Abstract

Backscattering in integrated photonic waveguides can significantly impact the performance of optical systems. However, it has not been extensively studied in the literature and measurements on waveguides fabricated in production foundry processes are particularly lacking in view of their importance to technology. Here we experimentally measure and analyze distributed backscattering in various production O-band silicon photonic waveguides. We find the measured backscattering to scale from −18 to −36 dB/mm. Measured trends across waveguide geometry and polarization are consistent with stochastic defects on waveguide sidewalls being the dominant source of distributed backscattering in production Si waveguides. For production SiNx waveguides, both sidewall and cladding defects need to be considered to fit measured trends.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (1)

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

2016 (1)

2014 (1)

D. Melati, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055502 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1777–1779 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3853–3863 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

R. B. Clarke, “The effect of reflections on the system performances of intensity modulated laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(6), 741–749 (1991).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

G. Lubberts, B. C. Burkey, F. Moser, and E. A. Trabka, “Optical properties of phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(11), 6870–6878 (1981).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photoincs,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2006), pp. 255–257.

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ayala, J.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Barton, J. S.

Barwicz, T.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

T. Barwicz and H. A. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2719–2732 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Bauters, J. F.

Beals, M. A.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photoincs,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2006), pp. 255–257.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bowers, J. E.

Burkey, B. C.

G. Lubberts, B. C. Burkey, F. Moser, and E. A. Trabka, “Optical properties of phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(11), 6870–6878 (1981).
[Crossref]

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1777–1779 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caverley, M.

Cheben, P.

Chrostowski, L.

Clarke, R. B.

R. B. Clarke, “The effect of reflections on the system performances of intensity modulated laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(6), 741–749 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cretu, E.

Cucci, B.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Dai, D.

Dang, D.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Delage, A.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Doan, T.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dulkeith, E.

Feilchenfeld, N. B.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Ferrari, C.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Froggatt, M.

Fujii, M.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghosal, M.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Giewont, K.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Gifford, D.

Gill, D.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Green, W. M. J.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3853–3863 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Guillén-Torres, M. A.

Harpin, A.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R. G.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Janz, S.

John, D.

Khater, M.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Kiewra, E.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Kimerling, L. C.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photoincs,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2006), pp. 255–257.

Koos, C.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kramer, S.

Ladouceur, F.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Leidy, R.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Leinse, A.

Leuthold, J.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Liang, T. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lou, J.

Lubberts, G.

G. Lubberts, B. C. Burkey, F. Moser, and E. A. Trabka, “Optical properties of phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(11), 6870–6878 (1981).
[Crossref]

Martin, Y.

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Martinelli, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

McLean, K.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

McNab, S.

Mehta, K.

Melati, D.

D. Melati, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

D. Melati, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055502 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1777–1779 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photoincs,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2006), pp. 255–257.

Morichetti, F.

D. Melati, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055502 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, “Statistics of backscattering in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1777–1779 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moser, F.

G. Lubberts, B. C. Burkey, F. Moser, and E. A. Trabka, “Optical properties of phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(11), 6870–6878 (1981).
[Crossref]

Murray, K.

Nummy, K.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Orcutt, J. S.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

J. S. Orcutt, S. D. Tang, S. Kramer, K. Mehta, H. Li, V. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7243–7254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Peng, B.

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Pfrang, A.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Poladian, L.

Porth, B.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Poulton, C. G.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ram, R. J.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roberts, S. W.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rosenberg, J.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Rosenberg, J. C.

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Sacher, W. D.

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Schares, L.

Schimmel, T.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Soller, B.

Sowinski, Z.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Sparacin, D. K.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photoincs,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2006), pp. 255–257.

Stojanovic, V.

Stricker, A. D.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Sun, R.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photoincs,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2006), pp. 255–257.

Syrett, B. A.

Tang, S. D.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tien, M. C.

Tong, L.

Torregiani, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trabka, E. A.

G. Lubberts, B. C. Burkey, F. Moser, and E. A. Trabka, “Optical properties of phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(11), 6870–6878 (1981).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y.

Vlasov, Y. A.

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3853–3863 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

Waldron, P.

Whiting, C.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Willets, C.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Wolfe, M.

Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Xiong, C.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Xu, D. X.

Yap, K. P.

Yu, C.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Yum, S.

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Yun, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 um wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Lubberts, B. C. Burkey, F. Moser, and E. A. Trabka, “Optical properties of phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(11), 6870–6878 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. (1)

D. Melati, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness Induced Backscattering in Optical Silicon Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. B. Feilchenfeld, K. Nummy, T. Barwicz, D. Gill, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, J. S. Orcutt, J. Rosenberg, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, J. Ayala, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, M. Ghosal, M. Khater, K. McLean, B. Porth, Z. Sowinski, C. Willets, C. Xiong, C. Yu, S. Yum, K. Giewont, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon photonics and challenges for fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 10149, 101490D (2017).

Other (5)

W. D. Sacher, B. Peng, J. C. Rosenberg, M. Khater, Y. Martin, J. S. Orcutt, Y. A. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and T. Barwicz, “An O-band Polarization Splitter-Rotator in a CMOS-Integrated Silicon Photonics Platform,” in Frontiers in Optics (2016), paper FTu2D. 2.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Electron. Devices Meet. (IEDM, 2012), pp. 10–12.
[Crossref]

N. B. Feilchenfeld, F. G. Anderson, T. Barwicz, S. Chilstedt, Y. Ding, J. Ellis-Monaghan, D. M. Gill, C. Hedges, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, R. Leidy, Y. Martin, K. McLean, M. Nicewicz, J. S. Orcutt, B. Porth, J. Proesel, C. Reinholm, J. C. Rosenberg, W. D. Sacher, A. D. Stricker, C. Whiting, C. Xiong, A. Agrawal, F. Baker, C. W. Baks, B. Cucci, D. Dang, T. Doan, F. Doany, S. Engelmann, M. Gordon, E. Joseph, J. Maling, S. Shank, X. Tian, C. Willets, J. Ferrario, M. Meghelli, F. Libsch, B. Offrein, W. M. J. Green, and W. Haensch, “An integrated silicon photonics technology for O-band datacom,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Electron. Devices Meet. (IEDM, 2015), pp. 25.7.1–25.7.4.
[Crossref]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photoincs,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2006), pp. 255–257.

T. E. Murphy, “Design, Fabrication and Measurement of Integrated Bragg Grating Optical Filters,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA USA (2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Description of CMOS-integrated Si rectangular, rib, stacked waveguides and silicon nitride waveguide. (a)-(d) Waveguide structural diagrams. Si is shown in grey, cladding in blue and SiNx in green. (e)-(h) Corresponding TE modes. (i)-(l) Corresponding TM modes. BEOL stands for back-end of the line stacks and BPSG stands for borophosphosilicate glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of experimental setup. PC: polarization controller, ORL: optical return loss, DUT: device under test. (b) Optical reflection spectra of the TE mode in the spatial domain for a rib Si waveguide. The stated spatial resolution of 20µm is limited by the OFDR instrumentation's spectral scanning range. The averaging curve is generated from an 8-point averaging window. The dark orange region represents the central 1mm waveguide and the light orange region represents the whole waveguide structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Backscattering distributions of various waveguides for both TE and TM input polarizations. The coupling loss and propagation loss have been excluded. (a)-(d) Backscattering spatial distribution for a Si rectangular waveguide, a Si rib waveguide, a Si stacked waveguide and a silicon nitride rectangular waveguide. The light traces are the raw data and the dark traces are averaging generated from an 8-point averaging window. (e) Distributed backscattering integrated over a 1 mm waveguide length for all waveguides and polarizations investigated. The vertical error bars denote the standard deviation among three measured samples for each waveguide structure. The three samples were randomly picked on a single wafer. The sample to sample variability for a given waveguide type is small compared to the difference in measured reflection across waveguide types.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Various defect region assumptions for integration of the contradirectional coupling strength in the cross section of the four types of waveguides. Regions in red denote the defects at (a)-(d) sidewall, (e)-(h) waveguide corner, and (i)-(l) waveguide cladding.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graphical representation of the data of Table 1 row 2-5. Measured backscattering ratio in dB units (a) and comparison to expected trends from contradirectional coupling strength (in dB units) with mode overlaps to given defect regions, (b) sidewall, (c) waveguide corner, (d) waveguide cladding.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured distributed backscattering P (dB/mm, from Fig. 3(e)) and comparison to expected trends from contradirectional coupling strength (in dB units) with mode overlaps to given defect regions.

Equations (1)

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κ A   δε E + * E dxdy   ( E + × H + * + E + * × H + ) z ^ dxdy

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