Abstract

Integrated optical circuits are poised to open up an array of novel applications. A vibrant field of research has emerged around the monolithic integration of optical components onto the silicon substrates. Typically, single mode optical fibers deliver the external light to the chip, and submicron single-mode waveguides then guide the light on-chip for further processing. For such technology to be viable, it is critically important to be able to efficiently couple light into and out of the chip platform, and between the different components, with low losses. Due to the large volume mismatch between a fiber and silicon waveguide (on the order of 600), it has been extremely challenging to obtain high coupling efficient with large tolerance. To date, demonstrated coupling has been relatively lossy and effective coupling requires impractical alignment of optical components. Here, we propose the use of a high contrast metastructure (HCM) that overcomes these issues, and effectively couples the off-chip, out-of-plane light waves into on-chip, in-plane waveguides. By harnessing the resonance properties of the metastructure, we show that it is possible to spatially confine the incoming free-space light into subwavelength dimensions with a near-unity (up to 98%) efficiency. The underlying coupling mechanism is analyzed and designs for practical on-chip coupler and reflector systems are presented. Furthermore, we explore the two-dimensional HCM as an ultra-compact wavelength multiplexer with superior efficiency (90%).

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2013 (1)

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

2012 (4)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).

M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 448–457 (2012).

V. Karagodsky and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Physics of near-wavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10888–10895 (2012).

2011 (1)

2010 (6)

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguid grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010).

V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16973–16988 (2010).

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

D. A. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).

1992 (1)

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).

1981 (1)

Almeida, V. R.

Ang, K. W.

Arakawa, Y.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

L. Zhu, J. Kapraun, J. Ferrara, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Flexible photonic metastructures for tunable coloration,” Optica 2(3), 255–258 (2015).

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).

V. Karagodsky and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Physics of near-wavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10888–10895 (2012).

V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Matrix Fabry-Perot resonance mechanism in high-contrast gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1704–1706 (2011).

V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16973–16988 (2010).

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).

Chase, C.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Matrix Fabry-Perot resonance mechanism in high-contrast gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1704–1706 (2011).

Chen, X.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguid grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).

Chitgarha, M. R.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

Dumon, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

Fang, Q.

Ferrara, J.

Fung, C. K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguid grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Gaylord, T. K.

Huang, M. C.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

Huang, M. C. Y.

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).

Ishikawa, A.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).

Kapraun, J.

Karagodsky, V.

Kern, J.

Khaleghi, S.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

Krauss, T. F.

Kwong, D.-L.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguid grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, S. M. G.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguid grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Miller, D. A.

D. A. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).

Moewe, M.

Moharam, M. G.

Nishioka, M.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).

Panepucci, R. R.

Rao, Y.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

Scheerlinck, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

Schrauwen, J.

Sedgwick, F. G.

Selvaraja, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

Song, J. F.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).

Taillaert, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

Taubenblatt, M. A.

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguid grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Van Laere, F.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

Van Thourhout, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and Highly Efficient Grating Couplers Between Optical Fiber and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).

Willner, A. E.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).

Worland, D.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).

Yang, W.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).

Yu, M. B.

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).

Zhu, L.

Ziyadi, M.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(3), 379–440 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).

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D. A. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Huang, D. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long-wavelength VCSEL using high-contrast grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701311 (2013).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguid grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2)

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the gap between nanophotonic waveguide circuits and single mode optical fibers using diffractive grating structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. Van Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Bridging the Gap Between Nanophotonic Waveguide Circuits and Single Mode Optical Fibers Using Diffractive Grating Structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1551–1562 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).

Other (3)

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University, 2008).

A. Michaels and E. Yablonovtich, “Inverse Design of Near Unity Efficiency Perfectly Vertical Grating Couplers,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.07186 (2017).

S. L. Chuang, Physics of photonic devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2012), Vol. 80.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the light coupling structure designed to efficiently couple incoming light out-of-plane to light-in-plane carried by a submicron photonic wire (waveguide). The silicon-on-insulator waveguide is coupled to an optical fiber at surface normal direction through a large angle tapered waveguide and the coupler. (b) Cross-section of the coupler, which is separated from the surface of the waveguide by a small, low-refractive-index gap. (c) The schematic of a one-dimensional HCM structure. It is periodic in the x-direction with period Λ. The length of the high refractive index bar in the y-direction is assumed as infinite.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection spectra from a single-layer HCM coupler. (a) Surface-normal incident light. (b) 10°-oblique incident light. (c) Surface-normal incident light with waveguide placed underneath the HCM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Anti-crossing phenomenon in the resonant HCM structure/waveguide system. (a) Anti-crossing of the vertical coupling line and the high contrast metastructure resonance pattern, which signifies the vertical optical coupling. (b) Optical field profile at the center of the anti-crossing region. (c) Light coupling efficiency spectrum aligned with the anti-crossing pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Light coupling efficiency and field profile for surface-normal incoming light coupled to an in-plane waveguide. Blue arrow indicates input light; black arrow indicates the output. (b) Light coupling efficiency and field profile for surface-normal incoming light coupled to an in-plane waveguide, for symmetrical input. Blue arrow indicates input light; black arrow indicates the output.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Field profile and coupling efficiency for (a) light coupling from waveguide incidence to out-of-plane space; (b) reflection for waveguide incidence with the external coupler. The blue arrow indicates input light; the black arrow indicates output.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Efficiency and field profiles for different coupler configurations. (a) For coupling of light from the surface-normal to a selected direction; (b) Efficiency and near-field output pattern for the curved coupler.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Overview of the WDM configuration. Light from the different channels is routed to the cross junction and multiplexed into the fiber at the surface normal direction (b) Zoom in view of the HCM-MUX. The HCM is located upon the junction region with a low index gap to the waveguide. Light from all the channels are coupled into the vertical direction to fiber or other optics.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scattering matrix model of the multiplexer. The waveguide channels are defined as port C1 to C4. The fiber output is defined as channel T and the light scattering to the substrate is defined as port B.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) FDTD simulation configuration for optical coupling among all ports. (b) The FDTD simulation result for the scattering coefficients.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Optical spectrum of the output from the optical fiber (b) Optical spectrum of the output from the waveguide channel C1.

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