Abstract

A diagonal optically active transition in a quantum cascade detector is introduced as optimization parameter to obtain quality factor matching between a photodetector and a cavity. A more diagonal transition yields both higher extraction efficiency and lower noise, while the reduction of the absorption strength is compensated by the resonant cavity. The theoretical limits of such a scheme are obtained, and the impact of losses and cavity processing variations are evaluated. By optimizing the quantum design for a high quality cavity, a specific detectivity of 109 Jones can be calculated for λ = 8μm and T = 300K.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  3. M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. B. Bai, B. Gokden, and S. R. Darvish, “High power quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys. 11 (12), 125017 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Quantum-cascade-laser structures as photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2683 (2002).
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  6. H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, P. Van Son, and H. Sigg, “High-speed infrared detection by uncooled photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1602 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  9. M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241118 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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  14. S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181103 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. P. Ravikumar, T. A. Garcia, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High detectivity short-wavelength II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 061113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Chen, Y. Todorov, B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, G. Biasol, R. Colombelli, and C. Sirtori, “Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031113 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “VSP-a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Comput. Electron. 12, 701–721(2013).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181103 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. Delga, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, V. Trinité, A. Nedelcu, and V. Berger, “Predictive circuit model for noise in quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 252106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannoploulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 181(3), 687–702 (2010)
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. B. Bai, B. Gokden, and S. R. Darvish, “High power quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys. 11 (12), 125017 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature photonics 1 (9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, V. Berger, and X. Marcadet, “High resistance narrow band quantum cascade photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121116 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2824 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Quantum-cascade-laser structures as photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2683 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, P. Van Son, and H. Sigg, “High-speed infrared detection by uncooled photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1602 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.

Andrews, A. M.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Askenazi, B.

Y. N. Chen, Y. Todorov, B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, G. Biasol, R. Colombelli, and C. Sirtori, “Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y. B.

M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. B. Bai, B. Gokden, and S. R. Darvish, “High power quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys. 11 (12), 125017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, O.

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “VSP-a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Comput. Electron. 12, 701–721(2013).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Quantum-cascade-laser structures as photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2683 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beere, H.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berger, V.

A. Delga, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, V. Trinité, A. Nedelcu, and V. Berger, “Predictive circuit model for noise in quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 252106 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, V. Berger, and X. Marcadet, “High resistance narrow band quantum cascade photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121116 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannoploulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 181(3), 687–702 (2010)
[Crossref]

Biasol, G.

Y. N. Chen, Y. Todorov, B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, G. Biasol, R. Colombelli, and C. Sirtori, “Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bihlmann, G.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, P. Van Son, and H. Sigg, “High-speed infrared detection by uncooled photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1602 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cao, J. C.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068 (2004).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carras, M.

A. Delga, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, V. Trinité, A. Nedelcu, and V. Berger, “Predictive circuit model for noise in quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 252106 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. N.

Y. N. Chen, Y. Todorov, B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, G. Biasol, R. Colombelli, and C. Sirtori, “Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, G.

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Colombelli, R.

Y. N. Chen, Y. Todorov, B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, G. Biasol, R. Colombelli, and C. Sirtori, “Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Darvish, S. R.

M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. B. Bai, B. Gokden, and S. R. Darvish, “High power quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys. 11 (12), 125017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davies, G.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

De Jesus, J.

A. P. Ravikumar, T. A. Garcia, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High detectivity short-wavelength II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 061113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Delga, A.

A. Delga, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, V. Trinité, A. Nedelcu, and V. Berger, “Predictive circuit model for noise in quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 252106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Detz, H.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Doyennette, L.

A. Delga, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, V. Trinité, A. Nedelcu, and V. Berger, “Predictive circuit model for noise in quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 252106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dussaigne, A.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Quantum-cascade-laser structures as photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2683 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Fedoryshyn, Y.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gansch, R.

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Garcia, T. A.

A. P. Ravikumar, T. A. Garcia, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High detectivity short-wavelength II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 061113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gendron, L.

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, V. Berger, and X. Marcadet, “High resistance narrow band quantum cascade photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121116 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Giovannini, M.

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Giraud, E.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C. F.

A. P. Ravikumar, T. A. Garcia, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High detectivity short-wavelength II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 061113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gokden, B.

M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. B. Bai, B. Gokden, and S. R. Darvish, “High power quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys. 11 (12), 125017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Graf, M.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harrer, A.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, D.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Quantum-cascade-laser structures as photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2683 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hoyler, N.

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huynh, A.

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannoploulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 181(3), 687–702 (2010)
[Crossref]

Jäckel, H.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Joannoploulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannoploulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 181(3), 687–702 (2010)
[Crossref]

S. Fan, W. Suh, and J. D. Joannoploulos, “Temporal coupled-mode theory for the Fano resonance in optical resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 569–572 (2003).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannoploulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 181(3), 687–702 (2010)
[Crossref]

Julien, F. H.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kalchmair, S.

S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Karner, M.

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “VSP-a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Comput. Electron. 12, 701–721(2013).
[Crossref]

Klang, P.

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koeniguer, C.

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, V. Berger, and X. Marcadet, “High resistance narrow band quantum cascade photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121116 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Köhler, K.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kosina, H.

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “VSP-a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Comput. Electron. 12, 701–721(2013).
[Crossref]

Lasser, G.

Linfield, E.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. C.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Schneider and H. C. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors: Physics and Applications (Springer,2007).

MacFarland, D.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Manz, C.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Marcadet, X.

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, V. Berger, and X. Marcadet, “High resistance narrow band quantum cascade photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mujagic, E.

Nedelcu, A.

A. Delga, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, V. Trinité, A. Nedelcu, and V. Berger, “Predictive circuit model for noise in quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 252106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nobile, M.

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ortiz, V.

L. Gendron, M. Carras, A. Huynh, V. Ortiz, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannoploulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 181(3), 687–702 (2010)
[Crossref]

Ostermaier, C.

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ravikumar, A. P.

A. P. Ravikumar, T. A. Garcia, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High detectivity short-wavelength II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 061113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. B. Bai, B. Gokden, and S. R. Darvish, “High power quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys. 11 (12), 125017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reininger, P.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannoploulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 181(3), 687–702 (2010)
[Crossref]

Sakr, S.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scalari, G.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 475 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scamarcio, G.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schnass, K.

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “VSP-a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Comput. Electron. 12, 701–721(2013).
[Crossref]

Schneider, H.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, P. Van Son, and H. Sigg, “High-speed infrared detection by uncooled photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1602 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Schneider and H. C. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors: Physics and Applications (Springer,2007).

Schönbein, C.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, P. Van Son, and H. Sigg, “High-speed infrared detection by uncooled photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1602 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schrenk, W.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, B.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, P. Van Son, and H. Sigg, “High-speed infrared detection by uncooled photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1602 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

Y. N. Chen, Y. Todorov, B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, G. Biasol, R. Colombelli, and C. Sirtori, “Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031113 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slivken, S.

M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. B. Bai, B. Gokden, and S. R. Darvish, “High power quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys. 11 (12), 125017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, C. Y.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spagnolo, V.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[Crossref]

SpringThorpe, A. J.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-well photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stanojevic, Z.

O. Baumgartner, Z. Stanojevic, K. Schnass, M. Karner, and H. Kosina, “VSP-a quantum-electronic simulation framework,” J. Comput. Electron. 12, 701–721(2013).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suh, W.

Tamargo, M. C.

A. P. Ravikumar, T. A. Garcia, J. De Jesus, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “High detectivity short-wavelength II–VI quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 061113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tchernycheva, M.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Todorov, Y.

Y. N. Chen, Y. Todorov, B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, G. Biasol, R. Colombelli, and C. Sirtori, “Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trinité, V.

A. Delga, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, V. Trinité, A. Nedelcu, and V. Berger, “Predictive circuit model for noise in quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 252106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van Son, P.

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B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature photonics 1 (9), 517–525 (2007).
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F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum cascade detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1029–1043 (2009).
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P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).
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A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
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P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, A. Harrer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, R. Gansch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241103 (2013).
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S. Kalchmair, R. Gansch, S. Ahn, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, E. Mujagić, P. Reininger, G. Lasser, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 5622 (2012).
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L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, V. Berger, and X. Marcadet, “High resistance narrow band quantum cascade photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121116 (2005).
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[Crossref]

A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, R. Gansch, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Chen, Y. Todorov, B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, G. Biasol, R. Colombelli, and C. Sirtori, “Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031113 (2014).
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S. Kalchmair, H. Detz, G. Cole, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, M. Nobile, R. Gansch, C. Ostermaier, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011105 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bandstructure of the diagonal-transition QCD that is used for this analysis. It is based on a diagonal-transition scheme, thus the resistance, the extraction efficiency and the absorption can be controlled by the thickness of the barrier between the active wells, indicated by the shaded green region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficient α, extraction efficiency pe and resistance R0 as two-dimensional plots versus the thickness of the active barrier and the sheet doping density at T = 300K. Standard QCDs have a typical absorption coefficient in the range of 1000 – 2000cm−1. Such high absorption is obtained for either a low barrier thickness or a high doping density (or a combination of both), yielding low extraction efficiency and low resistance. High extraction efficiency and high resistance can only be obtained for devices with a low absorption coefficient.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated responsivity and Detectivity at T = 300K versus the barrier thickness and sheet doping density. All losses were neglected and 1 Q l was set to zero. The maximum of the responsivity occurs for the so-called critical coupling condition, i.e. when the absorption efficiency is maximal or equivalently when Qd = Qc. The maximum of the specific detectivity occurs at a lower Qd.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimum responsivity and specific detectivity versus the cavity Q-factor, where the losses are neglected. For each value of Qc, Qd(n2D, d) was optimized for R and then again for D j *. The optimum of the responsivity occurs at the critical coupling condition, when Qc = Qd. The steep initial increase of the responsivity at low Qc comes from the increasing extraction efficiency. At higher values of Qc, it converges to the maximal achievable responsivity for η = 0.5 at λ = 8μm and for the chosen number of 30 periods. The specific detectivity has an additional R 0 term in its definition. For higher detector Q-factors Qd, the resistance is also increasing. That means, without losses, there is no theoretical limit for the specific detectivity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optimum absorption efficiency versus Qc for different values of waveguide losses. For each value of Qc and given Ql, Qd was optimized for η. The optimum occurs at the critical coupling condition, which changes to 1/Qd = 1/Qc + 1/Ql, if losses are taken into account. An increasing loss imposes an upper limit for reasonable detector Q-factors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption efficiency for different values of Qc versus the QCD Q-factor, without any losses. The absorption efficiency gets maximal for Qc = Qd. For a mismatch of a factor of two the absorption efficiency is still at approximately 90% of its peak value. When loss is included the limit of the absorption efficiency decreases for higher losses, but the shape remains, giving the same impact of a Q-factor mismatch as without losses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optimum responsivity and specific detectivity for this QCD design, versus the cavity Q-factor Qc for different Ql. For each value of Qc, Qd(n2D, d) was optimized for R and then again for D j *. For increasing Ql, the responsivity converges against the maximum achievable responsivity of 107mA/W for η = 0.5 at this wavelength and 30 periods at T = 300K. For lower Ql, the optimal performance is only achieved with a QCD of equivalently lower absorption.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = λ q h c η p e N ,
D j * = R R 0 A 4 k B T ,
Q = 2 π Energy stored Energy dissipated per cycle
Q = n 2 κ = 2 π n λ α
η = 2 1 Q c Q d 4 ( ω 0 ω 1 ) 2 + ( 1 Q c + 1 Q d + 1 Q l ) 2 ,
1 Q l = i 1 Q i , i { 1 , 2 , 3 , , N }

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