Abstract

The three-dimensional (3D) optical fields that arise from the focusing of cylindrical vector beams (CVB) with radial and azimuthal polarizations provide new sources of contrast for optical microscopy of nano-objects. So far, these demonstrations have been restricted to two-dimensional transversal scanning, i.e., along the focal plane of interest, or use of point-like objects, i.e., single molecules and nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate the first application of CVBs for 3D imaging of 3D nano-objects. This technique is done by acquiring 3D image scans of the second-harmonic generation signal from vertically-aligned semiconductor nanowires, whose second-order response is primarily driven by the longitudinal electric field, i.e., the field component along the nanowire axis. Our technique provides a new way to study individual nano-objects in three dimensions through the unique combination of nonlinear microscopy and CVBs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal engineering of second-harmonic generation in single GaP nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista and M. Kauranen, “Vector-field nonlinear microscopy of nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1351–1370 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal engineering of second-harmonic generation in single GaP nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

T. G. Brown, “Chapter 2 - Unconventional polarization states: beam propagation, focusing, and imaging,” Prog. Opt. 56, 81–129 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

H. Ishitobi, I. Nakamura, N. Hayazawa, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by using azimuthal and radial polarizations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(8), 2565–2571 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, “Propagation features of beams with axially symmetric polarization,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3(2), S215–S219 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Youngworth and T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anand, S.

R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal engineering of second-harmonic generation in single GaP nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ananias, D.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriano, D.

Araki, T.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bautista, G.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista and M. Kauranen, “Vector-field nonlinear microscopy of nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1351–1370 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouravleuv, A.

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, K.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brown, T.

Brown, T. G.

T. G. Brown, “Chapter 2 - Unconventional polarization states: beam propagation, focusing, and imaging,” Prog. Opt. 56, 81–129 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlos, L. D.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casadei, A.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhury, A.

Cirlin, G.

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dal Negro, L.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhaka, V.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eberler, M.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Failla, A. V.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, M.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forestiere, C.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, K.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glöckl, O.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grange, R.

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grasso, M.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Häffner, M.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hartschuh, A.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, M.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hayazawa, N.

H. Ishitobi, I. Nakamura, N. Hayazawa, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by using azimuthal and radial polarizations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(8), 2565–2571 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heeren, A.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heiss, M.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiraga, D.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Huhtio, T.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huttunen, M. J.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ishitobi, H.

H. Ishitobi, I. Nakamura, N. Hayazawa, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by using azimuthal and radial polarizations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(8), 2565–2571 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kakko, J.-P.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Karvonen, L.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasperczyk, M.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauppinen, E.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kauranen, M.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista and M. Kauranen, “Vector-field nonlinear microscopy of nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1351–1370 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawano, S.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

H. Ishitobi, I. Nakamura, N. Hayazawa, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by using azimuthal and radial polarizations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(8), 2565–2571 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kern, D. P.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kontio, J. M.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, T.-H.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindfors, K.

Lippitz, M.

Lipsanen, H.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

Mäkitalo, J.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matteini, F.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meixner, A. J.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, I.

H. Ishitobi, I. Nakamura, N. Hayazawa, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by using azimuthal and radial polarizations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(8), 2565–2571 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naskali, L.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nesterov, A. V.

A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, “Propagation features of beams with axially symmetric polarization,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3(2), S215–S219 (2001).
[Crossref]

Niziev, V. G.

A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, “Propagation features of beams with axially symmetric polarization,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3(2), S215–S219 (2001).
[Crossref]

Novotny, L.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pecora, E. F.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Person, S.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, H.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Reig Escalé, M.

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rüffer, D.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russo-Averchi, E.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sanatinia, R.

R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal engineering of second-harmonic generation in single GaP nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekkat, Z.

H. Ishitobi, I. Nakamura, N. Hayazawa, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by using azimuthal and radial polarizations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(8), 2565–2571 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeyev, A.

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, “Annular pupils, radial polarization, and superresolution,” Appl. Opt. 43(22), 4322–4327 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shtrom, I.

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simonen, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, N. I.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Z-polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Soshnikov, I.

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stade, F.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stadler, J.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stanciu, C.

M. Fleischer, C. Stanciu, F. Stade, J. Stadler, K. Braun, A. Heeren, M. Häffner, D. P. Kern, and A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Swillo, M.

R. Sanatinia, S. Anand, and M. Swillo, “Modal engineering of second-harmonic generation in single GaP nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5376–5381 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tien, C.-H.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timofeeva, M.

M. Timofeeva, A. Bouravleuv, G. Cirlin, I. Shtrom, I. Soshnikov, M. Reig Escalé, A. Sergeyev, and R. Grange, “Polar second-harmonic imaging to resolve pure and mixed crystal phases along GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(10), 6290–6297 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trevino, J.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turquet, L.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tutuncuoglu, G.

A. Casadei, E. F. Pecora, J. Trevino, C. Forestiere, D. Rüffer, E. Russo-Averchi, F. Matteini, G. Tutuncuoglu, M. Heiss, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic coupling of GaAs single nanowires to optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2271–2278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yew, E. Y. S.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoshiki, K.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(34), L1066–L1068 (2005).
[Crossref]

Youngworth, K.

Youngworth, K. S.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zang, X.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: From mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, W.

Züchner, T.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

G. Bautista and M. Kauranen, “Vector-field nonlinear microscopy of nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1351–1370 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: From mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (7891 KB)      Visualization 1. 3D SHG images of the vertically-aligned semiconductor nanowires using linear x polarization
» Visualization 2: AVI (3046 KB)      Visualization 2. 3D SHG images of the vertically-aligned semiconductor nanowires using linear y polarization
» Visualization 3: AVI (2951 KB)      Visualization 3. 3D SHG images of the vertically-aligned semiconductor nanowires using radial polarization
» Visualization 4: AVI (8472 KB)      Visualization 4. 3D SHG images of the vertically-aligned semiconductor nanowires using azimuthal polarization

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of the nonlinear microscope that uses radial and azimuthal CVB excitation. (b) Scanning electron micrographs of vertically-aligned GaAs nanowires on GaAs substrate with random (left) and periodic (right) arrangements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental SHG intensity maps of vertically-aligned GaAs nanowires randomly-grown on GaAs substrate. The maps were taken at different z-positions (see columns) above the substrate (z = 0). The maps were acquired for linear x (see Visualization 1), linear y (see Visualization 2), radial (see Visualization 3) and azimuthal (see Visualization 4) polarizations (see rows). The pixel dwell time is 100 ms. Representative intensity patterns from an individual nanowire are marked (pink circles or arrows). (b) Predicted intensity patterns of the longitudinal electric field (Ez) at the beam focus, i.e., at the transverse mirror plane, using the same experiment settings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental SHG 3D intensity maps of vertically-aligned GaAs nanowires randomly-grown on GaAs substrate. The maps were taken at the (a) transversal, i.e., xy, plane that is 6 μm above the substrate and (b) longitudinal planes, i.e., zy, using a radially-polarized beam. The corresponding focal planes are color-coded (black and orange solid lines and squares). The pixel dwell time is 100 ms. In (b), the location of the air-GaAs substrate interface is marked (green solid line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental SHG 3D intensity maps of four vertically-aligned GaAs nanowires periodically-arranged on GaAs substrate. The maps were taken at the transversal plane (at 1 μm above the substrate) and the longitudinal plane using (a) radially and (b) azimuthally-polarized beams. The corresponding focal planes are color-coded (black and orange solid lines and squares). The pixel dwell time is 50 ms. The location of the air-GaAs interface is shown (green solid line). (c) SHG line cuts extracted from the longitudinal scans from a single nanowire in (a,b). The data from the wire and substrate for different CVBs are color-coded [dashed lines in (a,b)]. The location of the air-GaAs interface is shown (green solid line).