Abstract

A silicon compatible light source is crucial to develop a fully monolithic silicon photonics platform. Strain engineering in suspended Germanium membranes has offered a potential route for such a light source. However, biaxial structures have suffered from poor optical properties due to unfavorable strain distributions. Using a novel geometric approach and finite element modelling (FEM) structures with improved strain homogeneity were designed and fabricated. Micro-Raman (μ-Raman) spectroscopy was used to determine central strain values. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) was used to study the effects of the strain profiles on light emission; we report a PL enhancement of up to 3x by optimizing curvature at a strain value of 0.5% biaxial strain. This geometric approach offers opportunity for enhancing the light emission in Germanium towards developing a practical on chip light source.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  5. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge on Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Cardona and F. H. Pollak, “Energy-Band Structure of Germanium and Silicon: The k∙p method,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 530–543 (1966).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  8. S. Saito, A. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 043002 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  13. M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k⋅p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonić, and R. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared Ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
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  15. Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
  16. G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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  18. A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
  19. M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. Kang, M. Brongersma, and K. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. Kroemer, “Quasi-Electric and Quasi-Magnetic Fields in Non-Uniform Semiconductors,” RCA Review 18, 332–342 (1957).
  27. S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, B. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  30. D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2016 (6)

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

S. Saito, A. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 043002 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, B. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, T. Dieing, and D. J. Paul, “Extending the emission wavelength of Ge nanopillars to 2.25 μm using silicon nitride stressors,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18193–18202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. Kang, M. Brongersma, and K. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonić, and R. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared Ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k⋅p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge on Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2003 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

M. Cardona and F. H. Pollak, “Energy-Band Structure of Germanium and Silicon: The k∙p method,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 530–543 (1966).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

H. Kroemer, “Quasi-Electric and Quasi-Magnetic Fields in Non-Uniform Semiconductors,” RCA Review 18, 332–342 (1957).

Al-Attili, A.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

S. Saito, A. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 043002 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aldaghri, O.

O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonić, and R. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared Ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, H.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baer, T. M.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

Bessette, J. T.

Boucaud, P.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k⋅p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M.

Brongersma, M. L.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Calvo, V.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cannon, D.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).

Capellini, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona and F. H. Pollak, “Energy-Band Structure of Germanium and Silicon: The k∙p method,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 530–543 (1966).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

Chelnokov, A.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chong, H. M. H.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

Chrastina, D.

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, T. Dieing, and D. J. Paul, “Extending the emission wavelength of Ge nanopillars to 2.25 μm using silicon nitride stressors,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18193–18202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Kersauson, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Debnath, K.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

Dieing, T.

Duchemin, I.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dutt, B.

D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, B. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
[Crossref]

El Kurdi, M.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k⋅p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Escalante, J.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fishman, G.

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k⋅p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, T. Dieing, and D. J. Paul, “Extending the emission wavelength of Ge nanopillars to 2.25 μm using silicon nitride stressors,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18193–18202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gallacher, K.

Gardes, F.

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghrib, A.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guilloy, K.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

Gupta, S.

D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, B. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

Higashitarumizu, N.

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Howe, R. T.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hryciw, A.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Husain, M.

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Husain, M. K.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

Ido, T.

S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonić, and R. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared Ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, T. Dieing, and D. J. Paul, “Extending the emission wavelength of Ge nanopillars to 2.25 μm using silicon nitride stressors,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18193–18202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishida, S.

S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, Y.

S. Saito, A. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 043002 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).

Iwamoto, S.

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
[Crossref]

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S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
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Kang, J. H.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
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Luan, H.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).

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R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

Michel, J.

Millar, R. W.

Miller, D. A. B.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
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D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, B. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
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D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
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D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. Kang, M. Brongersma, and K. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
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D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

Niquet, Y.-M.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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Oda, K.

S. Saito, A. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 043002 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
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Ossikovski, R.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

Patel, N.

Pauc, N.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Petra, R.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

Petykiewicz, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
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Prost, M.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
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Reboud, V.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Reed, G. T.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

Rieutord, F.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Romagnoli, M.

Rouchon, D.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

Saito, S.

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

S. Saito, A. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 043002 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Samarelli, A.

Saraswat, K.

D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, B. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. Kang, M. Brongersma, and K. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K. C.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauvage, S.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k⋅p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G.

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, T.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Süess, M.

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sukhdeo, D. S.

D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, B. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16740–16749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. Kang, M. Brongersma, and K. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

Suwa, Y.

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tani, K.

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tardif, S.

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tillack, B.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).

Wenger, C.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Widiez, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zabel, T.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

Zaumseil, P.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

arXiv (1)

R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, G. Osvaldo Diaz, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Uniaxially stressed Germanium with fundamental direct band gap,” arXiv 1603, 03454 (2015).

Front. Mater. (3)

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides and Grating Couplers Fabricated Using Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

S. Saito, F. Gardes, A. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(22), 221112 (2013).

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k⋅p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonić, and R. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared Ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, B. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold Ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ishida, S. Kako, K. Oda, T. Ido, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH14 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Süess, R. Geiger, R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge on Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
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S. Saito, A. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 043002 (2016).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overall schematic of geometry design for half an arm with (a) Step 1 (b) Step 2 and (c) Step 3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of four arm structure with (a) C = 1.0 and (b) C = 3.0. The parameter L is fixed at 125 μm (shown in blue) and the corresponding parameters H (shown in red) and c2r (shown in green).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The effect of C on (a) Central strain. (b) Maximum strain (c) The ratio between central and maximum strain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Strain distributions at C values of (a) 1.0 (b) 1.4 (c) 1.8 (d) 2.2 (e) 2.6 and (f) 3.0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical micrograph of successfully fabricated structure corresponding to C = 3.0.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Raman spectra at various C values and bulk Ge (b) the Raman peak width and shift at various C values and (c) the extracted and simulated central strain values at various C values.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

μ-PL spectra of structures at increasing C. A cumulative y-offset of 25 was added to enable clear visualization of the spectra without overlap.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r1x=L(0.5(L/2.4))
c1r=r1x+(0.5r1w)
C=H/L
c2r=H/cos( γ o )
γ= 90 o θ o
θ= tan 1 (H/L)= tan 1 (C)
p2x=(L(H/cos(γ))(cos(θ+β))
p2y=((H/cos(γ))(sin(θ+β)H)
P1= 1 2L (sin(γβ))(Η+ L) (sin(135(γβ)))
c3r= (p2xp1x) 2 + (p2yp1y) 2