Abstract

Excess relative intensity noise (RIN) constitutes one of the major limitations of most spectroscopic methods involving lasers. Here, we present an active RIN suppression scheme for a coherent mid-infrared (MIR) light source (8.4-11 µm), based on intra-pulse difference frequency generation (DFG). Three different stabilization concepts that rely on modulating the intensity of the driving near-infrared (NIR) pulse train with an acousto-optic modulator are investigated and compared. By using the wings of the NIR spectrum to generate the error signal, a RIN suppression of the MIR pulse train of up to a factor of 20 was achieved in the band between 1 Hz and 100 kHz, resulting in a total integrated RIN of 0.07%.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. Kötting and K. Gerwert, “Monitoring protein–ligand interactions by time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy,” Protein-Ligand Interact. Methods Appl. 1008, 299–323 (2013).

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Albert, S.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Bauer, D.

Biegert, J.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boege, M.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogan, C.

Brons, J.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassinari, L.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

Danzmann, K.

Dehler, M.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denard, J. C.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumas, P.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedotov, A. B.

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedulova, E.

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filhol, J. M.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fill, E.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Frede, M.

Garvey, T.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerwert, K.

C. Kötting and K. Gerwert, “Monitoring protein–ligand interactions by time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy,” Protein-Ligand Interact. Methods Appl. 1008, 299–323 (2013).

Gough, Ch.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hädrich, S.

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heurs, M.

Hobbs, P. C.

Hodgkinson, J.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hubert, N.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, C.

Jauregui, C.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johansen, J.

Karpowicz, N.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Keiber, S.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

King, P.

Klenke, A.

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kötting, C.

C. Kötting and K. Gerwert, “Monitoring protein–ligand interactions by time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy,” Protein-Ligand Interact. Methods Appl. 1008, 299–323 (2013).

Krausz, F.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krebs, M.

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwee, P.

Lanin, A. A.

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lerch, P.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lilienfein, N.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Limpert, J.

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lücking, F.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luedeke, A.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Møller, U.

Moselund, P. M.

Nadji, A.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadolski, L.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pervak, V.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pescher, M.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pöld, J.

Pronin, O.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puncken, O.

Pupeza, I.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Quack, M.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothhardt, J.

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sánchez, D.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Savage, R. L.

Schilcher, T.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, A.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schweinberger, W.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sederberg, S.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seidel, M.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seifert, F.

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sørensen, S. T.

Stingelin, L.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutter, D.

Tatam, R. P.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, C. L.

Trubetskov, M.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voronin, A. A.

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wambach, J.

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

Wei, Z.

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wessels, P.

Willke, B.

Windeler, R. S.

Winkelmann, L.

Zhang, J.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Brons, N. Lilienfein, E. Fedulova, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, Z. Wei, A. Apolonski, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “260-Megahertz, Megawatt-Level Thin-Disk Oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1627–1630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Znakovskaya, I.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

P. Lerch, P. Dumas, T. Schilcher, A. Nadji, A. Luedeke, N. Hubert, L. Cassinari, M. Boege, J. C. Denard, L. Stingelin, L. Nadolski, T. Garvey, S. Albert, Ch. Gough, M. Quack, J. Wambach, M. Dehler, and J. M. Filhol, “Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 1), 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(8), e320 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lücking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “High-power multi-megahertz source of waveform-stabilized few-cycle light,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 721 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Protein-Ligand Interact. Methods Appl. (1)

C. Kötting and K. Gerwert, “Monitoring protein–ligand interactions by time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy,” Protein-Ligand Interact. Methods Appl. 1008, 299–323 (2013).

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Schematic of the free-running laser setup. The NIR pulses from the oscillator are spectrally broadened in a nonlinear fiber and temporally compressed by chirped mirrors (CM). The resulting 19-fs pulse train is focused into a LiGaS2 crystal to generate MIR radiation via intra-pulse difference frequency generation. Fluctuations in the power of the free-running NIR or MIR radiation were measured with photodiodes (PD) at different positions in the setup, and the noise spectrum was recorded with a fast Fourier transform analyzer. b) Optical spectrum of the broadened NIR light. The patterned area indicates the portion of the spectrum that was used for generation of the feedback signal in stabilization concepts Ib and IIIb. c) Optical MIR spectrum measured with a FTIR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the three stabilization concepts: a) Concept I, b) Concept II, c) Concept III.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative intensity noise and integrated noise (integration starts at 100 kHz) of the free-running system for the oscillator (black), the broadened NIR (blue), the red portion of the broadened NIR spectrum (pink) and the MIR light (red). The measurement noise floors of the InGaAs and MCT detectors are both well below the relative intensity noise of the measured radiation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MIR noise suppression by stabilization concepts I and II. No MIR noise reduction was achieved with stabilization concept I (a) while moderate suppression (by a factor of ~3) was obtained with stabilization concept II (b). A sketch of the stabilization concept employed is shown above each graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) MIR noise suppression by stabilization concept III. b) Sketch of the experimental layout for stabilization concept III. c) Normalized intensity fluctuations of the stabilized (concept IIIb) MIR beam (orange) recorded over 500s with an FFT analyzer. The rms of the intensity fluctuations of the stabilized beam is less than 0.05%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Relative intensity noise and integrated noise (integration starts at 100 kHz) of the free running system for the oscillator (black) and the broadened NIR (gray). b)-d) NIR noise suppression for the different stabilization concepts. Strong NIR noise suppression is only obtained when stabilizing to the full (spectrally integrated) NIR signal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative intensity noise spectrum free-running broadened NIR and MIR pulse train.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 NIR noise suppression

Equations (3)

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RI N rms ( f 0 , f 1 )= f 0 f 1 ( s RIN (f) ) 2 df
s q = 2hc Pλ
s tot = 2hc P IL λ IL + 2hc P OOL λ OOL