Abstract

Controlling the wavelength of electrodes within a desirable region is important in most optoelectronic devices for enhancing their efficiencies. Here, we investigated a full-color flexible transparent electrode using a wavelength matching layer (WML). The WMLs were able to adjust the optical-phase thickness of the entire electrode by controlling refractive indices and were capable of producing desirable colors in the visible band from 470 to 610 nm. Electrodes with tungsten oxide (WO3) having a refractive index of 1.9 showed high transmittance (T = 90.5%) at 460 nm and low sheet resistance (Rs = 11.08 Ω/sq), comparable with those of indium tin oxide (ITO, T = 86.4%, Rs = 12 Ω/sq). The optimum structure of electrodes determined by optical simulation based on the characteristic matrix method agrees well with that based on the experimental method. Replacing the ITO electrode with the WO3 electrode, the luminance of blue organic light-emitting diodes (λ = 460 nm) at 222 mA/cm2 increased from 7020 to 7200 cd/m2.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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Y. Fu, Z. Lv, S. Hou, H. Wu, D. Wang, C. Zhang, and D. Zou, “TCO-free, flexible, and bifacial dye-sensitized solar cell based on low-cost metal wires,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(1), 37–41 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “Phase-controllable copper oxides for an efficient anode interfacial layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 2039–2044 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

H. Zheng, J. Z. Ou, M. S. Strano, R. B. Kaner, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Nanostructured tungsten oxide – properties, synthesis, and applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(12), 2175–2196 (2011).
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J. S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, A. Von Ruden, L. Wang, L. S. Sapochak, and A. B. Padmaperuma, “Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(17), 3250–3258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility,” Science 332(6032), 944–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nigam and C. Majumder, “Growth pattern of Ag(n) (n = 1-8) clusters on the α-Al2O3(0001) surface: a first principles study,” Langmuir 26(24), 18776–18787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. L. Hellstrom, H. W. Lee, and Z. Bao, “Polymer-assisted direct deposition of uniform carbon nanotube bundle networks for high performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 3(6), 1423–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Y. Kim, K. Kim, K. Hong, and J.-L. Lee, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes using a metal peel-off method,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 20(22), 1836–1838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Green and M. C. Hersam, “Colored semitransparent conductive coatings consisting of monodisperse metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1417–1422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kabra, M. H. Song, B. Wenger, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “High efficiency composite metal oxide-polymer electroluminescent devices: a morphological and material based investigation,” Adv. Mater. 20(18), 3447–3452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jian, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Aguir, C. Lemire, and D. B. B. Lollman, “Electrical properties of reactively sputtered WO3 thin films as ozone gas sensor,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 84(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Lavrik and D. Leckband, “Optical and direct force measurements of the interactions between monolayers of aromatic macrocycles on surfactant monolayers,” Langmuir 16(4), 1842–1851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

R. Saito, M. Fujita, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Electronic structure of chiral graphene tubules,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(18), 2204–2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Hamada, S.-i. Sawada, and A. Oshiyama, “New one-dimensional conductors: graphitic microtubules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(10), 1579–1581 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, M.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguir, K.

K. Aguir, C. Lemire, and D. B. B. Lollman, “Electrical properties of reactively sputtered WO3 thin films as ozone gas sensor,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 84(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L. H.

M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amb, C. M.

C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Z.

M. Vosgueritchian, D. J. Lipomi, and Z. Bao, “Highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS fims with a fluorosurfactant for stretchable and flexible transparent electrodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 421–428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Hellstrom, H. W. Lee, and Z. Bao, “Polymer-assisted direct deposition of uniform carbon nanotube bundle networks for high performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 3(6), 1423–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becerril, H. A.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, Y.-G.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovard, B. G.

Brock, N. J.

Brown, P. R.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, X.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jian, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.-D.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheyns, D.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H.

Dou, L.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, G.

R. Saito, M. Fujita, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Electronic structure of chiral graphene tubules,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(18), 2204–2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

R. Saito, M. Fujita, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Electronic structure of chiral graphene tubules,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(18), 2204–2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Efremov, M. Yu.

M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

D. Kabra, M. H. Song, B. Wenger, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “High efficiency composite metal oxide-polymer electroluminescent devices: a morphological and material based investigation,” Adv. Mater. 20(18), 3447–3452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, Z. Lv, S. Hou, H. Wu, D. Wang, C. Zhang, and D. Zou, “TCO-free, flexible, and bifacial dye-sensitized solar cell based on low-cost metal wires,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(1), 37–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

R. Saito, M. Fujita, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Electronic structure of chiral graphene tubules,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(18), 2204–2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Green, A. A.

A. A. Green and M. C. Hersam, “Colored semitransparent conductive coatings consisting of monodisperse metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1417–1422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, J. E.

M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility,” Science 332(6032), 944–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y.-K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, “Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures,” Small 7(22), 3128–3136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hadipour, A.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamada, N.

N. Hamada, S.-i. Sawada, and A. Oshiyama, “New one-dimensional conductors: graphitic microtubules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(10), 1579–1581 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Helander, M. G.

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility,” Science 332(6032), 944–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hellstrom, S. L.

S. L. Hellstrom, H. W. Lee, and Z. Bao, “Polymer-assisted direct deposition of uniform carbon nanotube bundle networks for high performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 3(6), 1423–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heremans, P.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
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Hersam, M. C.

A. A. Green and M. C. Hersam, “Colored semitransparent conductive coatings consisting of monodisperse metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1417–1422 (2008).
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Hong, K.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “Phase-controllable copper oxides for an efficient anode interfacial layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 2039–2044 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Kim, K. Kim, K. Hong, and J.-L. Lee, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes using a metal peel-off method,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 20(22), 1836–1838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hou, S.

Y. Fu, Z. Lv, S. Hou, H. Wu, D. Wang, C. Zhang, and D. Zou, “TCO-free, flexible, and bifacial dye-sensitized solar cell based on low-cost metal wires,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(1), 37–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, Z. M.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, T.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jian, N.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jian, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabra, D.

D. Kabra, M. H. Song, B. Wenger, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “High efficiency composite metal oxide-polymer electroluminescent devices: a morphological and material based investigation,” Adv. Mater. 20(18), 3447–3452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalantar-zadeh, K.

H. Zheng, J. Z. Ou, M. S. Strano, R. B. Kaner, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Nanostructured tungsten oxide – properties, synthesis, and applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(12), 2175–2196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaner, R. B.

H. Zheng, J. Z. Ou, M. S. Strano, R. B. Kaner, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Nanostructured tungsten oxide – properties, synthesis, and applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(12), 2175–2196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. F.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y.-K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, “Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures,” Small 7(22), 3128–3136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “Phase-controllable copper oxides for an efficient anode interfacial layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 2039–2044 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Kim, K. Kim, K. Hong, and J.-L. Lee, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes using a metal peel-off method,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 20(22), 1836–1838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “Phase-controllable copper oxides for an efficient anode interfacial layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 2039–2044 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

S. Y. Kim, K. Kim, K. Hong, and J.-L. Lee, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes using a metal peel-off method,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 20(22), 1836–1838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Kong, J.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
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M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
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M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lan, T.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
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N. Lavrik and D. Leckband, “Optical and direct force measurements of the interactions between monolayers of aromatic macrocycles on surfactant monolayers,” Langmuir 16(4), 1842–1851 (2000).
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N. Lavrik and D. Leckband, “Optical and direct force measurements of the interactions between monolayers of aromatic macrocycles on surfactant monolayers,” Langmuir 16(4), 1842–1851 (2000).
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Lee, C.-C.

Lee, H. W.

S. L. Hellstrom, H. W. Lee, and Z. Bao, “Polymer-assisted direct deposition of uniform carbon nanotube bundle networks for high performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 3(6), 1423–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, I.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “Phase-controllable copper oxides for an efficient anode interfacial layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 2039–2044 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-L.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “Phase-controllable copper oxides for an efficient anode interfacial layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 2039–2044 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Kim, K. Kim, K. Hong, and J.-L. Lee, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes using a metal peel-off method,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 20(22), 1836–1838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lemire, C.

K. Aguir, C. Lemire, and D. B. B. Lollman, “Electrical properties of reactively sputtered WO3 thin films as ozone gas sensor,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 84(1), 1–5 (2002).
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G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
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M. Vosgueritchian, D. J. Lipomi, and Z. Bao, “Highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS fims with a fluorosurfactant for stretchable and flexible transparent electrodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 421–428 (2012).
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Liu, X.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jian, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-F.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility,” Science 332(6032), 944–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lollman, D. B. B.

K. Aguir, C. Lemire, and D. B. B. Lollman, “Electrical properties of reactively sputtered WO3 thin films as ozone gas sensor,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 84(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility,” Science 332(6032), 944–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lv, Z.

Y. Fu, Z. Lv, S. Hou, H. Wu, D. Wang, C. Zhang, and D. Zou, “TCO-free, flexible, and bifacial dye-sensitized solar cell based on low-cost metal wires,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(1), 37–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Majumder, C.

S. Nigam and C. Majumder, “Growth pattern of Ag(n) (n = 1-8) clusters on the α-Al2O3(0001) surface: a first principles study,” Langmuir 26(24), 18776–18787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, J.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jian, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

H. Zheng, J. Z. Ou, M. S. Strano, R. B. Kaner, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Nanostructured tungsten oxide – properties, synthesis, and applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(12), 2175–2196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, T.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Murase, S.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niesen, B.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nigam, S.

S. Nigam and C. Majumder, “Growth pattern of Ag(n) (n = 1-8) clusters on the α-Al2O3(0001) surface: a first principles study,” Langmuir 26(24), 18776–18787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ok, J. G.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y.-K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, “Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures,” Small 7(22), 3128–3136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, E. A.

M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oshiyama, A.

N. Hamada, S.-i. Sawada, and A. Oshiyama, “New one-dimensional conductors: graphitic microtubules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(10), 1579–1581 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, J. Z.

H. Zheng, J. Z. Ou, M. S. Strano, R. B. Kaner, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Nanostructured tungsten oxide – properties, synthesis, and applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(12), 2175–2196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padmaperuma, A. B.

J. S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, A. Von Ruden, L. Wang, L. S. Sapochak, and A. B. Padmaperuma, “Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(17), 3250–3258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peumans, P.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polikarpov, E.

J. S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, A. Von Ruden, L. Wang, L. S. Sapochak, and A. B. Padmaperuma, “Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(17), 3250–3258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.-J.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puzzo, D. P.

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility,” Science 332(6032), 944–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, J.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jian, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility,” Science 332(6032), 944–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, B. P.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, J. R.

C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. Saito, M. Fujita, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Electronic structure of chiral graphene tubules,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(18), 2204–2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sapochak, L. S.

J. S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, A. Von Ruden, L. Wang, L. S. Sapochak, and A. B. Padmaperuma, “Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(17), 3250–3258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawada, S.-i.

N. Hamada, S.-i. Sawada, and A. Oshiyama, “New one-dimensional conductors: graphitic microtubules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(10), 1579–1581 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiettekatte, F.

M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sergeant, N. P.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, H.

T. Xu, H. Shi, Y.-K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, “Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures,” Small 7(22), 3128–3136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small, C. E.

C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Snaith, H. J.

D. Kabra, M. H. Song, B. Wenger, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “High efficiency composite metal oxide-polymer electroluminescent devices: a morphological and material based investigation,” Adv. Mater. 20(18), 3447–3452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, M. H.

D. Kabra, M. H. Song, B. Wenger, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “High efficiency composite metal oxide-polymer electroluminescent devices: a morphological and material based investigation,” Adv. Mater. 20(18), 3447–3452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strano, M. S.

H. Zheng, J. Z. Ou, M. S. Strano, R. B. Kaner, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Nanostructured tungsten oxide – properties, synthesis, and applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(12), 2175–2196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Subbiah, J.

C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swensen, J. S.

J. S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, A. Von Ruden, L. Wang, L. S. Sapochak, and A. B. Padmaperuma, “Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(17), 3250–3258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toyota, N.

H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, S.-W.

C. E. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. M. Amb, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, “High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 115–120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Von Ruden, A.

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J. S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, A. Von Ruden, L. Wang, L. S. Sapochak, and A. B. Padmaperuma, “Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(17), 3250–3258 (2011).
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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility,” Science 332(6032), 944–947 (2011).
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D. Kabra, M. H. Song, B. Wenger, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “High efficiency composite metal oxide-polymer electroluminescent devices: a morphological and material based investigation,” Adv. Mater. 20(18), 3447–3452 (2008).
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M. Zhang, M. Yu. Efremov, F. Schiettekatte, E. A. Olson, A. T. Kwan, S. L. Lai, T. Wisleder, J. E. Greene, and L. H. Allen, “Size-dependent melting point depression of nanostructure: nanocalorimetric measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10548–10557 (2000).
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Y. Fu, Z. Lv, S. Hou, H. Wu, D. Wang, C. Zhang, and D. Zou, “TCO-free, flexible, and bifacial dye-sensitized solar cell based on low-cost metal wires,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(1), 37–41 (2012).
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J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
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T. Xu, H. Shi, Y.-K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, “Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures,” Small 7(22), 3128–3136 (2011).
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T. Xu, H. Shi, Y.-K. Wu, A. F. Kaplan, J. G. Ok, and L. J. Guo, “Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures,” Small 7(22), 3128–3136 (2011).
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L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
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S. L. Hellstrom, H. W. Lee, and Z. Bao, “Polymer-assisted direct deposition of uniform carbon nanotube bundle networks for high performance transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 3(6), 1423–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Fu, Z. Lv, S. Hou, H. Wu, D. Wang, C. Zhang, and D. Zou, “TCO-free, flexible, and bifacial dye-sensitized solar cell based on low-cost metal wires,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(1), 37–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

M. Vosgueritchian, D. J. Lipomi, and Z. Bao, “Highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS fims with a fluorosurfactant for stretchable and flexible transparent electrodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 421–428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, A. Von Ruden, L. Wang, L. S. Sapochak, and A. B. Padmaperuma, “Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(17), 3250–3258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zheng, J. Z. Ou, M. S. Strano, R. B. Kaner, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Nanostructured tungsten oxide – properties, synthesis, and applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(12), 2175–2196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, “Design of transparent anodes for resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 728–732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kabra, M. H. Song, B. Wenger, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “High efficiency composite metal oxide-polymer electroluminescent devices: a morphological and material based investigation,” Adv. Mater. 20(18), 3447–3452 (2008).
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H. Sasabe, N. Toyota, H. Nakanishi, T. Ishizaka, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “3,3′-Bicarbazole-based host materials for high-efficiency blue phosphorescent OLEDs with extremely low driving voltage,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3212–3217 (2012).
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S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “Phase-controllable copper oxides for an efficient anode interfacial layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 2039–2044 (2012).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustrations of OLEDs with (a) tunable dielectric-metal multilayer with control of thickness, (b) the admittance diagram of the system, (c) tunable dielectric-metal multilayer with control of refractive index, and (d) the admittance diagram of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sheet resistance of Ag films as a function of Ag thickness. (b) Secondary cut-off spectra of ITO, Ag and Ag/WO3. (c) Secondary cut-off spectra. (d) Power efficiency of OLEDs as a function of WO3 thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated value (line) of transmittance of dielectric/Ag/WO3 as function of (a) refractive indices and (b) thickness of dielectric. Peak transmittance of dielectric/Ag/WO3 as a function of (c) refractive indices and (d) thickness of dielectric and the optical-phase thickness of dielectric layer at the peak transmittance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated contour plots of transmittance and reflectance for Dielectric/Ag/WO3 multilayers upon variation of the (a) (c) refractive index of the dielectric and (b) (d) thickness of dielectric (n = 1.9). The calculated admittance diagram of the system of (e) variation of refractive index and (f) thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transmittance of (a)WO3/Ag/WO3 with various thickness of WO3 and (b) WO3/Ag/WO3, ZnS/Ag/WO3, and TiO2/Ag/WO3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminance-current density-voltage characteristics of (b) blue OLEDs, (c) green OLEDs, and (d) red OLEDs with ITO and DMD electrodes. (Three emissive layers: TCTA:FIr6 (460 nm), Alq3:C545T (525 nm), CBP:Ir(piq)3 (620 nm) (d) EL spectra of blue, green, and red OLEDs with ITO, and DMD electrodes.. (e) Enhancement factor of devices using DMD compared to ITO with three emissive layers. (f) Sheet resistance after repeated bending as function of the number of cycles for ITO and WO3/Ag/WO3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated electric field distribution of OLEDs with (a) WO3/Ag/WO3, (b) ZnS/Ag/WO3, (c) TiO2/Ag/WO3 electrodes, and (d) Simulated angular emission pattern of OLEDs with DMD electrodes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Transmittance at 460 nm and (b) transmittance spectra of Glass/WO3 (30 nm)/Ag (12 nm)/WO3 (20 nm) as a function of incident angle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Complex refractive indices of (a) Ag and (b) WO3, ZnS, TiO2 (23°C), and TiO2 (400°C) as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulated contour plots of transmittance for (a) WO3/Ag/WO3, (b) ZnS/Ag/WO3, and (c) TiO2/Ag/WO3 multilayers upon variation of the thickness of the WO3 and Ag layers. Calculated value (line) of transmittance for (a) WO3/Ag/WO3 (λ = 460 nm) (b) ZnS/Ag/WO3 (λ = 520 nm), and (c) TiO2/Ag/WO3 (λ = 620 nm) electrode as a function of outer dielectric layer and Ag thicknesses. Corresponding results obtained from experiments (symbols) are also shown for comparison.

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