Abstract

The intrinsic spectrally resolved sensitivity (ISRS) of color rendering indices (CRIs) is investigated by using spectral loss simulations. It is demonstrated that Ra exhibits large sensitivities around 444, 480, 564, and 622 nm, while for R9 the sensitivity peaks are around 461, 581 and 630 nm, which all shift slightly with the correlated color temperature. If considering the ISRS as a bridge between the spectral power distribution of LED and its CRI, one could obtain a high CRI by minimizing the deviation between the shapes of the illuminant spectrum and the reference spectrum, both after modulations by the ISRS as a weighting function. This approach, recommended as a guideline for the spectra design aiming at a high CRI, is described and justified in depth via a mathematical model. This method is spectra-oriented and could largely facilitate the spectra design.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Erdem, S. Nizamoglu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A photometric investigation of ultra-efficient LEDs with high color rendering index and high luminous efficacy employing nanocrystal quantum dot luminophores,” Opt. Express 18(1), 340–347 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. C. Hung and J. Y. Tsao, “Maximum white luminous efficacy of radiation versus color rendering index and color temperature: exact results and a useful analytic expression,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 405–412 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. He and H. Yan, “Optimal spectra of the phosphor-coated white LEDs with excellent color rendering property and high luminous efficacy of radiation,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2519–2529 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Zhong, G. He, and M. Zhang, “Optimal spectra of white light-emitting diodes using quantum dot nanophosphors,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9122–9134 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).
  12. A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Zhong, G. He, and M. Zhang, “Spectral optimization of the color temperature tunable white light-emitting diode (LED) cluster consisting of direct-emission blue and red LEDs and a diphosphor conversion LED,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A684–A693 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. He, J. Xu, and H. Yan, “Spectral optimization of warm-white light-emitting diode lamp with both color rendering index (CRI) and special CRI of R9 above 90,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032160 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A982–A990 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, H. T. Chen, and Z. Chen, “Intelligent spectral design and colorimetric parameter analysis for light-emitting diodes,” in Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, P. R. China, 2007), pp. 118–122.
  19. S. Fumagalli, C. Bonanomi, and A. Rizzi, “An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources,” in: Proceedings of Color Imaging XVIII: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications, (Burlingame, California, USA, 2013), pp. 86520F.

2013 (3)

P. C. Hung and J. Y. Tsao, “Maximum white luminous efficacy of radiation versus color rendering index and color temperature: exact results and a useful analytic expression,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 405–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R.

Bulovic, V.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. L.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

Chen, Z.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

Chhajed, S.

Cho, J.

Coltrin, M. E.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W.

Demir, H. V.

Erdem, T.

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y. L.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

Gaska, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

He, G.

Hung, P. C.

P. C. Hung and J. Y. Tsao, “Maximum white luminous efficacy of radiation versus color rendering index and color temperature: exact results and a useful analytic expression,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 405–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

Krames, M. R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

Lu, Y. J.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

Mirhosseini, R.

Mueller, G. O.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, A.

Nizamoglu, S.

Ohno, Y.

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A982–A990 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Schubert, M. F.

Shih, T. M.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

Shirasaki, Y.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sizov, D. S.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Supran, G. J.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

P. C. Hung and J. Y. Tsao, “Maximum white luminous efficacy of radiation versus color rendering index and color temperature: exact results and a useful analytic expression,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 405–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A982–A990 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A982–A990 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

G. He, J. Xu, and H. Yan, “Spectral optimization of warm-white light-emitting diode lamp with both color rendering index (CRI) and special CRI of R9 above 90,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

G. He, J. Xu, and H. Yan, “Spectral optimization of warm-white light-emitting diode lamp with both color rendering index (CRI) and special CRI of R9 above 90,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. He and H. Yan, “Optimal spectra of the phosphor-coated white LEDs with excellent color rendering property and high luminous efficacy of radiation,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2519–2529 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. H.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

Zhang, M.

Zhong, P.

Zhu, L. H.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

Žukauskas, A.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

AIP Advances (1)

G. He, J. Xu, and H. Yan, “Spectral optimization of warm-white light-emitting diode lamp with both color rendering index (CRI) and special CRI of R9 above 90,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Photon. J. (1)

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. L. Gao, Y. J. Lu, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, Y. Lin, J. H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Optimization studies of two-phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes,”.IEEE. Photon. J. 5, 8200112 (2013).

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

P. C. Hung and J. Y. Tsao, “Maximum white luminous efficacy of radiation versus color rendering index and color temperature: exact results and a useful analytic expression,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 405–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (2)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, H. T. Chen, and Z. Chen, “Intelligent spectral design and colorimetric parameter analysis for light-emitting diodes,” in Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, P. R. China, 2007), pp. 118–122.

S. Fumagalli, C. Bonanomi, and A. Rizzi, “An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources,” in: Proceedings of Color Imaging XVIII: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications, (Burlingame, California, USA, 2013), pp. 86520F.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The sketch of the spectral loss method. The well swipe over the whole visible spectral region from 380 to 780 nm, as the well-width could be adjusted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The CRI distortions in the spectral loss simulation with well-width set on 50 nm, on (a) 3500 K, (b) 5455 K, and (c) 8500 K respectively, and the related r-SPDs on (d) 3500 K, (e) 5455 K, and (f) 8500 K respectively. Solid lines highlight Ra (black) and R9 (red) respectively, and other indices are illustrated as dashed lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The (a) Ra and (b) R9 distortions on a changing well-width, which ranges from 5 to 50 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The plots of ISRS of Ra (black) and R9 (red) and the related r-SPD (blue) on CCTs of (a) 2500 K, (b) 4000 K, (c) 5455 K, and (d) 8000 K, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The plots of MD (black solid square) and unmodulated deviation (red empty square) versus (a) Ra and versus (b) R9. (c) The evolution of the s-SPD, in which the one with the highest R9 highlighted in red solid line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The plot of MD with Ra, R11 and R12 in the simulation of changing the green peak, and the related SPDs are in (b). (c) The plot of MD with Ra, R11 and R12 in the simulation of changing the blue peak, and the related SPDs are in (d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The obtained s-SPD in the simulation with Ra = 94.4, R9 = 97.2, R11 = 90.7 and R12 = 88.3 and the related r-SPD; their modulated versions for (b) Ra, (c) R9, (d) R11 and (e) R12. Note that when the CRIs reach high values, the modulated s-SPD and r-SPD appear very alike.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 The parameters of Gaussian functions in simulations

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Table 2 The Gaussian parameters of the SPD in Fig. 7

Equations (2)

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η i ( λ ) = 1 R ( λ ) × 100 d s r ( λ ) 100
{ I M ( λ )= I( λ ) η i ( λ ) / λ=380 780 [ I( λ ) η i ( λ ) ] R M ( λ )= R( λ ) η i ( λ ) / λ=380 780 [ R( λ ) η i ( λ ) ] d MD = n=1 N | n [ I M ( λ ) R M ( λ ) ] |

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