Abstract

Structural color printing based on all-aluminum plasmonic V-groove metasurfaces is demonstrated under both bright field and dark field illumination conditions. A broad visible color range is realized with the plasmonic V-groove arrays etched on an aluminum surface by simply varying the groove depth while keeping the groove period as a constant. Polarization dependent structural color printing is further achieved with interlaced V-groove arrays along both the horizontal and vertical directions. These results pave the way towards the use of an all-aluminum structural color printing platform for many practical applications such as security marking and information storage.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

S. Choudhury, U. Guler, A. Shaltout, V. M. Shalaev, A. V. Kildishev, and A. Boltasseva, “Pancharatnam–Berry phase manipulating metasurface for visible color hologram based on low loss silver thin film,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700196 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, W. Wang, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “All-metal structural color printing based on aluminum plasmonic metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20472–20480 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. W. Clark, and J. M. Cooper, “Dual color plasmonic pixels create a polarization controlled nano color palette,” ACS Nano 10(1), 492–498 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Liang, W. Wang, J. S. Moon, and J. G. Winiarz, “Enhancement in the photorefractive performance of organic composites photosensitized with functionalized CdSe quantum dots,” Opt. Mater. 58, 203–209 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

L. Sun, X. D. Yang, W. Wang, and J. Gao, “Diffraction-free optical beam propagation with near-zero phase variation in extremely anisotropic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, L. Stan, D. Rosenmann, D. Czaplewski, and X. Yang, “Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14552–14560 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, X. Yang, D. Rosenmann, L. Stan, D. Czaplewski, and J. Gao, “Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25329–25339 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W.-Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C.-M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (9)

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Uddin, T. Khaleque, and R. Magnusson, “Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12307–12315 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Saeidi and D. van der Weide, “Bandwidth-tunable optical spatial filters with nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12499–12504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, Y. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Park, Y. Dan, K. Seo, Y. J. Yu, P. K. Duane, M. Wober, and K. B. Crozier, “Filter-free image sensor pixels comprising silicon nanowires with selective color absorption,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1804–1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Deng, T. C. Wang, J. Gao, and X. D. Yang, “Metamaterial thermal emitters based on nanowire cavities for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaics,” J. Opt. 16(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. R. Shrestha, S. S. Lee, E. S. Kim, and D. Y. Choi, “Aluminum plasmonics based highly transmissive polarization-independent subtractive color filters exploiting a nanopatch array,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6672–6678 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

V. Kulkarni, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum plasmonics: optical properties of a nanomatryushka,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5873–5879 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Do, M. Fedoruk, F. Jäckel, and J. Feldmann, “Two-color laser printing of individual gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4164–4168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Si, Y. Zhao, J. Lv, M. Lu, F. Wang, H. Liu, N. Xiang, T. J. Huang, A. J. Danner, J. Teng, and Y. J. Liu, “Reflective plasmonic color filters based on lithographically patterned silver nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 5(14), 6243–6248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2840 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, N. Park, and J. H. Shin, “Flexible, angle-independent, structural color reflectors inspired by morpho butterfly wings,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2375–2379 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. Y. Ou, N. Papasimakis, Y. Chen, K. F. Macdonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Continuous metal plasmonic frequency selective surfaces,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23279–23285 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Kaplan, T. Xu, and L. J. Guo, “High efficiency resonance-based spectrum filters with tunable transmission bandwidth fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143111 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, “Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures,” Small 7(22), 3128–3136 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat. Commun. 2, 387 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093113 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

Q. Chen and D. R. S. Cumming, “High transmission and low color cross-talk plasmonic color filters using triangular-lattice hole arrays in aluminum films,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14056–14062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1(5), 59 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle optics: The importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2840 (2013).
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T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
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H. Park, Y. Dan, K. Seo, Y. J. Yu, P. K. Duane, M. Wober, and K. B. Crozier, “Filter-free image sensor pixels comprising silicon nanowires with selective color absorption,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1804–1809 (2014).
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T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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G. Si, Y. Zhao, J. Lv, M. Lu, F. Wang, H. Liu, N. Xiang, T. J. Huang, A. J. Danner, J. Teng, and Y. J. Liu, “Reflective plasmonic color filters based on lithographically patterned silver nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 5(14), 6243–6248 (2013).
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H. X. Deng, T. C. Wang, J. Gao, and X. D. Yang, “Metamaterial thermal emitters based on nanowire cavities for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaics,” J. Opt. 16(3), 035102 (2014).
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J. Do, M. Fedoruk, F. Jäckel, and J. Feldmann, “Two-color laser printing of individual gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4164–4168 (2013).
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H. Park, Y. Dan, K. Seo, Y. J. Yu, P. K. Duane, M. Wober, and K. B. Crozier, “Filter-free image sensor pixels comprising silicon nanowires with selective color absorption,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1804–1809 (2014).
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C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
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T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
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J. Do, M. Fedoruk, F. Jäckel, and J. Feldmann, “Two-color laser printing of individual gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4164–4168 (2013).
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J. Do, M. Fedoruk, F. Jäckel, and J. Feldmann, “Two-color laser printing of individual gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4164–4168 (2013).
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D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093113 (2011).
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Z. Li, W. Wang, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “All-metal structural color printing based on aluminum plasmonic metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20472–20480 (2016).
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Gao, Y.

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2840 (2013).
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C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
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M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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X. M. Goh, Y. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5361 (2014).
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S. Choudhury, U. Guler, A. Shaltout, V. M. Shalaev, A. V. Kildishev, and A. Boltasseva, “Pancharatnam–Berry phase manipulating metasurface for visible color hologram based on low loss silver thin film,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700196 (2017).
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C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle optics: The importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
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Y. K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1194 (2013).
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T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1(5), 59 (2010).
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K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, N. Park, and J. H. Shin, “Flexible, angle-independent, structural color reflectors inspired by morpho butterfly wings,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2375–2379 (2012).
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T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
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C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle optics: The importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
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K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
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K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, N. Park, and J. H. Shin, “Flexible, angle-independent, structural color reflectors inspired by morpho butterfly wings,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2375–2379 (2012).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
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Y. K. R. Wu, A. E. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. J. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
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Hong, M.

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
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R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
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G. Si, Y. Zhao, J. Lv, M. Lu, F. Wang, H. Liu, N. Xiang, T. J. Huang, A. J. Danner, J. Teng, and Y. J. Liu, “Reflective plasmonic color filters based on lithographically patterned silver nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 5(14), 6243–6248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y.-W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W.-Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C.-M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093113 (2011).
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D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093113 (2011).
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J. Do, M. Fedoruk, F. Jäckel, and J. Feldmann, “Two-color laser printing of individual gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4164–4168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

K. Chung, S. Yu, C. J. Heo, J. W. Shim, S. M. Yang, M. G. Han, H. S. Lee, Y. Jin, S. Y. Lee, N. Park, and J. H. Shin, “Flexible, angle-independent, structural color reflectors inspired by morpho butterfly wings,” Adv. Mater. 24(18), 2375–2379 (2012).
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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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Kall, M.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle optics: The importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
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H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat. Commun. 2, 387 (2011).
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A. F. Kaplan, T. Xu, and L. J. Guo, “High efficiency resonance-based spectrum filters with tunable transmission bandwidth fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143111 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y. K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, “Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures,” Small 7(22), 3128–3136 (2011).
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Kaplan, D. L.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
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H. X. Deng, T. C. Wang, J. Gao, and X. D. Yang, “Metamaterial thermal emitters based on nanowire cavities for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaics,” J. Opt. 16(3), 035102 (2014).
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Z. Li, W. Wang, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “All-metal structural color printing based on aluminum plasmonic metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20472–20480 (2016).
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T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1(5), 59 (2010).
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X. M. Goh, Y. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5361 (2014).
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S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
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H. Park, Y. Dan, K. Seo, Y. J. Yu, P. K. Duane, M. Wober, and K. B. Crozier, “Filter-free image sensor pixels comprising silicon nanowires with selective color absorption,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1804–1809 (2014).
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ACS Nano (3)

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Adv. Mater. (2)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093113 (2011).
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J. Opt. (2)

L. Sun, X. D. Yang, W. Wang, and J. Gao, “Diffraction-free optical beam propagation with near-zero phase variation in extremely anisotropic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035101 (2015).
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H. X. Deng, T. C. Wang, J. Gao, and X. D. Yang, “Metamaterial thermal emitters based on nanowire cavities for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaics,” J. Opt. 16(3), 035102 (2014).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

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Nano Lett. (12)

H. Park, Y. Dan, K. Seo, Y. J. Yu, P. K. Duane, M. Wober, and K. B. Crozier, “Filter-free image sensor pixels comprising silicon nanowires with selective color absorption,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1804–1809 (2014).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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V. R. Shrestha, S. S. Lee, E. S. Kim, and D. Y. Choi, “Aluminum plasmonics based highly transmissive polarization-independent subtractive color filters exploiting a nanopatch array,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6672–6678 (2014).
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S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
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Y.-W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W.-Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C.-M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
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Nanoscale (1)

G. Si, Y. Zhao, J. Lv, M. Lu, F. Wang, H. Liu, N. Xiang, T. J. Huang, A. J. Danner, J. Teng, and Y. J. Liu, “Reflective plasmonic color filters based on lithographically patterned silver nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 5(14), 6243–6248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (4)

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1(5), 59 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, Y. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5361 (2014).
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H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat. Commun. 2, 387 (2011).
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T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (3)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

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Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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Opt. Express (8)

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Z. Li, W. Wang, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “All-metal structural color printing based on aluminum plasmonic metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20472–20480 (2016).
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F. Cheng, X. Yang, D. Rosenmann, L. Stan, D. Czaplewski, and J. Gao, “Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25329–25339 (2015).
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C. Saeidi and D. van der Weide, “Bandwidth-tunable optical spatial filters with nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12499–12504 (2014).
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Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. C. Liang, W. Wang, J. S. Moon, and J. G. Winiarz, “Enhancement in the photorefractive performance of organic composites photosensitized with functionalized CdSe quantum dots,” Opt. Mater. 58, 203–209 (2016).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

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http://www.inplainviewwinnipeg.com/prairie_stained_glass.shtml , https://www.prairiestudioglass.com/

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the V-groove array on an aluminum layer with silicon substrate. (b) Schematic of the optical reflection mode for the bright field and dark field illumination. Angle 1 represents the collection angle of the objective lens while angle 2 is the incident angle of the dark field condenser lens. (c-j) Cross-section SEM images of the fabricated V-groove arrays with the same groove period of 250 nm and eight different groove depths from 76 nm to 231 nm. Scale bars: 250 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured (black solid line) and simulated (red solid line) optical reflectance spectra under bright field illumination for the eight V-groove arrays with different measured groove depths from 76 nm to 231 nm, while the depths used in the simulation from 80 nm to 230 nm are also listed. (b) Measured (black solid line) and simulated (red solid line) scattering intensity spectra under dark field illumination for the eight V-groove arrays. Insets show the corresponding bright field or dark field optical microscope images of 20 × 20 µm2 V-groove arrays. (c) Dependence of the red-shift of the plasmonic resonance dip under bright field illumination (red) and the plasmonic resonance peak under dark field illumination (blue) on the groove depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and simulated results in the CIE 1931 xy chromaticity coordinates for the eight V-groove arrays with the increased groove depth from 76 nm to 231 nm. The circles and diamonds represent the bright field and dark field results, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections of the time-averaged magnetic field (color map) and electric displacement (white arrows) distributions for the V-groove metasurface with depth of 150 nm at the resonance wavelength, under (a) the bright field illumination with vertical incident angle and (b) the dark field illumination with oblique incident angle of 70 degrees.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Simulated incident angle dependent (a) optical reflection spectra under the bright field illumination and (b) optical scattering intensity spectra under the dark field illumination for the V-groove metasurface with depth of 100 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of two-dimensional V-groove array on an aluminum layer with silicon substrate. The grooves in horizontal and vertical directions have different depths, giving different color responses depending on the incident linear polarizations. (b) Simulated reflectance spectra of the sample illuminated by light with either horizontal or vertical linear polarization. Different polarization illumination will result in different color responses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Original landscape art painting with various colors drawn by ourselves. (b) The measured bright field microscope image of the plasmonic painting under the horizontal linear polarization (white arrow) with size of 40 × 50 µm2. (c) The measured dark field microscope image. (d)-(f) SEM images of the fabricated plasmonic painting sample with V-groove arrays of different depths. SEM image in panel (f) is tilted at a view angle of 52 degrees.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Color responses of the measured bright field microscope images for the one-dimensional V-groove painting sample with different linear polarization angles from 0 degree to 90 degrees. The linear polarizer is placed in the incident beam path. (b) Color responses of the measured dark field microscope images for the one-dimensional V-groove painting sample with different linear polarization angles. The linear polarizer is placed in the vertical scattering beam path. The scattering beam from the sample is highly polarized.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Original landscape art paintings with two different color sets drawn by ourselves. (b) The measured bright field microscope images of the plasmonic painting under the horizontal and vertical linear polarizations (white arrows). (c) The measured dark field microscope images. (d)-(f) SEM images of the fabricated plasmonic painting sample with the interlaced vertical and horizontal V-groove arrays. SEM image in panel (f) is tilted at a view angle of 52 degrees to clearly show the V-groove arrays along both directions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Color responses of the measured bright field microscope images for the two-dimensional V-groove painting sample with different linear polarization angles from 0 degree to 90 degrees. The linear polarizer is placed in the incident beam path. (b) Color responses of the measured dark field microscope images for the two-dimensional V-groove painting sample with different linear polarization angles. The linear polarizer is placed in the vertical scattering beam path.

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