.

Keck, D. B.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Koeth, J.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kong, L. C.

Konov, V. I.

Kozinski, R.

Krajewska, A.

Krylov, A. A.

Kryukov, P. G.

Kutz, J. N.

E. Ding, S. Lefrancois, J. N. Kutz, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling fiber lasers to large mode-area: an investigation of passive mode-locking using multi-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 597–606 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lefrancois, S.

E. Ding, S. Lefrancois, J. N. Kutz, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling fiber lasers to large mode-area: an investigation of passive mode-locking using multi-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 597–606 (2011).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, L.

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, and N. Peyghambarian, “Generation of controllable nondiffracting beams using multimode optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201102 (2009).

Li, M.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).

Li, W. T.

Li, X.

Librant, K.

Lipinska, L.

Liu, X. Q.

Liu, Y.

Lobach, A. S.

Lu, Y.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).

Luo, H.

Luo, T.

Q. Wang, J. H. Geng, J. Zhuo, T. Luo, and S. B. Jiang, “Mode-Locked Tm–Ho-Codoped Fiber Laser at 2.06μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[PubMed]

Mafi, A.

Mehta, A.

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, “Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1129–1131 (2003).

Mingareev, I.

I. Mingareev, F. Weirauch, and A. Olowinsky, “Welding of polymers using a 2μm thulium fiber laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(7), 2095–2099 (2012).

Mohammed, W. S.

W. S. Mohammed, P. W. E. Smith, and X. Gu, “All-fiber multimode interference bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2547–2549 (2006).
[PubMed]

A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, “Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1129–1131 (2003).

Mou, C.

Murray, K. E.

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 μm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[PubMed]

Naehle, L.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nazemosadat, E.

Norwood, R. A.

Obraztsova, E. D.

Olowinsky, A.

I. Mingareev, F. Weirauch, and A. Olowinsky, “Welding of polymers using a 2μm thulium fiber laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(7), 2095–2099 (2012).

Olshansky, R.

Pasternak, I.

Peyghambarian, N.

Popa, D.

Popov, S. V.

Pozharov, A. S.

Qian, L. J.

Renninger, W. H.

Richardson, M.

Rudy, C. W.

C. W. Rudy, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Advances in 2-μm Tm-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 642–649 (2014).

Salvin, C. J.

Schülzgen, A.

Shah, L.

Sheng, Q.

Shi, G.

Shi, W.

Shum, P. P.

Sincore, A.

Smith, P. W. E.

Sobon, G.

Solodyankin, M. A.

Sotor, J.

Strupinski, W.

Sun, Z.

Tang, Y.

Tausenev, A. V.

Taylor, J. R.

Tiess, T.

Torrisi, F.

Turitsyn, S. K.

Wang, F.

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).

Q. Wang, J. H. Geng, J. Zhuo, T. Luo, and S. B. Jiang, “Mode-Locked Tm–Ho-Codoped Fiber Laser at 2.06μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, A. P. Heberle, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring oscillator operated at solitary and noiselike modes,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3750–3752 (2011).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wang, Q. J.

Wang, S. X.

Wang, X.

Weirauch, F.

I. Mingareev, F. Weirauch, and A. Olowinsky, “Welding of polymers using a 2μm thulium fiber laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(7), 2095–2099 (2012).

Wise, F. W.

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Controllable spatio temporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9, 306–310 (2015).

L. G. Wright, W. H. Renninger, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of multimode optical solitons,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3492–3506 (2015).
[PubMed]

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, “Optical solitons in graded-index multimode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Ding, S. Lefrancois, J. N. Kutz, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling fiber lasers to large mode-area: an investigation of passive mode-locking using multi-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 597–606 (2011).
[PubMed]

Wright, L. G.

L. G. Wright, W. H. Renninger, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of multimode optical solitons,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3492–3506 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Controllable spatio temporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9, 306–310 (2015).

Xie, G. Q.

Yan, Z.

Yao, J.

Yu, C. L.

Yu, H. H.

Yu, X.

Yuan, P.

Zeller, W.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB lasers between 760 nm and 16 μm for sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010).
[PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, A. P. Heberle, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring oscillator operated at solitary and noiselike modes,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3750–3752 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, P.

Zhu, X.

S. Fu, Q. Sheng, X. Zhu, W. Shi, J. Yao, G. Shi, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passive Q-switching of an all-fiber laser induced by the Kerr effect of multimode interference,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17255–17262 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, and N. Peyghambarian, “Generation of controllable nondiffracting beams using multimode optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201102 (2009).

Zhuo, J.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of SMF-GIMF-SMF SA based on the NL-MMI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the proposed SMF-SIMF -GIMF-SMF structure; (b) microscopy image of SMF-SIMF -GIMF-SMF SA

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the Tm fiber laser mode-locked by the SMF-SIMF -GIMF-SMF structure

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode-locked operation at the fundamental repetition rate. (a) Pulse-train. (b) Spectrum. (c) RF spectrum at the fundamental frequency of 19.82MHz. (d) Autocorrelation trace.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output characteristics as a function of the pump power. (a) Average output power versus pump power. (b) Optical spectra for different pump powers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Long-term pulse stability: optical spectra measured in intervals of 40-minutes over 8 hours

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Tunable single-wavelength mode locking with tuning range from 1835 nm to 1886 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of mode-locking output for the SMF-SIMF -GIMF-SMF structures with different parameters.

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