Abstract

We numerically maximize the achievable photocurrent density of planar perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells for different device architectures. For the optimizations we combine the transfer-matrix method with a simulated annealing algorithm. The optimizations are conducted within experimentally accessible and relevant layer-thickness ranges, which allows to extract applicable device guidelines. A comparison between regular and inverted tandem-cell designs reveals that a rear-emitter silicon heterojunction in combination with an inverted perovskite top-cell can yield a photocurrent, which is 1.4 mA/cm2 higher than that of tandem cells with the usual polarity and a front-emitter silicon bottom cell. Switching from the regular to the inverse architecture leads to over 2% (absolute) gain in power conversion efficiency. Finally we show that an efficiency of 30.8% is achievable for such tandem cells with an optimized perovskite band-gap.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (4)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 25, 3–13 (2017). PIP-16-252.
[Crossref]

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nature Energy 2, 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Mazzarella, S. Kirner, O. Gabriel, S. S. Schmidt, L. Korte, B. Stannowski, B. Rech, and R. Schlatmann, “Nanocrystalline silicon emitter optimization for Si-HJ solar cells: substrate selectivity and CO2 plasma treatment effect,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214, 1532958 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Santbergen, T. Meguro, T. Suezaki, G. Koizumi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Zeman, “GenPro4 optical model for solar cell simulation and its application to multijunction solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. PP, 1–8 (2017). DOI:.
[Crossref]

2016 (10)

D. P. McMeekin, G. Sadoughi, W. Rehman, G. E. Eperon, M. Saliba, M. T. Hörantner, A. Haghighirad, N. Sakai, L. Korte, B. Rech, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells,” Science 351, 151–155 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Jiang, L. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Yang, J. Meng, H. Liu, Z. Yin, J. Wu, X. Zhang, and J. You, “Enhanced electron extraction using SnO2 for high-efficiency planar-structure HC(NH2)2PbI3-based perovskite solar cells,” Nature Energy 2, 16177 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. Correa Baena, F. Lang, L. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Gratzel, and B. Rech, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells processed at low temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 81–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, C.-H. Weng, A. Walter, L. Fesquet, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell with cell area > 1 cm2,” J. Phys. Chem. 7, 161–166 (2016). PMID: .
[PubMed]

R. Santbergen, R. Mishima, T. Meguro, M. Hino, H. Uzu, J. Blanker, K. Yamamoto, and M. Zeman, “Minimizing optical losses in monolithic perovskite/c-Si tandem solar cells with a flat top cell,” Opt. Express 24, A1288–A1299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Futscher and B. Ehrler, “Efficiency limit of perovskite/Si tandem solar cells,” ACS Energy Letters 1, 863–868 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. T. Grant, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and T. P. White, “Design guidelines for perovskite/silicon 2-terminal tandem solar cells: an optical study,” Opt. Express 24, A1454–A1470 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J.-P. Correa-Baena, K. Jäger, L. Korte, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Towards optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells,” J. Opt. 18, 064012 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H.-G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354, 861–865 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (10)

S. Kirner, M. Hartig, L. Mazzarella, L. Korte, T. Frijnts, H. Scherg-Kurmes, S. Ring, B. Stannowski, B. Rech, and R. Schlatmann, “The influence of ITO dopant density on J-V characteristics of silicon heterojunction solar cells: experiments and simulations,” Energy Procedia 77, 725–732 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin Films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015). PMID: .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Roland, S. Neubert, S. Albrecht, B. Stannowski, M. Seger, A. Facchetti, R. Schlatmann, B. Rech, and D. Neher, “Hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film multijunction solar cells exceeding 11% power conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27, 1262–1267 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. D. Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23, A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Deng, E. Peng, Y. Shao, Z. Xiao, Q. Dong, and J. Huang, “Scalable fabrication of efficient organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells with doctor-bladed active layers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 1544–1550 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, W. Soppe, and R. E. Schropp, “Design of 4-terminal solar modules combining thin-film wide-bandgap top cells and c-Si bottom cells,” Energy Procedia 77, 500–507 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Scherg-Kurmes, S. Körner, S. Ring, M. Klaus, L. Korte, F. Ruske, R. Schlatmann, B. Rech, and B. Szyszka, “High mobility In2O3:H as contact layer for a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction and μc-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 594B, 316–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, G. Dubuis, A. Walter, P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. Nicolay, M. Morales-Masis, S. D. Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Sputtered rear electrode with broadband transparency for perovskite solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 141, 407–413 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517, 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348, 1234–1237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

L. Mazzarella, S. Kirner, M. Mews, E. Conrad, L. Korte, B. Stannowski, B. Rech, and R. Schlatmann, “Comparison of TMB and B2H6 as precursors for emitter doping in high efficiency silicon hetero junction solar cells,” Energy Procedia 60, 123–128 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and light trapping for tandem solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4, 1380–1386 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, B. Grootoonk, S. Neubert, S. Roland, J. Wördenweber, M. Meier, R. Schlatmann, A. Gordijn, and D. Neher, “Efficient hybrid inorganic/organic tandem solar cells with tailored recombination contacts,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 127, 157–162 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Richter, M. Hermle, and S. Glunz, “Reassessment of the limiting efficiency for crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 1184–1191 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Optical model for multilayer structures with coherent, partly coherent and incoherent layers,” Opt. Express 21, A262–A267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Sap, O. Isabella, K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “Extraction of optical properties of flat and surface-textured transparent conductive oxide films in a broad wavelength range,” Thin Solid Films 520, 1096–1101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. L. Lu, G. Scarel, M. Alia, M. Fanciulli, S.-J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of thin NiO films grown on Si (100) by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 222907 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143505 (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285, 692–698 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of alkali halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, 329–528 (1976). Retrieved from https://refractiveindex.info on 2016-03-21.
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[Crossref]

Abate, A.

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. Correa Baena, F. Lang, L. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Gratzel, and B. Rech, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells processed at low temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 81–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, S.

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. Correa Baena, F. Lang, L. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Gratzel, and B. Rech, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells processed at low temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 81–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J.-P. Correa-Baena, K. Jäger, L. Korte, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Towards optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells,” J. Opt. 18, 064012 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Roland, S. Neubert, S. Albrecht, B. Stannowski, M. Seger, A. Facchetti, R. Schlatmann, B. Rech, and D. Neher, “Hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film multijunction solar cells exceeding 11% power conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27, 1262–1267 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Albrecht, B. Grootoonk, S. Neubert, S. Roland, J. Wördenweber, M. Meier, R. Schlatmann, A. Gordijn, and D. Neher, “Efficient hybrid inorganic/organic tandem solar cells with tailored recombination contacts,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 127, 157–162 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Jäger, S. Albrecht, L. Korte, and B. Rech, “Numerical optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells,” in “Light, Energy and the Environment,” (Optical Society of America, 2016), p. PM4B.5.
[Crossref]

Alia, M.

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G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, K. A. Bush, R. Prasanna, T. Green, J. T.-W. Wang, D. P. McMeekin, G. Volonakis, R. L. Milot, R. May, A. Palmstrom, D. J. Slotcavage, R. A. Belisle, J. B. Patel, E. S. Parrott, R. J. Sutton, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H.-G. Boyen, S. Bent, F. Giustino, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, M. D. McGehee, and H. J. Snaith, “Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps,” Science 354, 861–865 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The layer stacks used for the optical simulations: (a) the regular architecture with the hole-selective and p-layers on the front of the perovskite and silicon subcells, respectively, and (b) the inverted architecture with the electron-selective and n-layers on the front of the perovskite and silicon subcells, respectively. The numbers in brackets refer to the layer thicknesses used as starting values in the optimizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The (n, k) data for (a) the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and (b) the different amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) layers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption profiles of optimized devices for (a) the regular architecture, and (b) the inverted architecture. Mainly because of the high parasitic absorption in Spiro-OMeTAD, with the inverse architecture almost 2.8 mA/cm2 can be gained with respect to the regular architecture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Estimating the tandem cell efficiency of regular (dashed lines) and inverted (solid lines) device architectures as a function of the perovskite bandgap. The following parameters are shown: the open-circuit voltage (Voc), being similar for both architectures, the optimized absorber thickness of the perovskite top-cell as well as the maximum achievable current density Jph, and the tandem-cell power conversion efficiency (PCE). For the PCE calculation a FF of 81% and a silicon Voc of 709 mV in tandem geometry was assumed. The perovskite (n, k) data for the different bandgaps was obtained by blue-shifting the original data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The experimentally relevant initial, minimum and maximum thicknesses of the top perovskite cell as they were used in the optical simulations, and the set of optimal thicknesses used for Fig. 3. The layer thicknesses of the bottom silicon heterojunction solar cell were kept constant and are depicted in Fig. 1. All values are in nm.

Equations (3)

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J ph , i = e 350 nm 1200 nm A i ( λ ) Φ ( λ ) d λ ,
min ( J ph top , J ph bottom ) , max .
min ( J ph top , J ph bottom )