Abstract

Recent progress in the design and realization of optical antennas enclosing fluorescent materials has demonstrated large spontaneous-emission enhancements and, simultaneously, high radiation efficiencies. We discuss here that an important objective of such work is to increase spontaneous-emission rates to such a degree that light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can possess modulation speeds exceeding those of typical semiconductor lasers, which are usually in the range ~20-50 GHz. We outline the underlying physics that enable large spontaneous-emission enhancements in metallic nanostructures, and we then discuss recent theoretical and experimentally promising results, where enhancements larger than a factor of ~300 have been reported, with radiation efficiencies exceeding 50%. We provide key comparative advantages of these structures in comparison to conventional dielectric microcavity designs, namely the fact that the enhancement of spontaneous emission can be relatively nonresonant (i.e., broadband) and that the antenna nanostructures can be spectrally and structurally compatible for integration with a wide class of emitters, including organic dyes, diamond nanocrystals and colloidal quantum dots. Finally, we point out that physical insight into the underlying effects can be gained by analyzing these metallic nanostructures in their equivalent-circuit (or nano-antenna) model, showing that all main effects (including the Purcell factor) can adequately be described in that approach.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

28 July 2016: Corrections were made to the funding section and acknowledgments.

30 August 2016: A correction was made to the title.


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References

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2016 (1)

P. K. Jha, M. Mrejen, J. Kim, C. Wu, Y. Wang, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and X. Zhang, “Coherence-driven topological transition in quantum metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(16), 165502 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

M. Pelton, “Modified spontaneous emission in nanophotonic structures,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 427–435 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Eggleston, K. Messer, L. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1704–1709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Hoang, G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Ultrafast spontaneous emission source using plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7788 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Akselrod, T. Ming, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, Y. Lin, X. Ling, D. R. Smith, J. Kong, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Leveraging nanocavity harmonics for control of optical processes in 2D semiconductors,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3578–3584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, R. Röder, S. Geburt, O. Hess, S. A. Maier, C. Ronning, and R. F. Oulton, “Ultrafast plasmonic nanowire lasers near the surface plasmon frequency,” Nat. Phys. 10(11), 870–876 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, T. W. Pickering, J. M. Hamm, A. F. Page, and O. Hess, “Completely stopped and dispersionless light in plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(16), 167401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rose, T. B. Hoang, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Control of radiative processes using tunable plasmonic nanopatch antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4797–4802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin and G. Sun, “Comparative analysis of spasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and surface-plasmon-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 468–473 (2014).
[Crossref]

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, I. S. Maksymov, and P. Lalanne, “Theory of the spontaneous optical emission of nanosize photonic and plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(23), 237401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Hess and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Applied physics. Metamaterials with quantum gain,” Science 339(6120), 654–655 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Dorfman, P. K. Jha, D. V. Voronine, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum-coherence-enhanced surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(4), 043601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337(6098), 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit analysis in metal-optics,” Photon. Nanostructures: Fundamentals and Applications 10(1), 166–176 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Russell, T.-L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, “Large spontaneous emission enhancement in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 459–462 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, A. Majumdar, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast direct modulation of a single-mode photonic crystal nanocavity light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 2, 539 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Wagner, D. Vezenov, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Experimental verification of the rainbow trapping effect in adiabatic plasmonic gratings,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(13), 5169–5173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Boltasseva and H. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic materials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. Aubry, D.-Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Collection and concentration of light by touching spheres: a transformation optics approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 266807 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-J. Greffet, M. Laroche, and F. Marquier, “Impedance of a nanoantenna and a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 117701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Munechika, Y. Chen, A. F. Tillack, A. P. Kulkarni, I. J.-L. Plante, A. M. Munro, and D. S. Ginger, “Spectral control of plasmonic emission enhancement from quantum dots near single silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2598–2603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Walter, C. H. Wu, H. W. Then, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, “Tilted-charge high speed (7 GHz) light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231125 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. I. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 153111 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 203002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, “Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 321(5887), 388–392 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450(7168), 397–401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1623–1625 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. E. Taylor and J. Morreale, “Thermal conductivity of titanium carbide, zirconium carbite and titanium nitride at high temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 47(2), 69–73 (1964).
[Crossref]

Agio, M.

Akselrod, G. M.

T. B. Hoang, G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Ultrafast spontaneous emission source using plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7788 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Akselrod, T. Ming, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, Y. Lin, X. Ling, D. R. Smith, J. Kong, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Leveraging nanocavity harmonics for control of optical processes in 2D semiconductors,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3578–3584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyropoulos, C.

G. M. Akselrod, T. Ming, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, Y. Lin, X. Ling, D. R. Smith, J. Kong, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Leveraging nanocavity harmonics for control of optical processes in 2D semiconductors,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3578–3584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Hoang, G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Ultrafast spontaneous emission source using plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7788 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H.

A. Boltasseva and H. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic materials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aubry, A.

A. Aubry, D.-Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F. J.

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Wagner, D. Vezenov, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Experimental verification of the rainbow trapping effect in adiabatic plasmonic gratings,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(13), 5169–5173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boardman, A. D.

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G. Walter, C. H. Wu, H. W. Then, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, “Tilted-charge high speed (7 GHz) light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231125 (2009).
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K. J. Russell, T.-L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, “Large spontaneous emission enhancement in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 459–462 (2012).
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G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciracì, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
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Jun, Y. C.

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. I. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 153111 (2008).
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J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. I. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 153111 (2008).
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M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 203002 (2008).
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G. M. Akselrod, T. Ming, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, Y. Lin, X. Ling, D. R. Smith, J. Kong, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Leveraging nanocavity harmonics for control of optical processes in 2D semiconductors,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3578–3584 (2015).
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J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Munechika, Y. Chen, A. F. Tillack, A. P. Kulkarni, I. J.-L. Plante, A. M. Munro, and D. S. Ginger, “Spectral control of plasmonic emission enhancement from quantum dots near single silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2598–2603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 203002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, I. S. Maksymov, and P. Lalanne, “Theory of the spontaneous optical emission of nanosize photonic and plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(23), 237401 (2013).
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J.-J. Greffet, M. Laroche, and F. Marquier, “Impedance of a nanoantenna and a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 117701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Aubry, D.-Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. M. Akselrod, T. Ming, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, Y. Lin, X. Ling, D. R. Smith, J. Kong, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Leveraging nanocavity harmonics for control of optical processes in 2D semiconductors,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3578–3584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. M. Akselrod, T. Ming, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, Y. Lin, X. Ling, D. R. Smith, J. Kong, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Leveraging nanocavity harmonics for control of optical processes in 2D semiconductors,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3578–3584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. J. Russell, T.-L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, “Large spontaneous emission enhancement in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 459–462 (2012).
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T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, R. Röder, S. Geburt, O. Hess, S. A. Maier, C. Ronning, and R. F. Oulton, “Ultrafast plasmonic nanowire lasers near the surface plasmon frequency,” Nat. Phys. 10(11), 870–876 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337(6098), 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aubry, D.-Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Collection and concentration of light by touching spheres: a transformation optics approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 266807 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majumdar, A.

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, A. Majumdar, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast direct modulation of a single-mode photonic crystal nanocavity light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 2, 539 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maksymov, I. S.

C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, I. S. Maksymov, and P. Lalanne, “Theory of the spontaneous optical emission of nanosize photonic and plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(23), 237401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malik, R. J.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J.-J. Greffet, M. Laroche, and F. Marquier, “Impedance of a nanoantenna and a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 117701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayer, M. A.

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, A. Majumdar, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast direct modulation of a single-mode photonic crystal nanocavity light-emitting diode,” Nat. Commun. 2, 539 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Rose, T. B. Hoang, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Control of radiative processes using tunable plasmonic nanopatch antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4797–4802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messer, K.

M. S. Eggleston, K. Messer, L. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1704–1709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikkelsen, M. H.

T. B. Hoang, G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Ultrafast spontaneous emission source using plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7788 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Akselrod, T. Ming, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, Y. Lin, X. Ling, D. R. Smith, J. Kong, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Leveraging nanocavity harmonics for control of optical processes in 2D semiconductors,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3578–3584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Walter, C. H. Wu, H. W. Then, M. Feng, and N. Holonyak, “Tilted-charge high speed (7 GHz) light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231125 (2009).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of a moving (from left to right) charge e, with the associated emanating electric-field lines. Note the perturbation area between the two circles where the lines are non-radial. (b) Electric dipole oscillating in free space. Because of charge acceleration/deceleration, electromagnetic waves are radiated spherically, with a cycle-averaged power P. (c) When the same dipole is placed parallel between the arms of a nanoantenna, its rate of radiation can be dramatically enhanced, scaling as d −2 (as deduced by a simple quasistatic model).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized decay rates for an emitter placed in the near-field of a gold (a) spherical and (b) elliptical nanoparticle. In both cases, the area of the particle is the same. For (a) the emission wavelength is 535 nm, whereas for (b) it is 770 nm. In both (a) and (b), the insets show the normalized decay rates as a function of the wavelength, for the case when the emitter is 3 nm away from the nanoparticle. (c) Normalized radiative decay rates (solid lines) and radiation efficiencies (dashed lines) for various Au nanoantennae configurations, where in all cases the area of the structure remains the same. [From L. Rogobete et al., Opt. Lett. 32, 1623 (2007)]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic illustration of a metal-dielectric-metal slab waveguide, where shown in the middle is an emitted coupling to the supported waveguide modes. The right part shows the discontinuous electric-field profile of the fundamental mode. The dotted arrows indicate that the electric field is primarily directed perpendicularly to the two media interfaces, somewhat similarly to a capacitor. (b) Same as in (a) but now for a slot waveguide, where the width of the metallic layers is finite. (c) Calculated SE-enhancement factor versus wavelength, for the structure of (a). (d) Same as in (c), but now for the structure of (b). [From Y. C. Jun et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008)]

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic illustration of a silver (Ag) nanowire on top of a silver substrate. Between the nanowire and the substrate there is a nm-thickness (dG) spacer made of a dielectric, Al2O3, coated with a fluorescent organic dye, Alq3. The upper inset shows the electric-field profile of the nano-confined supported mode. (b) Measured peak fluorescence intensity as a function of the total emission-decay-rate for various thicknesses of the dielectric (Al2O3) spacer. Point symbols are measurement data, the solid line is the theoretical prediction, and the shaded bands indicate the 95%-confidence region of the measurement of the bulk emission rate of Alq3. Also shown at the right-hand vertical axis is the corresponding SE-enhancement factor. [From K. J. Russell et al., Nature Photon. 6, 459-462 (2012)]

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Three-dimensional illustration of the nanopatch-antenna (NPA), together with its associated far-field directional radiation pattern. (b) Cross-sectional schematic of the NPA, showing a silver nanocube on top of an Au film, separated by a 1 nm polyelectrolyte spacer layer and a sparse layer of ~6 nm diameter CdSe/ZnS QDs. (c) Transmission electron microscopy image of a silver nanocube and QDs; scale bar, 50 nm. (d, e) Simulated spatial maps of (d) spontaneous emission rate enhancement and (e) radiative quantum efficiency for a vertically oriented QD dipole situated in the gap between the nanocube and the Au film. (f) QD fluorescence intensity as a function of average incident laser power in three cases: on a glass slide, on an Au film and coupled to individual NPAs (NPAs 1–3). The solid lines are fits to a power law, with the power exponent, P, showing a nearly linear scaling. (g) Normalized time-resolved fluorescence of QDs on a glass slide (red) compared with QDs on an Au film (blue) and coupled to a single NPA (green). The instrument response function (IRF) is also shown. Fits to the data are shown in black. [From T. B. Hoang et al., Nature Commun. 6, 7788 (2015)]

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic illustration of the arch-antenna-coupled InGaAsP nanorod, isolated by TiO2, and embedded in epoxy. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the nanoantenna structure. (c) Simulated current density profile in the nanoantenna, showing the antiparallel current in the arch compared with the arms of the antenna. (d) Optical emission for E-field polarized in the y-direction, for bare nanorod (blue) and antenna-coupled nanorod (green). (Inset) Top-down SEM image of antenna-coupled and bare nanorod. (e) Optical emission for E-field polarized in the x-direction, for a bare nanorod (blue) and from nanorods coupled to different antenna lengths: 400 nm (green), 600 nm (purple), and 800 nm (red) in length. [From M. S. Eggleston et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Science 112, 1704-1709 (2014)]

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Dependence of the measured output laser power on the pump intensity, for plasmonic (Ag) and photonic nanowire lasers. For higher Purcell factors, leading to higher ϐ coupling factors, the threshold kink progressively smooths out. (b) Dependence of measured threshold intensity on the nanowire diameter, for plasmonic and photonic lasers. The experimental data points have been obtained by measuring the pump intensities at which coherent peaks started to appear in the output spectrum. (c) Theoretically calculated small-signal modulation response of one-dimensional (red curves) and two-dimensional (blue curves) plasmonic nanolasers, at telecommunication wavelengths (ω = 0.83 eV, λ ~1.5 μm) and for progressively increasing pump rates (solid to dashed to dotted lines). The inset shows the calculated 3 dB modulation bandwidth as a function of the relaxation-oscillations frequency, ωr, which follows a universal dependence for all cases (see main text). [From D. A. Genov et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 245312 (2011); and R. F. Oulton et al., Nature 461, 629-632 (2009)]

Equations (2)

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P = π 3 ( μ 0 ε 0 ) 1 / 2 ( 2 x 0 λ ) 2 ( e ω ) 2 .
γ n a n o a n t e n n a γ d i p o l e = 1 4 ( d ) 2 .

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